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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 19, Iss. 3 — Jan. 31, 2011
  • pp: 2599–2607
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Fabrication of highly nonlinear germano-silicate glass optical fiber incorporated with PbTe semiconductor quantum dots using atomization doping process and its optical nonlinearity

Seongmin Ju, Pramod R. Watekar, and Won-Taek Han  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 19, Issue 3, pp. 2599-2607 (2011)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.19.002599


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Abstract

Germano-silicate glass optical fiber incorporated with PbTe semiconductor quantum dots (SQDs) in the core was fabricated by using the atomization process in modified chemical vapor deposition (MCVD) process. The absorption bands attributed to PbTe semiconductor quantum dots in the fiber core were found to appear at around 687 nm and 1055 nm. The nonlinear refractive index measured by the long-period fiber grating (LPG) pair method upon pumping with laser diode at 976.4 nm was estimated to be ~1.5 × 10−16 m2/W.

© 2011 OSA

1. Introduction

Glasses doped with IV-VI semiconductor quantum dots (SQDs) of lead chalcogenides such as PbS [1

1. S. Chowdhury, A. M. P. Hussain, G. A. Ahmed, D. Mohanta, and A. Choudhury, “Third order nonlinear optical response of PbS quantum dots,” Semicond. Phys. Quantum Electron. Optoelectron. 9, 45–48 (2006).

12

12. I. Kang and F. W. Wise, “Electronic structure and optical properties of PbS and PbSe quantum dots,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14(7), 1632–1646 (1997). [CrossRef]

], PbSe [13

13. P. R. Watekar, S. Ju, and W.-T. Han, “Resonant optical nonlinearity of PbSe quantum dots doped optical fiber,” in Proceedings of 2008 IEEE/LEOS Winter Topical Meetings, (Academic, Sorrento, Italy, 2008), WB1.3, 88–89 (2008).

25

25. A. Sashchiuk, L. Amirav, M. Bashouti, M. Krueger, U. Sivan, and E. Lifshitz, “PbSe nanocrystal assemblies: synthesis and structural, optical, and electrical characterization,” Nano Lett. 4(1), 159–165 (2004). [CrossRef]

], and PbTe [26

26. G. J. Jacob, L. C. Barbosa, and C. L. Cesar, “Tellurite glass optical fiber doped with PbTe quantum dots,” in Proceedings of SPIE (Academic, San José, CA, USA, 2005), 5734, 124–129 (2005).

35

35. V. C. S. Reynoso, A. M. de Paula, R. F. Cuevas, J. A. Medeiros Neto, O. L. Alves, C. L. Cesar, and L. C. Barbosa, “PbTe quantum dot doped glasses with absorption edge in the 1.5 μm wavelength region,” Electron. Lett. 31(12), 1013–1014 (1995). [CrossRef]

] are candidates for optical communication devices applications because of their narrow band-gap, large optical nonlinearity and fast response time [34

34. L. L. Beecroft and C. K. Ober, “Nanocomposite materials for optical applications,” Chem. Mater. 9(6), 1302–1317 (1997). [CrossRef]

,36

36. U. Woggen, Optical properties of semiconductor quantum dots, (Springer-Verlag Berlin, 1997).

40

40. E. M. Vogel, M. J. Weber, and D. M. Krol, “Nonlinear optical phenomena in glass,” Phys. Chem. Glasses 32, 231–254 (1991).

]. They are of great interest for all-optical devices applications such as all-optical switches [15

15. P. R. Watekar, S. Ju, A. Lin, M. J. Kim, B. H. Lee, and W.-T. Han, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of the PbSe quantum dots doped germane-silica glass optical fiber,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 356(44-49), 2384–2388 (2010), doi:. [CrossRef]

,27

27. E. Rodriguez, G. Kellermann, A. F. Craievich, E. Jimenez, C. L. César, and L. C. Barbosa, “All-optical switching device for infrared based on PbTe quantum dots,” Superlattices Microstruct. 43(5-6), 626–634 (2008). [CrossRef]

,41

41. Y. H. Kim, U.-C. Paek, and W.-T. Han, “All-optical 2×2 switching with two independent Yb3+-doped nonlinear optical fibers with a long-period fiber grating pair,” Appl. Opt. 44(15), 3051–3057 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

