## Microcavity enhanced optical absorption in subwavelength slits |

Optics Express, Vol. 19, Issue 27, pp. 26850-26858 (2011)

http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.19.026850

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### Abstract

We introduce a compact submicron structure consisting of multiple optical microcavities at both the entrance and exit sides of a subwavelength plasmonic slit filled with an absorbing material. We show that such microcavity structures at the entrance side of the slit can greatly enhance the coupling of the incident light into the slit, by improving the impedance matching between the incident plane wave and the slit mode. In addition, the microcavity structures can also increase the reflectivities at both sides of the slit, and therefore the resonant field enhancement. Thus, such structures can greatly enhance the absorption cross section of the slit. An optimized submicron structure consisting of two microcavities at each of the entrance and exit sides of the slit leads to ~9.3 times absorption enhancement at the optical communication wavelength compared to an optimized slit without microcavities.

© 2011 OSA

## 1. Introduction

1. T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature **391**(6668), 667–669 (1998). [CrossRef]

2. T. Thio, K. M. Pellerin, R. A. Linke, H. J. Lezec, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Enhanced light transmission through a single subwavelength aperture,” Opt. Lett. **26**(24), 1972–1974 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8. F. J. García-Vidal, L. Martín-Moreno, T. W. Ebbesen, and L. Kuipers, “Light passing through subwavelength apertures,” Rev. Mod. Phys. **82**(1), 729–787 (2010). [CrossRef]

3. H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science **297**(5582), 820–822 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8. F. J. García-Vidal, L. Martín-Moreno, T. W. Ebbesen, and L. Kuipers, “Light passing through subwavelength apertures,” Rev. Mod. Phys. **82**(1), 729–787 (2010). [CrossRef]

9. Z. Yu, G. Veronis, and S. Fan, andM. L. Brongersma “Design of mid-infrared photodetectors enhanced by surface plasmons on grating structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. **89**(15), 151116 (2006). [CrossRef]

10. J. S. White, G. Veronis, Z. Yu, E. S. Barnard, A. Chandran, S. Fan, and M. L. Brongersma, “Extraordinary optical absorption through subwavelength slits,” Opt. Lett. **34**(5), 686–688 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3. H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science **297**(5582), 820–822 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7. C. Genet and T. W. Ebbesen, “Light in tiny holes,” Nature **445**(7123), 39–46 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9. Z. Yu, G. Veronis, and S. Fan, andM. L. Brongersma “Design of mid-infrared photodetectors enhanced by surface plasmons on grating structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. **89**(15), 151116 (2006). [CrossRef]

11. L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of highly directional emission from a single subwavelength aperture surrounded by surface corrugations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. **90**(16), 167401 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18. B. Guo, G. Song, and L. Chen, “Plasmonic very-small-aperture lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. **91**(2), 021103 (2007). [CrossRef]

19. L. Verslegers, Z. Yu, P. B. Catrysse, and S. Fan, “Temporal coupled-mode theory for resonant apertures,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B **27**(10), 1947–1956 (2010). [CrossRef]

20. Q. Min and R. Gordon, “Surface plasmon microcavity for resonant transmission through a slit in a gold film,” Opt. Express **16**(13), 9708–9713 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

## 2. Absorption cross section and absorption enhancement factor

*N*microcavities at the entrance side, and

*M*microcavities at the exit side of the slit deposited on a silica substrate (Fig. 1(a) ). The slit is filled with germanium, which is one of the most promising materials for near-infrared photodetectors in integrated optical circuits [21

21. L. Cao, J. S. Park, P. Fan, B. Clemens, and M. L. Brongersma, “Resonant germanium nanoantenna photodetectors,” Nano Lett. **10**(4), 1229–1233 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

*absorption cross section σ*

_{A}of the slit as the total light power absorbed by the material (germanium) in the slit, normalized by the incident plane wave power flux [9

9. Z. Yu, G. Veronis, and S. Fan, andM. L. Brongersma “Design of mid-infrared photodetectors enhanced by surface plasmons on grating structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. **89**(15), 151116 (2006). [CrossRef]

**89**(15), 151116 (2006). [CrossRef]

*absorption enhancement factor η*, which is a measure of the enhancement of the light absorption for a unit volume of absorbing material.

*σ*

_{A}of the slit in the structure of Fig. 1(a) [26

26. S. E. Kocabas, G. Veronis, D. A. B. Miller, and S. Fan, “Transmission line and equivalent circuit models for plasmonic waveguide components,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. **14**(6), 1462–1472 (2008). [CrossRef]

*σ*

_{T}of a silver-germanium-silver metal-dielectric-metal (MDM) waveguide of width

*w*(in the unit of length in two dimensions) as the transmitted power into the waveguide from the structure above the entrance side of the slit of Fig. 1(a), normalized by the incident plane wave power flux (Fig. 1(c)). We also define

*r*

_{1}(

*r*

_{2}) as the complex magnetic field reflection coefficient for the fundamental propagating TM mode in a silver-germanium-silver MDM waveguide of width

*w*at the interface of such a waveguide with the structure above the entrance side (below the exit side) of the slit of Fig. 1(a) (Figs. 1(d) and 1(e)). We use FDFD to numerically extract

*σ*

_{T},

*r*

_{1}, and

*r*

_{2}[26

26. S. E. Kocabas, G. Veronis, D. A. B. Miller, and S. Fan, “Transmission line and equivalent circuit models for plasmonic waveguide components,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. **14**(6), 1462–1472 (2008). [CrossRef]

*σ*

_{A}of the slit can then be calculated using scattering matrix theory as:where

*γ*is the complex wave vector of the fundamental propagating TM mode in a silver-germanium-silver MDM waveguide of width

*w*,

*L*is the length of the slit, and

*f*

_{Ge}is the ratio of the power absorbed in germanium to the total power absorbed in the slit, which also includes the power absorbed in the metal. Based on Eq. (1), we observe that, for fixed slit dimensions,

*γ*,

*L*and

*f*

_{Ge}are fixed, so that the absorption cross section

*σ*

_{A}of the slit is solely determined by

*σ*

_{T},

*r*

_{1}, and

*r*

_{2}. These three parameters in turn can be tuned by adjusting the geometrical dimensions of the microcavities at the entrance and exit sides of the slit.

*γ*

_{0}is the complex wave vector of a plane wave propagating in germanium. Thus, the absorption enhancement factor for the slit is

*η*

_{1}is fixed when the slit dimensions

*w*and

*L*are fixed, and does not depend on the microcavity structures above and below the slit. As an example, for a silver-germanium-silver slit with

*w*= 50 nm,

*L*= 122 nm at

*λ*

_{0}= 1.55μm we find

*η*

_{1}~1.42. In addition,

*η*

_{2}is the transmission cross section enhancement factor of the MDM waveguide with respect to its geometrical cross section, associated with the microcavities above the entrance side of the slit. Finally,

*η*

_{3}is the resonance enhancement factor, associated with the slit resonance. We note that

*η*

_{3}is a function of the reflection coefficients

*r*

_{1}and

*r*

_{2}at both sides of the slit, and therefore depends on both the structure above and the structure below the slit. We also observe that the resonance enhancement factor

*η*

_{3}is maximized for |

*r*

_{1}|,|

*r*

_{2}|→1, and when the slit resonance condition arg(

*r*

_{1}) + arg(

*r*

_{2})−2Im(

*γ*)

*L*= −2

*mπ*is satisfied, where

*m*is an integer. We note, however, that there is a tradeoff between the resonance enhancement factor

*η*

_{3}, and the transmission cross section enhancement factor

*η*

_{2}. As a result, in the optimized structures we have |

*r*

_{1}|<1 in all cases.

## 3. Results

*σ*

_{A}, and the absorption enhancement factor

*η*for the structure of Fig. 2(a) as a function of the slit length

*L*calculated using FDFD. We observe that, as the slit length

*L*increases, both the absorption cross section and the absorption enhancement factor exhibit peaks, corresponding to the Fabry-Pérot resonances in the slit. In Fig. 2(b) we also show

*σ*

_{A}and

*η*calculated using scattering matrix theory (Eqs. (1), (2)). We observe that there is excellent agreement between the scattering matrix theory results and the exact results obtained using FDFD. Similarly, excellent agreement between the results of these two methods is observed for all the structures considered in this paper (Table 1 ). The maximum absorption enhancement factor

*η*of ~43.9 with respect to a conventional photodetector is obtained at the first peak (

*L*= 122nm), due to the strong electromagnetic field enhancement associated with the Fabry-Pérot resonance in the slit [10

10. J. S. White, G. Veronis, Z. Yu, E. S. Barnard, A. Chandran, S. Fan, and M. L. Brongersma, “Extraordinary optical absorption through subwavelength slits,” Opt. Lett. **34**(5), 686–688 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

*η*

_{2}~0.96 (Table 1). In other words, the transmission cross section of a silver-germanium-silver MDM waveguide with

*w*= 50 nm at

*λ*

_{0}= 1.55μm is approximately equal to its geometrical cross section. In addition, the resonance enhancement factor is

*η*

_{3}~32.3 (Table 1). Such large resonance enhancement is due to the strong reflectivities

*r*

_{1},

*r*

_{2}at both sides of the slit (Table 1), associated with the strong impedance mismatch between the fundamental MDM mode in the slit and propagating plane waves in air and in the silica substrate [9

**89**(15), 151116 (2006). [CrossRef]

*σ*

_{A}for the structure of Fig. 3(a) as a function of the width

*w*

_{T1}and length

*d*

_{T1}of the microcavity. For the range of parameters shown, we observe two absorption peaks associated with different resonant modes of the microcavity. When the microcavity dimensions approach a resonance, the light power collected by the microcavity increases, and the coupling to the slit is enhanced. However, we found that the maximum absorption cross section in the slit is not obtained when the microcavity is on resonance. This is due to the fact that the on resonance field pattern in the microcavity is a standing wave, which does not correspond to optimum coupling to the slit [20

20. Q. Min and R. Gordon, “Surface plasmon microcavity for resonant transmission through a slit in a gold film,” Opt. Express **16**(13), 9708–9713 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

*σ*

_{A}~0.423

*w*is obtained for such a structure at

*w*

_{T1}= 380nm and

*d*

_{T1}= 200nm, and the corresponding absorption enhancement factor is

*η*~75.7 (Table 1). We observe that for such a structure the transmission cross section enhancement factor is

*η*

_{2}~2.98 (Table 1), which is ~3.1 times larger compared to a slit without the microcavity. In other words, the microcavity can greatly enhance the coupling of the incident light into the slit mode, by improving the impedance matching between the incident plane wave and the slit mode. On the other hand, the resonance enhancement factor for the optimized structure of Fig. 3(a) is

*η*

_{3}~17.9 (Table 1), which is ~1.8 times smaller than the one of a slit without a microcavity. This is due to the fact that the reflectivity |

*r*

_{1}|

^{2}at the interface between the silver-germanium-silver slit and the silver-silica-silver microcavity is smaller than the one at the interface between the silver-germanium-silver slit and air (Table 1). Thus, overall the use of an optimized single microcavity at the entrance side of the slit (Fig. 3(a)) results in times larger absorption cross section compared to the optimized reference slit without a microcavity (Fig. 2(a)). In Fig. 3(c), we show the magnetic field profile for the structure of Fig. 3(a) with dimensions optimized for maximum absorption cross section

*σ*

_{A}. We observe that the field in the microcavity is weaker than the field in the slit. The maximum magnetic field amplitude enhancement in the slit with respect to the incident plane wave is ~18 (Fig. 3(c)).

*N*=

*M*= 1). We use a genetic global optimization algorithm in combination with FDFD [27,28

28. G. Veronis and S. Fan, “Theoretical investigation of compact couplers between dielectric slab waveguides and two-dimensional metal-dielectric-metal plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express **15**(3), 1211–1221 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

*σ*

_{A}. All microcavity dimensions are limited to less than 1μm. The maximum absorption cross section for such a structure is found to be

*σ*

_{A}~0.747

*w*, and the corresponding absorption enhancement factor is

*η*~133.6 (Table 1). Similar to the optimized (

*N*= 1,

*M*= 0) structure (Fig. 3(a)), the microcavity at the entrance side of the slit results in larger (by a factor of ~1.95) transmission cross section enhancement factor

*η*

_{2}, and smaller reflectivity |

*r*

_{1}|

^{2}compared to a slit without microcavities (Table 1). However, the presence of a microcavity at the exit side of the slit for the (

*N*= 1,

*M*= 1) structure results in larger reflectivity |

*r*

_{2}|

^{2}compared to a slit without a microcavity (Table 1). This is due to the fact that such a cavity can be tuned to either resonantly enhance or resonantly suppress the reflectivity. In the optimized (

*N*= 1,

*M*= 1) structure, resonant enhancement of the reflectivity |

*r*

_{2}|

^{2}is achieved by proper choice of the microcavity length

*d*

_{B1}. The increase of the reflectivity |

*r*

_{2}|

^{2}at the exit side of the slit for the optimized (

*N*= 1,

*M*= 1) structure overcompensates the decrease of the reflectivity |

*r*

_{1}|

^{2}at the entrance side, so that its resonance enhancement factor

*η*

_{3}~50.4 (Table 1) is ~1.5 times larger than the one of a slit without a microcavity. Thus, the use of a single microcavity at both the entrance and exit sides of the slit enables increasing both the transmission cross section enhancement factor

*η*

_{2}, and the resonance enhancement factor

*η*

_{3}. Overall, such a structure, when optimized, results in

*N*= 2,

*M*= 2) structure. As before, the dimensions of the structures at both the entrance and the exit sides of the slit are limited to less than 1μm. The maximum absorption cross section for such a structure is found to be

*σ*

_{A}~2.295

*w*, and the corresponding absorption enhancement factor is

*η*~410.6 (Table 1). We observe that the use of multiple microcavities at the entrance side of the slit (

*N*= 2,

*M*= 2) increases the transmission cross section enhancement factor

*η*

_{2}compared to the single microcavity (

*N*= 1,

*M*= 1) structure (Table 1). This is due to the fact that multiple-section structures can improve the impedance matching and therefore the coupling between optical modes [28

28. G. Veronis and S. Fan, “Theoretical investigation of compact couplers between dielectric slab waveguides and two-dimensional metal-dielectric-metal plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express **15**(3), 1211–1221 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

*N*= 2,

*M*= 2) also increases the corresponding reflectivities |

*r*

_{1}|

^{2}and |

*r*

_{2}|

^{2}compared to the single microcavity (

*N*= 1,

*M*= 1) structure (Table 1). Thus, a large resonance enhancement factor

*η*

_{3}~97.9 is obtained (Table 1). This is due to the fact that multiple-section structures can be more finely tuned than single-section structures, and can therefore provide larger resonantly enhanced reflectivity. This is analogous to the multilayer Bragg reflectors which can provide larger reflectivity compared to single layer structures. Overall, the optimized (

*N*= 2,

*M*= 2) structure results in ~3.1 times larger transmission cross section enhancement factor

*η*

_{2}, ~3 times larger resonance enhancement factor

*η*

_{3}, and therefore ~9.3 times larger absorption cross section compared to the optimized reference slit without microcavities (Fig. 2(a)).

