OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 19, Iss. 3 — Jan. 31, 2011
  • pp: 1860–1865
« Show journal navigation

Characterization of nanoscale features in tapered fractal and photonic crystal fibers

C. M. Rollinson, S. T. Huntington, B. C. Gibson, S. Rubanov, and J. Canning  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 19, Issue 3, pp. 1860-1865 (2011)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.19.001860


View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (901 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

The internal structure of nanostructured air-silica fiber probes have been characterized using a combined focused ion beam and scanning electron microscopy technique. The collapse rate of the air-holes is shown to differ substantially between a regular photonic crystal fiber (PCF) and the quasi-periodic Fractal fiber. The integrity of the Fractal fiber structure is maintained down to an outer diameter as small as 120 nm, whereas the air-holes of the regular PCF begin to collapse when the outer diameter is approximately 820 nm. The observed smallest hole diameter of 10 nm is suggested to be due to physical limits imposed by the molecular structure of silica. These results confirm structural inferences made in previous publications.

© 2011 OSA

1. Introduction

The development of truly nanostructured fibers, tapers and optical wires holds exciting potential in many applications with increasing demand for the miniaturization of glass-based photonic components. Silica nanowires, with diameters as small as 50 nm, have been demonstrated for low loss optical waveguiding [1

1. L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) [2

2. P. Russell, “Photonic crystal fibers,” Science 299(5605), 358–362 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] are also known as holey fibers [3

3. T. M. Monro, D. J. Richardson, N. G. R. Broderick, and P. J. Bennett, “Holey optical fibers: an efficient modal model,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17(6), 1093–1102 (1999). [CrossRef]

] or microstructured fibers [4

4. J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, and A. J. Stentz, “Visible continuum generation in air-silica microstructure optical fibers with anomalous dispersion at 800 nm,” Opt. Lett. 25(1), 25–27 (2000). [CrossRef]

] and more generally structured fibers since the features can be nano [5

5. B. C. Gibson, S. T. Huntington, S. Rubanov, P. Olivero, K. Digweed-Lyytikäinen, J. Canning, and J. D. Love, “Exposure and characterization of nano-structured hole arrays in tapered photonic crystal fibers using a combined FIB/SEM technique,” Opt. Express 13(22), 9023–9028 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-22-9023. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. PCFs are typically manufactured using a technique of stacking silica capillary tubes of equal size in a hexagonal lattice pattern [6

6. T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. S. Russell, “Endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 22(13), 961–963 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Such fibers are usually characterized by a regular, periodic array of microscopic air-holes in the cladding region which exist along their entire fiber length. The tapering of structured fibers has attracted much interest [7

7. J. K. Chandalia, B. J. Eggleton, R. S. Windeler, S. G. Kosinski, X. Liu, and C. Xu, “Adiabatic coupling in tapered air-silica microstructured optical fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(1), 52–54 (2001). [CrossRef]

12

12. H. C. Nguyen, B. T. Kuhlmey, E. C. Magi, M. J. Steel, P. Domachuk, C. L. Smith, and B. J. Eggleton, “Tapered photonic crystal fibres: properties, characterisation and applications,” Appl. Phys. B 81(2-3), 377–387 (2005). [CrossRef]

], with many applications including microfluidics [13

13. C. Kerbage and B. J. Eggleton, “Tunable microfluidic optical fiber gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(9), 1338–1340 (2003). [CrossRef]

], enhancement of non-linear properties [14

14. S. G. Leon-Saval, T. A. Birks, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, and M. W. Mason, “Supercontinuum generation in submicron fibre waveguides,” Opt. Express 12(13), 2864–2869 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-13-2864. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], couplers [15

15. B. H. Lee, J. B. Eom, J. Kim, D. S. Moon, U.-C. Paek, and G.-H. Yang, “Photonic crystal fiber coupler,” Opt. Lett. 27(10), 812–814 (2002). [CrossRef]

] and low-loss transition to conventional optical fibers [16

16. T. A. Birks, G. Kakarantzas, P. S. J. Russell, and D. F. Murphy, “Photonic crystal fiber devices,” Proc. SPIE - Int. Soc. Opt. Eng. 4943, 142–151 (2003).

]. The possibility that the evanescent optical field itself can be tailored on such dimensions also exists – the accumulation of the evanescent field, for example, can exceed the surrounding optical field when the hole is sufficiently small despite the low index of silica [17

17. C. Martelli, and J. Canning, “Fresnel Fibers for Sensing,” in Optical Fiber Sensors, (Cancun, Mexico 2006) OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America), 2006; post-deadline paper ThF5.

,18

18. G. S. Wiederhecker, C. M. B. Cordeiro, F. Couny, F. Benabid, S. A. Maier, J. C. Knight, C. H. B. Cruz, and H. L. Fragnito, “Field enhancement within an optical fibre with a subwavelength air core,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 115–118 (2007). [CrossRef]

]. This potentially promises a new class of nanophotonics devices exploiting such high resolution optical localisation. In this paper, we explore the production of nanostructured holes down to 10nm or less. We compare to types of optical structured fibres to see how they impact the evolution of the hole and the degree of control possible by varying the starting geometry. One is a conventional periodic structured fibre with an array of channels whilst the other is a so-called fractal fibre where the triangular lattice self-images to decreasing size towards the centre of the fibre.

Recently, we investigated the fractal fibre as a potential scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM) probe [19

19. J. Kim and K.-B. Song, “Recent progress of nano-technology with NSOM,” Micron 38(4), 409–426 (2007). [CrossRef]

]. Unlike a typical PCF, the holes in a Fractal fibre are neither in a periodic array nor radially aligned. The cross-sectional area of the holes in a Fractal fibre increase in size with distance from the centre of the fibre and each consecutive ring of holes is rotated by π/n, where n is the number of holes in each ring. As a result of its unique design, the Fractal fibre has been shown to exhibit superior optical throughput and high numerical aperture (NA) compared to a regular PCF and a standard step-index fiber SNOM probes [20

20. S. T. Huntington, B. C. Gibson, J. Canning, K. Digweed-Lyytikäinen, J. D. Love, and V. Steblina, “A fractal-based fibre for ultra-high throughput optical probes,” Opt. Express 15(5), 2468–2475 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-5-2468. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. A metal-free Fractal fiber probe has also demonstrated an enhanced capacity for collection mode imaging of a metallic nanostructure in comparison to uncoated and metal-coated standard step-index fiber probes [21

21. C. M. Rollinson, S. M. Orbons, S. T. Huntington, B. C. Gibson, J. Canning, J. D. Love, A. Roberts, and D. N. Jamieson, “Metal-free scanning optical microscopy with a fractal fiber probe,” Opt. Express 17(3), 1772–1780 (2009), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-3-1772. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The unique quasi-periodic structure of the Fractal fiber has also been shown to lead to almost zero bend loss across a wide wavelength range [22

22. C. Martelli, J. Canning, B. C. Gibson, and S. T. Huntington, “Bend loss in structured optical fibres,” Opt. Express 15(26), 17639–17644 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-26-17639. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. For SNOM probes which are manufactured from structured optical fibre such as the Fractal fibre, retaining the internal nanostructure along the tapered probe becomes critical for the optimal confinement of light to or from the tip. Enhanced optical confinement within the fibre leads to minimal interaction with the surrounding metal-coating, which is typically used, and reduces attenuation. The ability to examine, monitor and confirm the internal structure of tapered structured SNOM probes will provide further insight into the optical confinement properties of the probe. What stood out in this work was the ability to retain open channels in a controlled way down to small sizes, entering the nano domain <100nm. A number of techniques have been proposed for characterizing the structure of the cleaved end-face of air-silica fiber tapers, including optical microscopy [7

7. J. K. Chandalia, B. J. Eggleton, R. S. Windeler, S. G. Kosinski, X. Liu, and C. Xu, “Adiabatic coupling in tapered air-silica microstructured optical fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(1), 52–54 (2001). [CrossRef]

] and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) [9

9. E. C. Mägi, P. Steinvurzel, and B. J. Eggleton, “Tapered photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 12(5), 776–784 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-5-776. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,12

12. H. C. Nguyen, B. T. Kuhlmey, E. C. Magi, M. J. Steel, P. Domachuk, C. L. Smith, and B. J. Eggleton, “Tapered photonic crystal fibres: properties, characterisation and applications,” Appl. Phys. B 81(2-3), 377–387 (2005). [CrossRef]

]. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has been used to characterize an adiabatically tapered air-silica fiber with an outer diameter (OD) of 15 µm [8

8. S. T. Huntington, J. Katsifolis, B. C. Gibson, J. Canning, K. Lyytikainen, J. Zagari, L. W. Cahill, and J. D. Love, “Retaining and characterising nano-structure within tapered air-silica structured optical fibers,” Opt. Express 11(2), 98–104 (2003), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-11-2-98. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and detected air-holes with approximate diameters of 400 nm. These holes were approximately 10% smaller than expected, providing evidence of hole collapse due to surface tensions within the holes [23

23. W. J. Wadsworth, A. Witkowska, S. G. Leon-Saval, and T. A. Birks, “Hole inflation and tapering of stock photonic crystal fibres,” Opt. Express 13(17), 6541–6549 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-17-6541. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Air-silica tapers with ODs as small as 1.6 µm have been characterized using a combined focused ion beam (FIB)/SEM technique [5

5. B. C. Gibson, S. T. Huntington, S. Rubanov, P. Olivero, K. Digweed-Lyytikäinen, J. Canning, and J. D. Love, “Exposure and characterization of nano-structured hole arrays in tapered photonic crystal fibers using a combined FIB/SEM technique,” Opt. Express 13(22), 9023–9028 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-22-9023. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] to reveal air-holes as small as 60 nm in diameter. In this paper, in order to explore just how small we can go with the holes in the two types of fibre, a combined FIB/SEM technique is used to characterize the degree to which the internal structures of the regular PCF and the fractal fiber are maintained along a tapered probe. The results presented quantify the minimum hole sizes in both of the tapered fibre types and provide further insight into the possible limits enhanced optical confinement and collection properties these fibres.

2. Tapered probe fabrication and characterization

The regular PCF and Fractal fiber probes were fabricated at room temperature using a CO2-laser-based pulling method [24

24. G. A. Valaskovic, M. Holton, and G. H. Morrison, “Parameter control, characterization, and optimization in the fabrication of optical fiber near-field probes,” Appl. Opt. 34(7), 1215–1228 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] during which no additional gas was used to pressurize the air-holes; a method that can be used to prevent hole collapse [23

23. W. J. Wadsworth, A. Witkowska, S. G. Leon-Saval, and T. A. Birks, “Hole inflation and tapering of stock photonic crystal fibres,” Opt. Express 13(17), 6541–6549 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-17-6541. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The probes were then coated with approximately 30 nm of gold to prevent charging during SEM imaging. The probes were milled using a FEI Nova Dualbeam FIB and SEM system which provided a 30 kV Ga+ ion beam with a current of approximately 30 pA and a spot size of around ω = 20 nm. A number of FIB ‘slices’ (or cleaves) were made across the probes, i.e. perpendicular to the longitudinal direction of the taper. FIB slices were made as close as possible to the probe tips and SEM imaging was performed immediately after cleaving to reveal the cross-sections of the structured fiber probes. Various slices, corresponding to increments of approximately Æ = 100 nm in the OD of the taper, were performed on the probes and the SEM images are shown in Figs. 2
Fig. 2 SEM images recorded before and after FIB slices were made on a single regular PCF tapered probe. The entire structure of air-holes is visible at Æ = 870 nm. All OD values are estimated to be accurate to within ± 10 nm. All images were recorded at different magnifications.
and 3
Fig. 3 SEM images recorded before and after FIB slices were made on a single Fractal fiber tapered probe. The entire structure of air-holes is clearly visible at an OD of approximately 425 nm. It should be noted that the entire structure of air-holes for the regular PCF is not visible until the OD is ~870 nm. All OD values are estimated to be accurate to within ± 10 nm. All images were recorded at different magnifications.
for the PCF and Fractal fibre, respectively.

3. Conclusions

The evolution of nanostructured holes within the tips of tapered regular PCF and Fractal fiber probes have been monitored and compared using a combined FIB/SEM technique. The SEM images clearly show a demonstrated ability to fabricate and control nanostructured materials in air-silica fibers. The air-holes in a regular PCF tapered probe were shown to be maintained to an OD of Æ = (870 ± 10) nm. Further characterization of regular PCF tapers for smaller ODs, closer to the tip, depicted hole collapse which can be attributed to surface tension within the holes. The entire structure of the Fractal fiber was shown to be maintained down to an OD of Æ = (425 ± 10) nm. The outer ring of air-holes in the Fractal fiber structure is maintained to an OD of (120 ± 10) nm. In contrast to the regular array PCF, within the fractal fibre, regardless of the initial hole size, the rate of collapse scales with the outer diameter, indicating the use of larger outer diameters can permit greater degree of control. The capability to monitor and confirm that nanoscale structures exist within the Fractal probe with ODs less than 200 nm corroborates reported enhanced optical throughput and collection results [18

18. G. S. Wiederhecker, C. M. B. Cordeiro, F. Couny, F. Benabid, S. A. Maier, J. C. Knight, C. H. B. Cruz, and H. L. Fragnito, “Field enhancement within an optical fibre with a subwavelength air core,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 115–118 (2007). [CrossRef]

,19

19. J. Kim and K.-B. Song, “Recent progress of nano-technology with NSOM,” Micron 38(4), 409–426 (2007). [CrossRef]

]. Using a larger air-fraction regular PCF is likely to keep the air-holes open longer along a tapered probe but such fibers are not expected to provide the superior confinement properties or versatility of the scale invariant Fractal fiber structure – therefore, the choice of fibre design is ultimately influenced by the intended application. The observation of a small hole size limit of ~10 nm in both tapered structured fibers may represent the onset of strain imposed by local order and local ring distributions within the glass. Further work is currently being undertaken to explore the hole size dependency on the preparation of glass materials. Such a limit suggests a regime well into the nano-domain that may present new barriers and challenges for genuine design engineering to molecular dimensions via a top down approach. At the same time, a new platform for testing theories on the glassy state particularly where the boundaries are defined, as well as providing new insights, is available.

Acknowledgements

The support of the Australian Research Council, through its Discovery and Centres of Excellence programs (DP0877871), is gratefully acknowledged. The authors would also like to acknowledge M. Stevenson, K. Digweed-Lyytikainen, V. Steblina, J. Digweed, J. Zagari and B. Ashton for their assistance with fiber preparation and useful discussions.

References and links

1.

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2.

P. Russell, “Photonic crystal fibers,” Science 299(5605), 358–362 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3.

T. M. Monro, D. J. Richardson, N. G. R. Broderick, and P. J. Bennett, “Holey optical fibers: an efficient modal model,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17(6), 1093–1102 (1999). [CrossRef]

4.

J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, and A. J. Stentz, “Visible continuum generation in air-silica microstructure optical fibers with anomalous dispersion at 800 nm,” Opt. Lett. 25(1), 25–27 (2000). [CrossRef]

5.

B. C. Gibson, S. T. Huntington, S. Rubanov, P. Olivero, K. Digweed-Lyytikäinen, J. Canning, and J. D. Love, “Exposure and characterization of nano-structured hole arrays in tapered photonic crystal fibers using a combined FIB/SEM technique,” Opt. Express 13(22), 9023–9028 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-22-9023. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. S. Russell, “Endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 22(13), 961–963 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

J. K. Chandalia, B. J. Eggleton, R. S. Windeler, S. G. Kosinski, X. Liu, and C. Xu, “Adiabatic coupling in tapered air-silica microstructured optical fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(1), 52–54 (2001). [CrossRef]

8.

S. T. Huntington, J. Katsifolis, B. C. Gibson, J. Canning, K. Lyytikainen, J. Zagari, L. W. Cahill, and J. D. Love, “Retaining and characterising nano-structure within tapered air-silica structured optical fibers,” Opt. Express 11(2), 98–104 (2003), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-11-2-98. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

E. C. Mägi, P. Steinvurzel, and B. J. Eggleton, “Tapered photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 12(5), 776–784 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-5-776. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

Y. Youk, D. Y. Kim, and K. W. Park, “Guiding properties of a tapered photonic crystal fiber compared with those of a tapered single-mode fiber,” Fiber Int. Opt. 23(6), 439–446 (2004). [CrossRef]

11.

Y. K. Lizé, E. C. Mägi, V. G. Ta’eed, J. A. Bolger, P. Steinvurzel, and B. J. Eggleton, “Microstructured optical fiber photonic wires with subwavelength core diameter,” Opt. Express 12(14), 3209–3217 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-14-3209. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

H. C. Nguyen, B. T. Kuhlmey, E. C. Magi, M. J. Steel, P. Domachuk, C. L. Smith, and B. J. Eggleton, “Tapered photonic crystal fibres: properties, characterisation and applications,” Appl. Phys. B 81(2-3), 377–387 (2005). [CrossRef]

13.

C. Kerbage and B. J. Eggleton, “Tunable microfluidic optical fiber gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(9), 1338–1340 (2003). [CrossRef]

14.

S. G. Leon-Saval, T. A. Birks, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, and M. W. Mason, “Supercontinuum generation in submicron fibre waveguides,” Opt. Express 12(13), 2864–2869 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-13-2864. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15.

B. H. Lee, J. B. Eom, J. Kim, D. S. Moon, U.-C. Paek, and G.-H. Yang, “Photonic crystal fiber coupler,” Opt. Lett. 27(10), 812–814 (2002). [CrossRef]

16.

T. A. Birks, G. Kakarantzas, P. S. J. Russell, and D. F. Murphy, “Photonic crystal fiber devices,” Proc. SPIE - Int. Soc. Opt. Eng. 4943, 142–151 (2003).

17.

C. Martelli, and J. Canning, “Fresnel Fibers for Sensing,” in Optical Fiber Sensors, (Cancun, Mexico 2006) OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America), 2006; post-deadline paper ThF5.

18.

G. S. Wiederhecker, C. M. B. Cordeiro, F. Couny, F. Benabid, S. A. Maier, J. C. Knight, C. H. B. Cruz, and H. L. Fragnito, “Field enhancement within an optical fibre with a subwavelength air core,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 115–118 (2007). [CrossRef]

19.

J. Kim and K.-B. Song, “Recent progress of nano-technology with NSOM,” Micron 38(4), 409–426 (2007). [CrossRef]

20.

S. T. Huntington, B. C. Gibson, J. Canning, K. Digweed-Lyytikäinen, J. D. Love, and V. Steblina, “A fractal-based fibre for ultra-high throughput optical probes,” Opt. Express 15(5), 2468–2475 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-5-2468. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

21.

C. M. Rollinson, S. M. Orbons, S. T. Huntington, B. C. Gibson, J. Canning, J. D. Love, A. Roberts, and D. N. Jamieson, “Metal-free scanning optical microscopy with a fractal fiber probe,” Opt. Express 17(3), 1772–1780 (2009), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-3-1772. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

22.

C. Martelli, J. Canning, B. C. Gibson, and S. T. Huntington, “Bend loss in structured optical fibres,” Opt. Express 15(26), 17639–17644 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-26-17639. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

23.

W. J. Wadsworth, A. Witkowska, S. G. Leon-Saval, and T. A. Birks, “Hole inflation and tapering of stock photonic crystal fibres,” Opt. Express 13(17), 6541–6549 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-17-6541. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

24.

G. A. Valaskovic, M. Holton, and G. H. Morrison, “Parameter control, characterization, and optimization in the fabrication of optical fiber near-field probes,” Appl. Opt. 34(7), 1215–1228 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

25.

A. C. Wright, “Defect-free vitreous networks: The idealised stricture of SiO2 and related glasses,” in Defects in SiO2 and Related Dielectrics: Science and Technology, G. Pacchioni, L. Skuja, and D. L. Griscom, eds. (Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, the Netherlands, 2000).

OCIS Codes
(050.1220) Diffraction and gratings : Apertures
(050.1940) Diffraction and gratings : Diffraction
(060.2280) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber design and fabrication
(060.2350) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics imaging
(180.5810) Microscopy : Scanning microscopy
(060.4005) Fiber optics and optical communications : Microstructured fibers
(180.4243) Microscopy : Near-field microscopy
(060.5295) Fiber optics and optical communications : Photonic crystal fibers

ToC Category:
Fiber Optics and Optical Communications

History
Original Manuscript: October 20, 2010
Revised Manuscript: January 12, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: January 13, 2011
Published: January 18, 2011

Citation
C. M. Rollinson, S. T. Huntington, B. C. Gibson, S. Rubanov, and J. Canning, "Characterization of nanoscale features in tapered fractal and photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Express 19, 1860-1865 (2011)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-3-1860


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. P. Russell, “Photonic crystal fibers,” Science 299(5605), 358–362 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. T. M. Monro, D. J. Richardson, N. G. R. Broderick, and P. J. Bennett, “Holey optical fibers: an efficient modal model,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17(6), 1093–1102 (1999). [CrossRef]
  4. J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, and A. J. Stentz, “Visible continuum generation in air-silica microstructure optical fibers with anomalous dispersion at 800 nm,” Opt. Lett. 25(1), 25–27 (2000). [CrossRef]
  5. B. C. Gibson, S. T. Huntington, S. Rubanov, P. Olivero, K. Digweed-Lyytikäinen, J. Canning, and J. D. Love, “Exposure and characterization of nano-structured hole arrays in tapered photonic crystal fibers using a combined FIB/SEM technique,” Opt. Express 13(22), 9023–9028 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-22-9023 . [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. S. Russell, “Endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 22(13), 961–963 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. K. Chandalia, B. J. Eggleton, R. S. Windeler, S. G. Kosinski, X. Liu, and C. Xu, “Adiabatic coupling in tapered air-silica microstructured optical fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(1), 52–54 (2001). [CrossRef]
  8. S. T. Huntington, J. Katsifolis, B. C. Gibson, J. Canning, K. Lyytikainen, J. Zagari, L. W. Cahill, and J. D. Love, “Retaining and characterising nano-structure within tapered air-silica structured optical fibers,” Opt. Express 11(2), 98–104 (2003), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-11-2-98 . [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. E. C. Mägi, P. Steinvurzel, and B. J. Eggleton, “Tapered photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 12(5), 776–784 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-5-776 . [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. Y. Youk, D. Y. Kim, and K. W. Park, “Guiding properties of a tapered photonic crystal fiber compared with those of a tapered single-mode fiber,” Fiber Int. Opt. 23(6), 439–446 (2004). [CrossRef]
  11. Y. K. Lizé, E. C. Mägi, V. G. Ta’eed, J. A. Bolger, P. Steinvurzel, and B. J. Eggleton, “Microstructured optical fiber photonic wires with subwavelength core diameter,” Opt. Express 12(14), 3209–3217 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-14-3209 . [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. H. C. Nguyen, B. T. Kuhlmey, E. C. Magi, M. J. Steel, P. Domachuk, C. L. Smith, and B. J. Eggleton, “Tapered photonic crystal fibres: properties, characterisation and applications,” Appl. Phys. B 81(2-3), 377–387 (2005). [CrossRef]
  13. C. Kerbage and B. J. Eggleton, “Tunable microfluidic optical fiber gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(9), 1338–1340 (2003). [CrossRef]
  14. S. G. Leon-Saval, T. A. Birks, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, and M. W. Mason, “Supercontinuum generation in submicron fibre waveguides,” Opt. Express 12(13), 2864–2869 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-13-2864 . [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. B. H. Lee, J. B. Eom, J. Kim, D. S. Moon, U.-C. Paek, and G.-H. Yang, “Photonic crystal fiber coupler,” Opt. Lett. 27(10), 812–814 (2002). [CrossRef]
  16. T. A. Birks, G. Kakarantzas, P. S. J. Russell, and D. F. Murphy, “Photonic crystal fiber devices,” Proc. SPIE - Int. Soc. Opt. Eng. 4943, 142–151 (2003).
  17. C. Martelli, and J. Canning, “Fresnel Fibers for Sensing,” in Optical Fiber Sensors, (Cancun, Mexico 2006) OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America), 2006; post-deadline paper ThF5.
  18. G. S. Wiederhecker, C. M. B. Cordeiro, F. Couny, F. Benabid, S. A. Maier, J. C. Knight, C. H. B. Cruz, and H. L. Fragnito, “Field enhancement within an optical fibre with a subwavelength air core,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 115–118 (2007). [CrossRef]
  19. J. Kim and K.-B. Song, “Recent progress of nano-technology with NSOM,” Micron 38(4), 409–426 (2007). [CrossRef]
  20. S. T. Huntington, B. C. Gibson, J. Canning, K. Digweed-Lyytikäinen, J. D. Love, and V. Steblina, “A fractal-based fibre for ultra-high throughput optical probes,” Opt. Express 15(5), 2468–2475 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-5-2468 . [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. C. M. Rollinson, S. M. Orbons, S. T. Huntington, B. C. Gibson, J. Canning, J. D. Love, A. Roberts, and D. N. Jamieson, “Metal-free scanning optical microscopy with a fractal fiber probe,” Opt. Express 17(3), 1772–1780 (2009), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-3-1772 . [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. C. Martelli, J. Canning, B. C. Gibson, and S. T. Huntington, “Bend loss in structured optical fibres,” Opt. Express 15(26), 17639–17644 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-26-17639 . [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. W. J. Wadsworth, A. Witkowska, S. G. Leon-Saval, and T. A. Birks, “Hole inflation and tapering of stock photonic crystal fibres,” Opt. Express 13(17), 6541–6549 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-17-6541 . [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. G. A. Valaskovic, M. Holton, and G. H. Morrison, “Parameter control, characterization, and optimization in the fabrication of optical fiber near-field probes,” Appl. Opt. 34(7), 1215–1228 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. A. C. Wright, “Defect-free vitreous networks: The idealised stricture of SiO2 and related glasses,” in Defects in SiO2 and Related Dielectrics: Science and Technology, G. Pacchioni, L. Skuja, and D. L. Griscom, eds. (Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, the Netherlands, 2000).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

Figures

Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3
 
Fig. 4
 

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited