OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 19, Iss. 3 — Jan. 31, 2011
  • pp: 1734–1742
« Show journal navigation

Bandwidth-narrowed Bragg gratings inscribed in double-cladding fiber by femtosecond laser

Jiawei Shi, Yuhua Li, Shuhui Liu, Haiyan Wang, Ningliang Liu, and Peixiang Lu  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 19, Issue 3, pp. 1734-1742 (2011)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.19.001734


View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (1256 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

Bragg gratings with the bandwidth (FWHM) narrowed up to 79 pm were inscribed in double-cladding fiber with femtosecond radiation and a phase mask followed by an annealing treatment. With the annealing temperature below a critical value, the bandwidth of Bragg gratings induced by Type I-IR and Type II-IR index change was narrowed without the reduction of reflectivity. The bandwidth narrowing is due to the profile transformation of the refractive index modulation caused by the annealing treatment. This mechanism was verified by comparing bandwidth narrowing processes of FBGs written with different power densities.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Fabrication of narrowband FBGs has attracted lots of attention, because it is not only an ideal filter and reflector in optical fiber communication [1

1. A. Othonos and K. Kalli, Fiber Bragg gratings: Fundamentals and Applications in Telecommunications and Sensing (Artech House, 1999).

,2

2. R. Kashyap, Fiber Bragg Gratings, (Academic, 1999), pp. 411–415.

] but also a key component in all-fiber lasers when inscribed in double-cladding fiber [3

3. J. Canning, “Fibre gratings and devices for sensors and lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 275–289 (2008). [CrossRef]

]. The conventional method for fabricating FBGs relied upon the intrinsic photosensitivity of the core material by use of the nanosecond-pulsed UV laser [4

4. K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and J. Albert, “Bragg gratings fabricated in monomode photosensitive optical fiber by UV exposure through a phase mask,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(10), 1035–1037 (1993). [CrossRef]

]. Bragg gratings with a FWHM of 0.1 nm was realized using single excimer pulse with the highest reflectivity of 2% [5

5. C. G. Askins, T.-E. Tsai, G. M. Williams, M. A. Putnam, M. Bashkansky, and E. J. Friebele, “Fiber Bragg reflectors prepared by a single excimer pulse,” Opt. Lett. 17, 833–835 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Gratings with a reflectivity of 99% have also been fabricated in phosphate glass by use of high intensity UV pulses, a final FWHM of 0.14nm was achieved after annealing [6

6. J. Albert, A. Schlzgen, V. L. Temyanko, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Strong Bragg gratings in Phosphate Glass Single Mode Fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 101127 (2006). [CrossRef]

]. Recently, inscription of high-quality FBGs using the femtosecond(fs) infrared(IR) laser and a phase mask has excited huge research interests [7

7. S. J. Mihailov, C. W. Smelser, D. Grobnic, R. B. Walker, P. Lu, H. Ding, and J. Unruh, “Bragg gratings written in all-SiO2 and Ge-doped core fibers with 800-nm femtosecond radiation and a phase mask,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 94–100(2004). [CrossRef]

]. This method relies upon the multiphoton ionization and the damage mechanism [8

8. M. Lenzner, J. Krger, S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, Ch. Spielmann, G. Mourou, W. Kautek, and F. Krausz, “Femtosecond optical breakdown in dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4076–4079 (1998). [CrossRef]

,9

9. L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Study of damage in fused silica induced by ultra-short IR laser pulses,” Opt. Commun. 28, 333–339 (2001). [CrossRef]

], both of which can induce a refractive index change ranging from 10−5 to 10−2, even in non-photosensitve transparent materials. Gratings fabricated in this way exhibit better thermal stabiltiy [10

10. Y. H. Li, C. R. Liao, D. N. Wang, T. Sun, and K. T. V. Grattan, “Study of spectral and annealing properties of fiber Bragg gratings written in H2-free and H2-loaded fibers by use of femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 16, 21239–21247 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] compared with those fabricated by UV pulses. A high reflectivity (>40dB) FBG was inscribed in a Ge-free double-cladding Yb-doped silica fiber using a femtosecond pulse train at 400 nm wavelength and a phase mask [11

11. M. Bernier, R. Valle, B. Morasse, C. Desrosiers, A. Saliminia, and Y. Sheng, “Ytterbium fiber laser based on first-order fiber Bragg gratings written with 400nm femtosecond pulses and a phase-mask,” Opt. Express 17, 18887–18893 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. FBGs were also written into polarization maintaining Yb-doped fiber [12

12. E. Wikszak, J. Thomas, S. Klingebiel, B. Ortaç, J. Limpert, S. Nolte, and A. Tünermann, “Linearly polarized ytterbium fiber laser based on intracore femtosecond-written fiber Bragg gratings,” Opt. Lett. 32, 2756–2758 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. However, how to obtain FBGs with narrower bandwidth is still a problem. The later developed PbP(point-by-point) technique using the femtosecond laser pulses [13

13. A. Martinez, M. Dubov, I. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, “Direct writing of fibre Bragg gratings by femtosecond laser,” Electron. Lett. 40, 1170–1172 (2004). [CrossRef]

] exhibited better performance in fabricating narrowband FBGs. Using this method, high-reflectivity FBGs with a FWHM of 54 pm [14

14. N. Jovanovic, M. Aslund, A. Fuerbach, S. D. Jackson, G. D. Marshall, and M. J. Withford, “Narrow linewidth, 100 W cw Yb3+ -doped silica fiber laser with a point-by-point Bragg grating inscribed directly into the active core,” Opt. Lett. 32, 2804–2806 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and 100 pm [15

15. N. Jovanovic, A. Fuerbach, G. D. Marshall, M. J. Withford, and S. D. Jackson, “Stable high-power continuous-wave Yb3+ -doped silica fiber laser utilizing a point-by-pointinscribed fiber Bragg grating,” Opt. Lett. 32, 1486–1488 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] were realized in Yb-doped double-cladding fiber. However it was difficult to totally eliminate the low-frequency oscillation in the air-bearing stage during the writing process, so multiple peaks which spaced equally in frequency were induced because of the formation of a sampled grating [14

14. N. Jovanovic, M. Aslund, A. Fuerbach, S. D. Jackson, G. D. Marshall, and M. J. Withford, “Narrow linewidth, 100 W cw Yb3+ -doped silica fiber laser with a point-by-point Bragg grating inscribed directly into the active core,” Opt. Lett. 32, 2804–2806 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

In this paper, we report bandwidth-narrowed FBGs inscribed in double-cladding fiber with femtosecond radiation and a phase mask followed by an annealing treatment. With the annealing temperature below a critical value, the bandwidth of Bragg gratings induced by Type I-IR and Type II-IR index change was narrowed without the reduction of reflectivity. This work equips the original method, which relies upon the use of femtosecond laser and a phase mask, with the flexibility to fabricate FBGs with narrower bandwidth, meanwhile inherits its advantages of robustness and reproducibility. The bandwidth narrowing is due to profile transformation of refractive index modulation which is discussed from two aspects: the refractive index modulation amplitude and the duty cycle. This mechanism is verified by comparing the bandwidth narrowing processes of FBGs written with different power densities.

2. Experiment setup

The fiber used in this experiment was a single mode double-cladding fiber (nLight Passive-10/125DC)with a core diameter of 10 μm(NA: 0.08) and an inner-cladding diameter of 125 μm(NA: 0.46). It was exposed to femtosecond radiation (120fs, 1kHz repetition rate at 800 nm) which was produced by a Ti:sapphire oscillator and a regenerative amplifier. The measured 1/e radius of the beam was 3 mm. The beam was focused using a cylindrical lens with a focal length of 60 mm through a zero-order nulled phase mask into the fiber core. In the Gaussian beam approximation, a focal area of 10.2 μm × 6 mm can be obtained. The phase mask(StockerYale) used in this experiment was optimized for 800 nm illumination, with the first-order diffraction efficiency of 66.9% and the zero-order suppression of 3.8%. The mask pitch is 2202 nm, which corresponds to a third-order FBG with a central wavelength of ∼1065 nm. The phase-mask–fiber separation is about 2 mm [16