*N*= 1,

*M*= 1) and (

*N*= 2,

*M*= 2) cases, respectively, with dimensions optimized for maximum absorption cross section

*σ*

_{A}. We find that, as the number of microcavities increases, the field in the microcavities at the entrance side is stronger, due to the fact that more incident light is collected in the microcavities. The maximum magnetic field amplitude enhancement in the slit with respect to the incident plane wave is ~23 and ~40 for the (

*N*= 1,

*M*= 1) and (

*N*= 2,

*M*= 2) cases, respectively.

*λ*

_{0}= 1.55μm. In Fig. 5 , we show the absorption cross section

*σ*

_{A}as a function of incident wavelength for the optimized structures of Fig. 2(a) (

*N*=

*M*= 0), Fig. 4(a) (

*N*=

*M*= 1), and Fig. 4(b) (

*N*=

*M*= 2). We observe that the operation wavelength range for high absorption is broad. For example, the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the absorption peak in the (

*N*=

*M*= 2) case is ~50nm. This is due to the fact that in all cases the enhanced absorption is not associated with any strong resonances. In other words, the quality factors

*Q*of the microcavities are low.

## 4. Conclusions

*η*~43.9, and the absorption enhancement is due to the large resonant field enhancement in the slit, associated with the strong reflectivities at both sides of the slit.

*η*~75.7, which is ~1.7 times larger compared to the slit without a microcavity. We then considered a structure with a single microcavity at each of the entrance and exit sides of the slit. We found that the microcavity at the exit side of the slit results in larger reflectivity, and therefore larger resonant field enhancement. Overall, the use of an optimized single microcavity at both the entrance and exit sides of the slit resulted in an absorption enhancement factor of

*η*~133.6 which is ~3 times larger compared to the slit without a microcavity.

*η*~410.6 which is ~9.3 times larger compared to the slit without a microcavity. We also found that, while the microcavity-enhanced structures were optimized at a single wavelength, the operation wavelength range for high absorption is broad.

**89**(15), 151116 (2006). [CrossRef]

## Acknowledgments

## References and links

1. | T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature |

2. | T. Thio, K. M. Pellerin, R. A. Linke, H. J. Lezec, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Enhanced light transmission through a single subwavelength aperture,” Opt. Lett. |

3. | H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science |

4. | F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, T. W. Ebbesen, and L. Martín-Moreno, “Multiple paths to enhance optical transmission through a single subwavelength slit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. |

5. | W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature |

6. | D. C. Skigin and R. A. Depine, “Transmission resonances of metallic compound gratings with subwavelength slits,” Phys. Rev. Lett. |

7. | C. Genet and T. W. Ebbesen, “Light in tiny holes,” Nature |

8. | F. J. García-Vidal, L. Martín-Moreno, T. W. Ebbesen, and L. Kuipers, “Light passing through subwavelength apertures,” Rev. Mod. Phys. |

9. | Z. Yu, G. Veronis, and S. Fan, andM. L. Brongersma “Design of mid-infrared photodetectors enhanced by surface plasmons on grating structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. |

10. | J. S. White, G. Veronis, Z. Yu, E. S. Barnard, A. Chandran, S. Fan, and M. L. Brongersma, “Extraordinary optical absorption through subwavelength slits,” Opt. Lett. |

11. | L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of highly directional emission from a single subwavelength aperture surrounded by surface corrugations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. |

12. | F. López-Tejeira, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, J. R. Krenn, I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. U. Gonzalez, J.-C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Efficient unidirectional nanoslit couplers for surface plasmons,” Nat. Phys. |

13. | T. Ishi, J. Fujikata, K. Makita, T. Baba, and K. Ohashi, “Si nano-photodiode with a surface plasmon antenna,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. |

14. | W. Cai, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Compact, high-speed and power-efficient electrooptic plasmonic modulators,” Nano Lett. |

15. | G. Gbur, H. F. Schouten, and T. D. Visser, “Achieving superresolution in near-field optical data readout systems using surface plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. |

16. | J. Fujikata, T. Ishi, H. Yokota, K. Kato, M. Yanagisawa, M. Nakada, K. Ishihara, K. Ohashi, T. Thio, and R. A. Linke, “Surface plasmon enhancement effect and its application to near-field optical recording,” Trans. Magn. Soc. Jpn |

17. | S. Shinada, J. Hashizume, and F. Koyama, “Surface plasmon resonance on microaperture vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with metal grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. |

18. | B. Guo, G. Song, and L. Chen, “Plasmonic very-small-aperture lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. |

19. | L. Verslegers, Z. Yu, P. B. Catrysse, and S. Fan, “Temporal coupled-mode theory for resonant apertures,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B |

20. | Q. Min and R. Gordon, “Surface plasmon microcavity for resonant transmission through a slit in a gold film,” Opt. Express |

21. | L. Cao, J. S. Park, P. Fan, B. Clemens, and M. L. Brongersma, “Resonant germanium nanoantenna photodetectors,” Nano Lett. |

22. | G. Veronis and S. Fan, “Overview of simulation techniques for plasmonic devices,” in |

23. | E. D. Palik, |

24. | J. Jin, |

25. | A. Taflove and S. C. Hagness, |

26. | S. E. Kocabas, G. Veronis, D. A. B. Miller, and S. Fan, “Transmission line and equivalent circuit models for plasmonic waveguide components,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. |

27. | K. Krishnakumar, “Micro-genetic algorithms for stationary and non-stationary function optimization,” Proc. SPIE |

28. | G. Veronis and S. Fan, “Theoretical investigation of compact couplers between dielectric slab waveguides and two-dimensional metal-dielectric-metal plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express |

**OCIS Codes**

(240.6680) Optics at surfaces : Surface plasmons

(260.3910) Physical optics : Metal optics

(260.5740) Physical optics : Resonance

**ToC Category:**

Physical Optics

**History**

Original Manuscript: October 13, 2011

Revised Manuscript: December 8, 2011

Manuscript Accepted: December 8, 2011

Published: December 15, 2011

**Virtual Issues**

Vol. 7, Iss. 2 *Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics*

**Citation**

Changjun Min, Liu Yang, and Georgios Veronis, "Microcavity enhanced optical absorption in subwavelength slits," Opt. Express **19**, 26850-26858 (2011)

http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-27-26850

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### References

- T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature391(6668), 667–669 (1998). [CrossRef]
- T. Thio, K. M. Pellerin, R. A. Linke, H. J. Lezec, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Enhanced light transmission through a single subwavelength aperture,” Opt. Lett.26(24), 1972–1974 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science297(5582), 820–822 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, T. W. Ebbesen, and L. Martín-Moreno, “Multiple paths to enhance optical transmission through a single subwavelength slit,” Phys. Rev. Lett.90(21), 213901 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature424(6950), 824–830 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- D. C. Skigin and R. A. Depine, “Transmission resonances of metallic compound gratings with subwavelength slits,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95(21), 217402 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- C. Genet and T. W. Ebbesen, “Light in tiny holes,” Nature445(7123), 39–46 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- F. J. García-Vidal, L. Martín-Moreno, T. W. Ebbesen, and L. Kuipers, “Light passing through subwavelength apertures,” Rev. Mod. Phys.82(1), 729–787 (2010). [CrossRef]
- Z. Yu, G. Veronis, and S. Fan, andM. L. Brongersma “Design of mid-infrared photodetectors enhanced by surface plasmons on grating structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(15), 151116 (2006). [CrossRef]
- J. S. White, G. Veronis, Z. Yu, E. S. Barnard, A. Chandran, S. Fan, and M. L. Brongersma, “Extraordinary optical absorption through subwavelength slits,” Opt. Lett.34(5), 686–688 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of highly directional emission from a single subwavelength aperture surrounded by surface corrugations,” Phys. Rev. Lett.90(16), 167401 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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