44

44. M. J. F. Digonnet, R. W. Sadowski, H. J. Shaw, and R. H. Pantell, “Resonantly enhanced nonlinearity in doped fibers for low-power all-optical switching: a review,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 3(1), 44–64 (1997). [CrossRef]

], wavelength converter [45

45. G. M. Tosi-Beleffi, F. Curti, D. M. Forin, and F. Matera, “Polarization independent wavelength converter based on Kerr non-linearity in DS fiber,” Opt. Commun. 229(1-6), 187–190 (2004). [CrossRef]

47

47. M. E. Marhic, Y. Park, F. S. Yang, and L. G. Kazovsky, “Broadband fiber-optical parametric amplifiers and wavelength converters with low-ripple Chebyshev gain spectra,” Opt. Lett. 21(17), 1354–1356 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], ultra-short pulse generators [48

48. R. R. Alfano, The supercontinuum laser source: fundamentals with updated references, 2nd ed., (Springer-Verlag, 2006).

51

51. M. E. Fermann, V. I. Kruglov, B. C. Thomsen, J. M. Dudley, and J. D. Harvey, “Self-similar propagation and amplification of parabolic pulses in optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(26), 6010–6013 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], and optical parametric amplifiers [47

47. M. E. Marhic, Y. Park, F. S. Yang, and L. G. Kazovsky, “Broadband fiber-optical parametric amplifiers and wavelength converters with low-ripple Chebyshev gain spectra,” Opt. Lett. 21(17), 1354–1356 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,51

51. M. E. Fermann, V. I. Kruglov, B. C. Thomsen, J. M. Dudley, and J. D. Harvey, “Self-similar propagation and amplification of parabolic pulses in optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(26), 6010–6013 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

53

53. D. Dahan and G. Eisenstein, “Tunable all optical delay via slow and fast light propagation in a Raman assisted fiber optical parametric amplifier: a route to all optical buffering,” Opt. Express 13(16), 6234–6249 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Absorption peaks in the PbTe SQDs doped optical fiber arise due to excitonic resonance from the SQDs and the position of the absorption peaks depends on the particle size of PbTe SQDs. To obtain enhanced nonlinear optical effect of the PbTe SQDs doped optical fiber, the fiber should be pumped at the peak absorption wavelength and therefore, nonlinear optical device using the optical fiber doped with PbTe SQDs is dependent on the availability of cost-effective commercial pumping sources at the peak absorption wavelength. Our group has already demonstrated the manufacture of the optical fibers incorporated with PbTe SQDs having large nonlinear refractive index and their applications [28

28. S. Ju, P. R. Watekar, C. J. Kim, and W.-T. Han, “Effect of heat treatment on optical characteristics of highly nonlinear optical fiber doped with PbTe semiconductor quantum dots,” in Proceedings of NPIS 2005 (Academic, San Diego, California, USA, 2005), NFB4, 1–3 (2005).

30

30. W.-T. Han, and Y. H. Kim, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of optical fibers containing PbTe quantum dots for all optical switching application,” in Proceedings of the 2nd International Korea-China Symposium on Glass-Ceramics (Academic, Shanghai, China, 2002), 34–40 (2002).

]. Since the PbTe SQDs doped optical fibers were made by using the conventional solution doping process (“soaking” process) where porous layers of a vertically positioned silica glass tube preform were soaked by the doping solution, the fiber preform tube must be replaced back to the modified chemical vapor deposition (MCVD) lathe, before and after the doping process.

To overcome such an inconvenience during the fiber preform preparation, in this paper, we proposed a new doping process (“atomization” process) to simplify the doping process and to increase the extent of dopants incorporation and concentration uniformity along with direction of the preform length. In the “atomization” process proposed, the doping was carried out by spraying very fine liquid droplets of the doping solution into the preform tube during the MCVD process without break in the process. Thus, no draining of doping solution after soaking was needed and the total preform preparation processes became simple and easy. Effect of the fabrication process, particularly the doping process, of the germano-silicate glass optical fibers incorporated with PbTe SQDs on optical absorption characteristics and nonlinear optical property was investigated.

2. Experimental

A preform of a germano-silicate glass optical fiber was manufactured by using the MCVD process. To increase the refractive index of the preform core for guiding a light, 0.03 mole GeO2 was added to main constituent of SiO2. After deposition of the core layers in the silica glass tube, a doping solution containing PbTe SQDs was sprayed into the tube at 1000°C by using the atomizer (Model 9302, TSI Incorporated). The doping solution containing PbTe SQDs was prepared by dissolving reagent grade PbO and Te powders in nitric acid solution (0.03 mole of PbTe). Then the tube was dried, sintered and sealed to obtain a fiber preform. The fiber preform was drawn into a fiber using the draw tower at 2150°C. The core diameter and the cutoff wavelength of the PbTe doped germano-silicate glass optical fiber were 9.6 μm and 1.2 μm, respectively. Another PbTe doped germano-silicate glass optical fiber by using the soaking process was also fabricated having the core diameter of 6.3 μm and the cutoff wavelength of 1.0 μm. Also, for a comparison, the germane-silicate optical fiber without PbTe was also fabricated. The core diameter and the cutoff wavelength of the germano-silicate optical fiber were 9.0 μm and 1.1 μm, respectively.

To confirm formation of PbTe SQDs in the core of fiber preforms, core portions of the preforms were examined by the X-ray Diffractometer (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM, FEI Tecnai G2 F30 S-TWIN) measurements. Optical absorption spectra of germano-silicate glass optical fibers incorporated with PbTe SQDs were measured by the cut-back method where the white light source (Ando AQ 4303B) was used for launching the broadband light into the fiber and the OSA (Ando AQ 6315B) for the output spectrum.

Using the data of the optical absorption spectrum, we chose the wavelength of pump LD to measure resonant optical nonlinearity of the PbTe doped optical fibers. To compare the resonant nonlinearity of the PbTe doped germano-silicate glass optical fiber, the resonant nonlinearity of germane-silicate optical fiber (without PbTe SQDs) was also measured. The nonlinear refractive index of fibers was estimated by measuring the peak shift of the interference fringes formed due to the long period grating (LPG) pair upon pumping with the laser diode (LD). The LPG pair was fabricated on a conventional single mode fiber (SMF) by using an amplitude mask of 450 μm period to form interference fringes near 1530 nm. Prior to inscribe the grating, the SMF was hydrogen loaded at 50°C under the pressure of 10MPa for a week. The gratings were inscribed on the bare fiber with the KrF excimer laser (248 nm) and then the fiber was annealed at 150°C for 24 h. The PbTe doped fiber was spliced between a pair of the LPG as shown in Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic diagram of the setup for nonlinearity measurement of the PbTe SQDs doped germano-silicate glass optical fiber by use of the LPG pair.
. The details for the measurement are described elsewhere [30

30. W.-T. Han, and Y. H. Kim, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of optical fibers containing PbTe quantum dots for all optical switching application,” in Proceedings of the 2nd International Korea-China Symposium on Glass-Ceramics (Academic, Shanghai, China, 2002), 34–40 (2002).

,54

54. Y. H. Kim, B. H. Lee, Y. Chung, U. C. Paek, and W.-T. Han, “Resonant optical nonlinearity measurement of Yb(3+) / Al(3+) codoped optical fibers by use of a long-period fiber grating pair,” Opt. Lett. 27(8), 580–582 (2002). [CrossRef]

,55

55. P. R. Watekar, S. Moon, A. Lin, S. Ju, and W.-T. Han, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of Si nanoparticles/ Er-ions doped optical fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(5), 568–575 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. Figure 1 shows the schematic diagram of the optical nonlinearity measurement setup. The total length, L, between the LPG pair including the PbTe doped germano-silicate glass optical fiber was 37.65 cm, whereas the length, L 1, of the PbTe doped germano-silicate glass optical fiber was 29.25 cm. Two wavelength division multiplexers (WDM) (980 nm/1550 nm) were used to multiplex and demultiplex the pump beam at 976.4 nm and the signal light near 1550 nm, respectively. The interference fringes in the region of 1500~1550 nm were monitored to determine the nonlinear index.

3. Results and discussion

Comparison of the X-ray diffraction patterns of the PbTe SQDs doped preforms prepared by the atomization process and the conventional soaking process and the preform having no PbTe quantum dots is shown in Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Effect of the doping process on the XRD patterns of the PbTe SQDs doped germano-silicate glass optical fiber preforms.
. The fiber preforms doped with PbTe clearly showed a diffraction peak at 2θ = 21.6°, regardless of the doping process. Note that for the preform without dopants, no diffraction peak but diffused background was found. These XRD results clearly indicate that PbTe particles were formed in the core of the PbTe-doped preforms. A rather broad feature of the diffraction peak of the preforms doped with PbTe was due to the size effect of PbTe SQDs. It can be seen in Fig. 2 that the peak intensity in the XRD pattern for the preform doped with PbTe using the atomization process was slightly larger than that by the soaking process, indicating the higher concentration of the PbTe in the preform by the atomization process. The atomization process seems to bring about higher dopant concentration and easer operation than the soaking process. The existence and size distribution of the PbTe SQDs were verified again by TEM morphology of the fiber preforms as shown in Fig. 3
Fig. 3 TEM image and size distribution of the PbTe SQDs in the core of the fiber prefroms prepared by (a) atomization process and (b) soaking process. (0.03 mole).
. The average diameter of PbTe SQDs was 4.61 nm (3.54 nm ~6.03 nm) and 5.49 nm (4.02 nm ~6.03 nm) in the fiber preforms made by atomization process and soaking process, respectively. The TEM photograph clearly shows the morphology of the SQDs, which is crystalline, to be roughly spherical and homogeneous without agglomeration. From the TEM morphology of the PbTe doped fiber preforms, the formation of PbTe SQDs in the core was also confirmed and both the concentration and the size distribution of PbTe SQDs were found to increase and widen by atomization process compared to those by the soaking process, because the atomization process was done by spraying very fine droplets of the doping solution into the fiber preform.

It can also be seen that the absorption band shape in both the fibers was different. The absorption band of the fiber by the atomization process was broader, indicating wider size distribution of PbTe SQDs, than that by the soaking process. Because the atomization process was done by spraying very fine droplets of the doping solution into the preform tube during the MCVD process, it may have resulted in the variation in the size of PbTe SQDs, depending on the size of the droplet, which gives rise to the broad absorption band. The absorption peak at 1380 nm was because of the OH impurities. It is interesting to note that the PbTe SQDs, which were embedded in the core of preform, were still preserved in the core of the fiber even after drawing the fiber from preform at a high temperature of about 2150°C.

As stated earlier, to find the nonlinear refractive index, n2, of the fibers, the peak wavelength shift of the interference fringes formed due to the LPG pair and 976.4 nm pump were measured and the results are shown in Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Wavelength shift of the interference fringes near 1523nm of the PbTe SQDs doped germano-silicate glass optical fibers by using the atomization process and the soaking process upon pumping with the LD at 976.4 nm.
for the PbTe SQDs doped germano-silicate glass optical fibers. While the fringes were found to shift toward the longer-wavelength side with the increase of pump power in the case of the fiber that used the atomization process, no appreciable fringe shift was found in the fiber that used the soaking process apparently because of the absence of absorption peak of PbTe SQDs in that fiber at 976.4 nm. Therefore, it is evident that because of a resonant type of the high nonlinear optical fiber, the wavelength shift in the fiber that used atomization process can be attributed to the nonlinear optical property of the PbTe SQD doped germano-silicate glass optical fiber at 976.4 nm.

4. Conclusion

We proposed a new doping process, so-called atomization process, to incorporate PbTe SQDs in the core of the fiber for nonlinear optical application. The atomization doping process was found to be simple in operation and more effective to increase of the dopant concentration than the soaking process.

The X-ray diffraction peaks of the PbTe SQDs in the core region of the PbTe SQDs doped optical fiber preforms appeared at 2θ = 21.6°, regardless of the doping process. The average diameter of PbTe SQDs was around 4.61 nm (size distribution: 3.54 nm to 6.03 nm) and 5.49 nm (size distribution: 4.02 nm to 6.03 nm) in the PbTe SQDs doped fiber preforms made by atomization process and soaking process, respectively. The size distribution of PbTe SQDs in the PbTe SQDs doped fiber preforms was found to be bimodal and the concentration of PbTe SQDs in the fibers was also verified by the optical absorption spectra of the fibers. The absorption bands at 687 nm and 1055 nm of the fiber made by the atomization process and those at 712 nm, 775 nm and 1120 nm of the fiber by the soaking process were attributed to quantum confinement of PbTe SQDs in the fiber core. The absorption bands were shifted according to the size effect of the compound PbTe SQDs in glass matrix by the doping process in MCVD process.

The nonlinear refractive index, n2, was estimated by measuring the wavelength shift of the interference fringes obtained from the PbTe SQDs doped germano-silicate glass optical fiber spliced with a LPG pair upon pumping with laser diode at 976.4 nm. The nonlinear refractive index of the PbTe SQDs doped germano-silicate glass optical fiber made by use of the atomization process was found to decrease with the increase of the launched pump power and it was ~1.5 × 10−16 m2/W near 1523 nm at the pump powers of 14.6 ~25.1 mW.

Acknowledgments

This work was supported partially by the Ministry of Science and Technology, the KOSEF through the research program (No. 2008-0061843), the Brain Korea-21 Information Technology Project, and by the (Photonics2020) research project through a grant provided by the Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology in 2010, South Korea.

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Y. H. Kim, U.-C. Paek, and W.-T. Han, “All-optical 2×2 switching with two independent Yb3+-doped nonlinear optical fibers with a long-period fiber grating pair,” Appl. Opt. 44(15), 3051–3057 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

42.

M. Asobe, “Nonlinear optical properties of chalcogenide glass fibers and their application to all-optical switching,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 3(2), 142–148 (1997). [CrossRef]

43.

R. H. Pantell and M. J. F. Digonnet, “A model of nonlinear all-optical switching in doped fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12(1), 149–156 (1994). [CrossRef]

44.

M. J. F. Digonnet, R. W. Sadowski, H. J. Shaw, and R. H. Pantell, “Resonantly enhanced nonlinearity in doped fibers for low-power all-optical switching: a review,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 3(1), 44–64 (1997). [CrossRef]

45.

G. M. Tosi-Beleffi, F. Curti, D. M. Forin, and F. Matera, “Polarization independent wavelength converter based on Kerr non-linearity in DS fiber,” Opt. Commun. 229(1-6), 187–190 (2004). [CrossRef]

46.

B.-E. Olsson, P. Öhlén, L. Rau, and D. J. Blumenthal, “A simple and robust 40-Gb/s wavelength converter using fiber cross-phase modulation and optical filtering,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(7), 846–848 (2000). [CrossRef]

47.

M. E. Marhic, Y. Park, F. S. Yang, and L. G. Kazovsky, “Broadband fiber-optical parametric amplifiers and wavelength converters with low-ripple Chebyshev gain spectra,” Opt. Lett. 21(17), 1354–1356 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

48.

R. R. Alfano, The supercontinuum laser source: fundamentals with updated references, 2nd ed., (Springer-Verlag, 2006).

49.

J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, and A. J. Stentz, “Visible continuum generation in air-silica microstructure optical fibers with anomalous dispersion at 800 nm,” Opt. Lett. 25(1), 25–27 (2000). [CrossRef]

50.

G. Steinmeyer, D. H. Sutter, L. Gallmann, N. Matuschek, and U. Keller, “Frontiers in ultrashort pulse generation: pushing the limits in linear and nonlinear optics,” Science 286(5444), 1507–1512 (1999). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

51.

M. E. Fermann, V. I. Kruglov, B. C. Thomsen, J. M. Dudley, and J. D. Harvey, “Self-similar propagation and amplification of parabolic pulses in optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(26), 6010–6013 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

52.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear fiber optics, 4th ed., (Academic Press, 2007).

53.

D. Dahan and G. Eisenstein, “Tunable all optical delay via slow and fast light propagation in a Raman assisted fiber optical parametric amplifier: a route to all optical buffering,” Opt. Express 13(16), 6234–6249 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

54.

Y. H. Kim, B. H. Lee, Y. Chung, U. C. Paek, and W.-T. Han, “Resonant optical nonlinearity measurement of Yb(3+) / Al(3+) codoped optical fibers by use of a long-period fiber grating pair,” Opt. Lett. 27(8), 580–582 (2002). [CrossRef]

55.

P. R. Watekar, S. Moon, A. Lin, S. Ju, and W.-T. Han, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of Si nanoparticles/ Er-ions doped optical fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(5), 568–575 (2009). [CrossRef]

56.

S. D. Jackson and Y. Li, “Multiwavelength diode-cladding-pumped Nd3+-doped germao-aluminosilicate fiber laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39(9), 1118–1122 (2003). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(060.2280) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber design and fabrication
(060.2310) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics
(190.4370) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics, fibers
(230.5590) Optical devices : Quantum-well, -wire and -dot devices
(060.3735) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber Bragg gratings

ToC Category:
Fiber Optics and Optical Communications

History
Original Manuscript: January 14, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: January 18, 2011
Published: January 26, 2011

Citation
Seongmin Ju, Pramod R. Watekar, and Won-Taek Han, "Fabrication of highly nonlinear germano-silicate glass optical fiber incorporated with PbTe semiconductor quantum dots using atomization doping process and its optical nonlinearity," Opt. Express 19, 2599-2607 (2011)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-3-2599


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  42. M. Asobe, “Nonlinear optical properties of chalcogenide glass fibers and their application to all-optical switching,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 3(2), 142–148 (1997). [CrossRef]
  43. R. H. Pantell and M. J. F. Digonnet, “A model of nonlinear all-optical switching in doped fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12(1), 149–156 (1994). [CrossRef]
  44. M. J. F. Digonnet, R. W. Sadowski, H. J. Shaw, and R. H. Pantell, “Resonantly enhanced nonlinearity in doped fibers for low-power all-optical switching: a review,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 3(1), 44–64 (1997). [CrossRef]
  45. G. M. Tosi-Beleffi, F. Curti, D. M. Forin, and F. Matera, “Polarization independent wavelength converter based on Kerr non-linearity in DS fiber,” Opt. Commun. 229(1-6), 187–190 (2004). [CrossRef]
  46. B.-E. Olsson, P. Öhlén, L. Rau, and D. J. Blumenthal, “A simple and robust 40-Gb/s wavelength converter using fiber cross-phase modulation and optical filtering,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(7), 846–848 (2000). [CrossRef]
  47. M. E. Marhic, Y. Park, F. S. Yang, and L. G. Kazovsky, “Broadband fiber-optical parametric amplifiers and wavelength converters with low-ripple Chebyshev gain spectra,” Opt. Lett. 21(17), 1354–1356 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  48. R. R. Alfano, The supercontinuum laser source: fundamentals with updated references, 2nd ed., (Springer-Verlag, 2006).
  49. J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, and A. J. Stentz, “Visible continuum generation in air-silica microstructure optical fibers with anomalous dispersion at 800 nm,” Opt. Lett. 25(1), 25–27 (2000). [CrossRef]
  50. G. Steinmeyer, D. H. Sutter, L. Gallmann, N. Matuschek, and U. Keller, “Frontiers in ultrashort pulse generation: pushing the limits in linear and nonlinear optics,” Science 286(5444), 1507–1512 (1999). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  51. M. E. Fermann, V. I. Kruglov, B. C. Thomsen, J. M. Dudley, and J. D. Harvey, “Self-similar propagation and amplification of parabolic pulses in optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(26), 6010–6013 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  52. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear fiber optics, 4th ed., (Academic Press, 2007).
  53. D. Dahan and G. Eisenstein, “Tunable all optical delay via slow and fast light propagation in a Raman assisted fiber optical parametric amplifier: a route to all optical buffering,” Opt. Express 13(16), 6234–6249 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  54. Y. H. Kim, B. H. Lee, Y. Chung, U. C. Paek, and W.-T. Han, “Resonant optical nonlinearity measurement of Yb(3+) / Al(3+) codoped optical fibers by use of a long-period fiber grating pair,” Opt. Lett. 27(8), 580–582 (2002). [CrossRef]
  55. P. R. Watekar, S. Moon, A. Lin, S. Ju, and W.-T. Han, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of Si nanoparticles/ Er-ions doped optical fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(5), 568–575 (2009). [CrossRef]
  56. S. D. Jackson and Y. Li, “Multiwavelength diode-cladding-pumped Nd3+-doped germao-aluminosilicate fiber laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39(9), 1118–1122 (2003). [CrossRef]

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