16. C. W. Smelser, D. Grobnic, and S. J. Mihailov, “Generation of pure two-beam interference grating structures in an optical fiber with a femtosecond infrared source and a phase mask,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1730–1732 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

The annealing properties of the inscribed gratings were investigated by use of a tube furnace(Isothermal Pegasus Plus 1200), which provides a temperature adjusting range between 50°C and 1200°C(with precision of ± 0.05°C to ± 0.2°C). The grating was loosely inserted into the tube, eliminating the disturbance from the external stress. When observing the reflection spectrum, an optical coupler was used. The reflection spectrum of the grating was monitored in situ during the annealing process through a broadband light source(FiberLabs ASE-1050-20) and an optical spectrum analyzer (Yokogawa AQ6370B) with a resolution of 20 pm and a sampling interval of 2 pm. The display of the measuring results of bandwidth is up to the scale of sub-picometer. Relevant tests confirm that measuring results up to the scale of picometer is reliable.

3. Results and discussion

First, the double-clad fiber was exposed for 10 s under the focused fs pulse beam with a pulse energy of 620 μJ. One FBG(marked as FBG1) was randomly chosen from a batch of FBGs fabricated under this condition. The reflection and transmission spectra of FBG1 are shown in Fig. 1(a).

Fig. 1 a) Measured transmission and reflection spectra of FBG1 written in double-clad fiber at 620 μJ, 1 kHz, during 10 s. b) Variation of the FWHM and Reflectivity of FBG1 in the process of short term annealing.

This FBG1’s thermal stability was investigated by use of the short term annealing treatment. The red line in Fig. 1(b) shows the variation of FBG1’s reflectivity when it was subjected to short-term thermal exposure at 50°C, 100°C, 150°C, and progressively to 950°C with a temperature increment of 50°C(30 minutes at each temperature). The variation of FBG1’s bandwidth was simultaneously monitored (see the blue line in Fig. 1(b)). In the temperature range between 300°C and 450°C (the areas between two dotted lines in Fig. 1(b)), an apparent narrowing of FWHM from 131 pm to 120 pm was observed while there was only a small reduction in reflectivity. This observation is really attractive for making high-reflectivity FBGs with narrower bandwidth. In the end of annealing, a reflection spectrum with a FWHM of 79 pm was obtained (as shown in Fig. 2), still maintaining ∼12.5% (∼12 dB) of its original reflectivity (20.9 dB, see Fig. 1(b)). Using this bandwidth narrowed grating as the rear end reflector, a 14.5-pm narrow linewidth Yb-doped fiber laser was realized at the output power of 0.8W.

Fig. 2 FBG1’s reflection spectrum after thermal annealing at up to 950°C.

These gratings’ bandwidth narrowing were studied further by use of the long term annealing treatment. Another FBG(Marked as FBG2) was chosen randomly from the same batch as FBG1. Figure 3 shows the variation of the FWHM of FBG2 corresponding to three consecutive long term annealing at temperatures of 300°C, 450°C and 700°C(5 hours at each temperature). The FWHM was measured automatically every 3 minutes. In panorama, all the connected discrete dots constitute a stair-like line. Focus on any single annealing process at certain temperature, there was an apparent decreasing of FWHM at the very beginning, after ∼1 hour it stopped decreasing, keeping constant versus time regardless of the annealing time. There seems to be a limitation for the bandwidth narrowing corresponding to certain annealing temperature. Figure 4 shows the evolution of the reflection spectrum at the end of long term annealing at each temperature, as well as the spectra before annealing and after cooling down. At the end of the long term annealing at 450°C, a bandwidth narrowing of 15 pm was observed with almost no reduction in reflectivity.

Fig. 3 Variation of the FWHM through three consecutive long term annealing at 300°C, 450°C and 700°C, respectively.
Fig. 4 Reflection spectra at the end of three consecutive long term annealing, A–before annealing, B–300°C, C–450°C, D–700°C, E–after cooling down.

There are two factors that could lead to the bandwidth narrowing of the reflection spectrum when the grating length keeps unchanged. One is the reduction of refractive index modulation amplitude (Δn) [11

11. M. Bernier, R. Valle, B. Morasse, C. Desrosiers, A. Saliminia, and Y. Sheng, “Ytterbium fiber laser based on first-order fiber Bragg gratings written with 400nm femtosecond pulses and a phase-mask,” Opt. Express 17, 18887–18893 (2009). [CrossRef]

,19

19. S. J. Mihailov, C. W. Smelser, P. Lu, R. B. Walker, D. Grobnic, H. Ding, G. Henderson, and J. Unruh, “Fiber Bragg gratings made with a phase mask and 800-nm femtosecond radiation,” Opt. Lett. 28, 995–997 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], which will simultaneously lead to the reduction of reflectivity [1

1. A. Othonos and K. Kalli, Fiber Bragg gratings: Fundamentals and Applications in Telecommunications and Sensing (Artech House, 1999).

,6

6. J. Albert, A. Schlzgen, V. L. Temyanko, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Strong Bragg gratings in Phosphate Glass Single Mode Fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 101127 (2006). [CrossRef]

]. The other is the reduction of duty cycle, which can also be expressed as the variation range of the grating period(ΔΛ). According to the formula mΔλB = 2neffΔΛ, a narrower variation range of Λ will lead to a narrower variation range of λB, which will lead to a narrower bandwidth. It should be noted that the reduction of duty cycle will also lead to the reduction of reflectivity.

In the temperature range between 300°C and 450°C, the decay of Type I-IR index change(in the valleys of the interference pattern) has already began while the Type II-IR index change(in the peaks of the interference pattern) remains unchanged which directly results in an increase in refractive index modulation amplitude(Δn) [9

9. L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Study of damage in fused silica induced by ultra-short IR laser pulses,” Opt. Commun. 28, 333–339 (2001). [CrossRef]

,17

17. C. W. Smelser, S. J. Mihailov, and D. Grobnic, “Formation of Type I-IR and Type II-IR gratings with an ultrafast IR laser and a phase mask,” Opt. Express. 13, 5377–5385 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The increase of Δn will directly lead to the increase of reflectivity. However, the predicted increase of reflectivity has not been observed.

Fig. 5 a) The assumed evolution of the profile of the refractive index modulation. b) The narrowing of the transmission spectrum with the transmissivity unchanged at the central Bragg wavelength.

Unlike the bandwidth narrowing which occurred between the temperature of 300°C and 450°C, when the annealing temperature was above 450°C, the bandwidth narrowing occurred concurrently with the decay of reflectivity. This should be attributed to further reduction of the duty cycle as well as the reduction of refractive index modulation amplitude. When the temperature was elevated to a higher range, a partial erasure of the Type II-IR index change would occur which would lead to the reduction of reflectivity and FWHM along with the reduction of duty cycle.

In order to verify the proposed mechanism for bandwidth narrowing, experiments have been carried out on FBGs written with higher power density. The double-cladding fiber was exposed for ∼2 s under the focused fs pulse beam with a pulse energy of 700 μJ. One FBG(marked as FBG3) was chosen randomly from a batch of FBGs fabricated under this condition. The reflection and transmission spectra of FBG3 are shown in Fig. 6(a).

Fig. 6 a) Measured transmission and reflection spectra of FBG3 written in double-clad fiber at 700 μJ, 1 kHz, during ∼2 s. b) Variation of the FWHM and Reflectivity of FBG3 in the process of short term annealing.

FBG3’s thermal stability was also investigated by use of the short term annealing treatment. Figure 6(b) shows the variation of FBG3’s reflectivity and FWHM when it was subjected to short-term thermal exposure at 70°C, 120°C, 170°C, and progressively to 970°C with a temperature increment of 50°C. The time duration at each temperature was 30 minutes. An apparent increase of reflectivity was observed[6

6. J. Albert, A. Schlzgen, V. L. Temyanko, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Strong Bragg gratings in Phosphate Glass Single Mode Fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 101127 (2006). [CrossRef]

,18

18. C. W. Smelser, S. J. Mihailov, and D. Grobnic, “Impact of index change saturation on the growth behavior of higher-order type I ultrafast induced fiber Bragg gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 877–883 (2008). [CrossRef]

], and the bandwidth narrowing occurred from the very beginning. When the temperature reached 520°C, the reflectivity still maintained its initial value while the FWHM had been narrowed from 146 pm to 123 pm. According to the proposed mechanism, both FBG1 and FBG3 are gratings induced by Type I-IR and Type II-IR index change. Why could we observe the increase of reflectivity in FBG3 while this didn’t happen in FBG1? This difference should be attributed to higher power density. On one hand, higher power density would lead to larger areas where the Type II-IR index change was dominant, which would result in smaller reduction of duty cycle when the annealing temperature was low. On the other hand, higher power density would induce larger Type I-IR index change (in the valleys of the interference pattern), and its decay was the dominant factor that affected the reflectivity when the annealing temperature was low. In other words, higher power density had broken the balance between the increase of Δn and the reduction of the duty cycle, making the increase of Δn the dominant factor that affect reflectivity when the annealing temperature was low. As the annealing temperature increased, the increase of Δn would stop due to the erasure of the Type I-IR index change. Meanwhile, those stubborn index change happened in the vicinity of the peaks of the interference patterns gradually decayed and lead to the reduction of duty cycle. Thus, the reflectivity decreased to its initial value. However, a smaller duty cycle had been obtained, which lead to the observed narrowing of the bandwidth.

As soon as the reflectivity returned to its initial value, the grating was cooled down to room temperature. A 54 pm permanent shift of the central Bragg wavelength towards shorter wavelength was observed along with a bandwidth narrowing from 146 pm to 123 pm while there was almost no reduction in reflectivity(as shown in Fig. 7). Such a permanent shift of the central Bragg wavelength provides further evidence for the proposed transformation of the profile of the refractive index modulation caused by the decay of Type I-IR index change. The annealing was continued from 570°C, 620°C, 670°C, and progressively to 970°C. The subsequent narrowing of the bandwidth along with the decay of the reflectivity was almost the same with what happened to FBG1, which could be explained by the same mechanism as FBG1.

Fig. 7 Measured Reflection spectra of FBG3 before and after thermal annealing at up to 520°C.

In order to further verify the proposed mechanism, experiments have also been carried out on FBGs written with lower power density. The double-cladding fiber was exposed for ∼2 minutes under the focused fs pulse beam with a pulse energy of 500 μJ, the speed of grating formation was extremely slow compared with FBG1 and FBG3. One FBG(marked as FBG4) was chosen randomly from a batch of FBGs fabricated under this condition. The reflection and transmission spectra of FBG4 are as shown in Fig. 8(a).

Fig. 8 a) Measured transmission and reflection spectra of FBG4 written in double-clad fiber at 500 μJ, 1 kHz, during ∼2 minutes. b) Variation of the FWHM and Reflectivity of FBG4 in the process of short term annealing.

In order to slow down the decaying speed of the reflectivity and monitor more clearly the evolution of the FWHM. The time duration at each temperature was changed to 15 minutes. Figure 8(b) shows the variation of FBG4’s reflectivity and FWHM when it was subjected to short-term thermal exposure at 50°C, 100°C, 150°C, and progressively to 1000°C with a temperature increment of 50°C. This FBG is a typical Type I-IR grating judging from the decay of reflectivity [17

17. C. W. Smelser, S. J. Mihailov, and D. Grobnic, “Formation of Type I-IR and Type II-IR gratings with an ultrafast IR laser and a phase mask,” Opt. Express. 13, 5377–5385 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. It should be noted that the variation of FWHM of FBG4 was totally different from those of FBG1 and FBG3. At the very beginning, there was no apparent change in FWHM. This could be explained by different decaying speed of the index change happened in peaks and valleys of the interference pattern, and a balance was reached between the factors that affects the bandwidth. When the temperature was elevated up to 750°C, a sharp increase of FWHM was observed. It might be caused by excessive erasure of the Type I-IR index change, which directly resulted in large-scale decrease of Δn to the extent that the duty cycle’s decreasing trend was reversed. All in all, such a totally different variation of FWHM, compared with those happened on FBG1 and FBG3, further confirmed our proposed mechanism for bandwidth narrowing which was based on the coexistence of Type I-IR and Type II-IR index change.

4. Conclusion

Bragg gratings with the bandwidth(FWHM) narrowed up to 79 pm have been inscribed into double-cladding fiber with femtosecond radiation and a phase mask followed by an annealing treatment. With the annealing temperature below a critical value, the bandwidth of Bragg gratings induced by Type I-IR and Type II-IR index change was narrowed without the reduction of reflectivity. The bandwidth narrowing is due to the profile transformation of the refractive index modulation which was discussed from two aspects: the refractive index modulation amplitude and the duty cycle. This mechanism can also explain the variation of reflectivity in the annealing process. In order to verify this mechanism, relevant experiments were also carried out on FBGs written with different power densities. An apparent bandwidth narrowing from 146 pm to 123 pm was observed without the reduction of reflectivity. Such bandwidth-narrowed Bragg gratings will no doubt lend itself well to the generation of spectrally narrow, high power fiber laser with the convenience in fabrication process and excellent robustness. More importantly, this work provides further evidence for the existence of Type I-IR and Type II-IR index change by successfully explaining the bandwidth narrowing in the annealing process.

Acknowledgments

We gratefully acknowledge Prof. Stefan Haacke and Dr. Haichun Zhou for their constructive advices.This work was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 61008013 and 60925021, and 863 Program of China under Grant No. 2008AA03Z405.

References and links

1.

A. Othonos and K. Kalli, Fiber Bragg gratings: Fundamentals and Applications in Telecommunications and Sensing (Artech House, 1999).

2.

R. Kashyap, Fiber Bragg Gratings, (Academic, 1999), pp. 411–415.

3.

J. Canning, “Fibre gratings and devices for sensors and lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 275–289 (2008). [CrossRef]

4.

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and J. Albert, “Bragg gratings fabricated in monomode photosensitive optical fiber by UV exposure through a phase mask,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(10), 1035–1037 (1993). [CrossRef]

5.

C. G. Askins, T.-E. Tsai, G. M. Williams, M. A. Putnam, M. Bashkansky, and E. J. Friebele, “Fiber Bragg reflectors prepared by a single excimer pulse,” Opt. Lett. 17, 833–835 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

J. Albert, A. Schlzgen, V. L. Temyanko, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Strong Bragg gratings in Phosphate Glass Single Mode Fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 101127 (2006). [CrossRef]

7.

S. J. Mihailov, C. W. Smelser, D. Grobnic, R. B. Walker, P. Lu, H. Ding, and J. Unruh, “Bragg gratings written in all-SiO2 and Ge-doped core fibers with 800-nm femtosecond radiation and a phase mask,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 94–100(2004). [CrossRef]

8.

M. Lenzner, J. Krger, S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, Ch. Spielmann, G. Mourou, W. Kautek, and F. Krausz, “Femtosecond optical breakdown in dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4076–4079 (1998). [CrossRef]

9.

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Study of damage in fused silica induced by ultra-short IR laser pulses,” Opt. Commun. 28, 333–339 (2001). [CrossRef]

10.

Y. H. Li, C. R. Liao, D. N. Wang, T. Sun, and K. T. V. Grattan, “Study of spectral and annealing properties of fiber Bragg gratings written in H2-free and H2-loaded fibers by use of femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 16, 21239–21247 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

M. Bernier, R. Valle, B. Morasse, C. Desrosiers, A. Saliminia, and Y. Sheng, “Ytterbium fiber laser based on first-order fiber Bragg gratings written with 400nm femtosecond pulses and a phase-mask,” Opt. Express 17, 18887–18893 (2009). [CrossRef]

12.

E. Wikszak, J. Thomas, S. Klingebiel, B. Ortaç, J. Limpert, S. Nolte, and A. Tünermann, “Linearly polarized ytterbium fiber laser based on intracore femtosecond-written fiber Bragg gratings,” Opt. Lett. 32, 2756–2758 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

A. Martinez, M. Dubov, I. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, “Direct writing of fibre Bragg gratings by femtosecond laser,” Electron. Lett. 40, 1170–1172 (2004). [CrossRef]

14.

N. Jovanovic, M. Aslund, A. Fuerbach, S. D. Jackson, G. D. Marshall, and M. J. Withford, “Narrow linewidth, 100 W cw Yb3+ -doped silica fiber laser with a point-by-point Bragg grating inscribed directly into the active core,” Opt. Lett. 32, 2804–2806 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15.

N. Jovanovic, A. Fuerbach, G. D. Marshall, M. J. Withford, and S. D. Jackson, “Stable high-power continuous-wave Yb3+ -doped silica fiber laser utilizing a point-by-pointinscribed fiber Bragg grating,” Opt. Lett. 32, 1486–1488 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

16.

C. W. Smelser, D. Grobnic, and S. J. Mihailov, “Generation of pure two-beam interference grating structures in an optical fiber with a femtosecond infrared source and a phase mask,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1730–1732 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

17.

C. W. Smelser, S. J. Mihailov, and D. Grobnic, “Formation of Type I-IR and Type II-IR gratings with an ultrafast IR laser and a phase mask,” Opt. Express. 13, 5377–5385 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18.

C. W. Smelser, S. J. Mihailov, and D. Grobnic, “Impact of index change saturation on the growth behavior of higher-order type I ultrafast induced fiber Bragg gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 877–883 (2008). [CrossRef]

19.

S. J. Mihailov, C. W. Smelser, P. Lu, R. B. Walker, D. Grobnic, H. Ding, G. Henderson, and J. Unruh, “Fiber Bragg gratings made with a phase mask and 800-nm femtosecond radiation,” Opt. Lett. 28, 995–997 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

OCIS Codes
(320.7140) Ultrafast optics : Ultrafast processes in fibers
(350.3390) Other areas of optics : Laser materials processing
(060.3735) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber Bragg gratings
(060.3510) Fiber optics and optical communications : Lasers, fiber

ToC Category:
Fiber Optics and Optical Communications

History
Original Manuscript: November 8, 2010
Revised Manuscript: January 11, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: January 11, 2011
Published: January 14, 2011

Citation
Jiawei Shi, Yuhua Li, Shuhui Liu, Haiyan Wang, Ningliang Liu, and Peixiang Lu, "Bandwidth-narrowed Bragg gratings inscribed in double-cladding fiber by femtosecond laser," Opt. Express 19, 1734-1742 (2011)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-3-1734


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. A. Othonos, and K. Kalli, Fiber Bragg gratings: Fundamentals and Applications in Telecommunications and Sensing (Artech House, 1999).
  2. R. Kashyap, Fiber Bragg Gratings (Academic, 1999), 411–415.
  3. J. Canning, “Fibre gratings and devices for sensors and lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 275–289 (2008). [CrossRef]
  4. K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and J. Albert, “Bragg gratings fabricated in monomode photosensitive optical fiber by UV exposure through a phase mask,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(10), 1035–1037 (1993). [CrossRef]
  5. C. G. Askins, T.-E. Tsai, G. M. Williams, M. A. Putnam, M. Bashkansky, and E. J. Friebele, “Fiber Bragg reflectors prepared by a single excimer pulse,” Opt. Lett. 17, 833–835 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. Albert, A. Schlzgen, V. L. Temyanko, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Strong Bragg gratings in Phosphate Glass Single Mode Fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 101127 (2006). [CrossRef]
  7. S. J. Mihailov, C. W. Smelser, D. Grobnic, R. B. Walker, P. Lu, H. Ding, and J. Unruh, “Bragg gratings written in all-SiO2 and Ge-doped core fibers with 800-nm femtosecond radiation and a phase mask,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 94–100 (2004). [CrossRef]
  8. M. Lenzner, J. Krger, S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, Ch. Spielmann, G. Mourou, W. Kautek, and F. Krausz, “Femtosecond optical breakdown in dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4076–4079 (1998). [CrossRef]
  9. L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Study of damage in fused silica induced by ultra-short IR laser pulses,” Opt. Commun. 28, 333–339 (2001). [CrossRef]
  10. Y. H. Li, C. R. Liao, D. N. Wang, T. Sun, and K. T. V. Grattan, “Study of spectral and annealing properties of fiber Bragg gratings written in H2-free and H2-loaded fibers by use of femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 16, 21239–21247 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. M. Bernier, R. Valle, B. Morasse, C. Desrosiers, A. Saliminia, and Y. Sheng, “Ytterbium fiber laser based on first-order fiber Bragg gratings written with 400nm femtosecond pulses and a phase-mask,” Opt. Express 17, 18887–18893 (2009). [CrossRef]
  12. E. Wikszak, J. Thomas, S. Klingebiel, B. Ortac¸, J. Limpert, S. Nolte, and A. Tüunermann, “Linearly polarized ytterbium fiber laser based on intracore femtosecond-written fiber Bragg gratings,” Opt. Lett. 32, 2756–2758 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. A. Martinez, M. Dubov, I. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, “Direct writing of fibre Bragg gratings by femtosecond laser,” Electron. Lett. 40, 1170–1172 (2004). [CrossRef]
  14. N. Jovanovic, M. Aslund, A. Fuerbach, S. D. Jackson, G. D. Marshall, and M. J. Withford, “Narrow linewidth, 100 W cw Yb3+-doped silica fiber laser with a point-by-point Bragg grating inscribed directly into the active core,” Opt. Lett. 32, 2804–2806 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. N. Jovanovic, A. Fuerbach, G. D. Marshall, M. J. Withford, and S. D. Jackson, “Stable high-power continuouswave Yb3+-doped silica fiber laser utilizing a point-by-pointinscribed fiber Bragg grating,” Opt. Lett. 32, 1486–1488 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. C. W. Smelser, D. Grobnic, and S. J. Mihailov, “Generation of pure two-beam interference grating structures in an optical fiber with a femtosecond infrared source and a phase mask,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1730–1732 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. C. W. Smelser, S. J. Mihailov, and D. Grobnic, “Formation of Type I-IR and Type II-IR gratings with an ultrafast IR laser and a phase mask,” Opt. Express 13, 5377–5385 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. C. W. Smelser, S. J. Mihailov, and D. Grobnic, “Impact of index change saturation on the growth behavior of higher-order type I ultrafast induced fiber Bragg gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 877–883 (2008). [CrossRef]
  19. S. J. Mihailov, C. W. Smelser, P. Lu, R. B. Walker, D. Grobnic, H. Ding, G. Henderson, and J. Unruh, “Fiber Bragg gratings made with a phase mask and 800-nm femtosecond radiation,” Opt. Lett. 28, 995–997 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited