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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 19, Iss. 4 — Feb. 14, 2011
  • pp: 3193–3201
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High-power terahertz electromagnetic wave emission from high-T c superconducting Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ mesa structures

Kazuhiro Yamaki, Manabu Tsujimoto, Takashi Yamamoto, Akio Furukawa, Takanari Kashiwagi, Hidetoshi Minami, and Kazuo Kadowaki  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 19, Issue 4, pp. 3193-3201 (2011)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.19.003193


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Abstract

In this paper, we report intense electromagnetic wave emissions generated by the rectangular mesa structure of intrinsic Josephson junctions with high-Tc superconducting Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ. The radiated power is an order of magnitude stronger than that of the previously observed power of a few μW. Two emission regions, reversible (R-type) and irreversible (IR-type), with comparable intensities can be observed at different I-V curve locations in the same mesa. We find peculiar temperature dependences of the emission power in both the R- and IR-type radiations, suggesting that a non-equilibrium thermodynamic state may be realized through the dc input current. The R-type emission is quite stable, whereas the IR-type emission is rather unstable. Although the emitted frequency for both cases obey the cavity resonance conditions, this sharp contrast in emission stability is indicative of two different states in a multi-stacked intrinsic Josephson junction system.

© 2011 OSA

1. Introduction

High-temperature superconductors are typically constructed from a stack of several intrinsic Josephson junctions (IJJs) because they have a peculiar crystal structure, in which the superconducting (CuO2) and insulating (Bi2O2) layers are alternately stacked within a unit cell of the crystal [1

1. R. Kleiner, F. Steinmeyer, G. Kunkel, and P. Müller, “Intrinsic Josephson effects in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 single crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68(15), 2394–2397 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3

3. R. Kleiner and P. Müller, “Intrinsic Josephson effects in high-Tc superconductors,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 49(2), 1327–1341 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. A typical example is the well-known Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ (Bi2212). Although, there have been theoretical suggestions proposing electromagnetic (EM) wave emissions from this type of multilayered Josephson junction [4

4. M. Tachiki, T. Koyama, and S. Takahashi, “Electromagnetic phenomena related to a low-frequency plasma in cuprate superconductors,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 50(10), 7065–7084 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12

12. S. Savel’ev, V. A. Yampol’skii, A. L. Rakhmanov, and F. Nori, “Terahertz Josephson plasma waves in layered superconductors: spectrum, generation, nonlinear and quantum phenomena,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 73(2), 026501 (2010). [CrossRef]

], the EM wave emission from high-T c superconductors has not been observed experimentally in more than ten years, perhaps because of the problems due to electrical contact, surface impedance mismatching, sample damage during the manufacturing process, the heating effect, and most likely, the quality of single crystals used for the experiments. There are few exceptions where low- intensity emissions have been detected [1

1. R. Kleiner, F. Steinmeyer, G. Kunkel, and P. Müller, “Intrinsic Josephson effects in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 single crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68(15), 2394–2397 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,13

13. M.-H. Bae, H.-J. Lee, and J.-H. Choi, “Josephson-vortex-flow terahertz emission in layered high-Tc superconducting single crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(2), 027002 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

17

17. V. M. Krasnov, A. Yurgens, D. Winkler, and P. Delsing, “Self-heating in small mesa structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(10), 5578 (2001). [CrossRef]

].

Recently, strong, continuous, and monochromatic THz radiation [18

18. L. Ozyuzer, A. E. Koshelev, C. Kurter, N. Gopalsami, Q. Li, M. Tachiki, K. Kadowaki, T. Yamamoto, H. Minami, H. Yamaguchi, T. Tachiki, K. E. Gray, W.-K. Kwok, and U. Welp, “Emission of coherent THz radiation from superconductors,” Science 318(5854), 1291–1293 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] generated from rectangular mesas of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 intrinsic Josephson junctions (IJJs) 300 μm long (for a long junction system), 40–100 μm wide, and ~1 μm thick, and fabricated using an argon ion milling technique, has been successfully observed. Thus for, the emission mechanism can be understood as an ac Josephson effect along with a cavity resonance. Accordingly, the emitted frequency is inversely proportional to the width of the rectangular mesa, ν = c 0/2nw, and proportional to the applied voltage, ν = 2eV/hN. Here, ν is the emitted frequency, c 0 is the speed of light in a vacuum, n is the refractive index of Bi2212, w is the width (shorter side of the rectangle) of the mesa, e is the free electron charge, V is the bias voltage along the c-axis of the mesa, h is Planck constant, and N is the number of resistive Josephson junctions. Moreover, the radiation power, as previously reported, is proportional to the square of the applied voltage, that is, the number of synchronized Josephson junctions. Therefore, increasing the number of synchronized emitting Josephson junctions is believed to be an effective way to achieve high-power emissions.

2. Preparation of mesas

Single crystals of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 were grown using the TS-FZ method [33

33. T. Mochiku and K. Kadowaki, “Growth and properties of Bi2Sr2(Ca,Y)Cu2O8+δ single crystals,” Physica C 235–240, 523 (1994). [CrossRef]

]. The crystals were annealed under a reduced atmosphere in order to adjust the doping level to a slightly underdoped state, including a reduced T c of 75–90 K and a sharp upturn behavior in the temperature dependence of the resistance above T c. A piece of single crystal of a size (approximately 1.0 × 1.0 mm2) sufficient for fabricating several mesas on an atomically flat surface was obtained through cleaving using Scotch tape. The crystal was glued onto a sapphire substrate using a PIX (HD Micro Systems, Ltd.) resin, and was then dried at a temperature of 353 K for 10 min. Rectangular-shaped mesas 400 μm long, 40–100 μm wide, and 0.7–2.1 μm thick were fabricated using an argon ion milling technique as previously reported [18

18. L. Ozyuzer, A. E. Koshelev, C. Kurter, N. Gopalsami, Q. Li, M. Tachiki, K. Kadowaki, T. Yamamoto, H. Minami, H. Yamaguchi, T. Tachiki, K. E. Gray, W.-K. Kwok, and U. Welp, “Emission of coherent THz radiation from superconductors,” Science 318(5854), 1291–1293 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,19

19. K. Kadowaki, H. Yamaguchi, K. Kawamata, T. Yamamoto, H. Minami, I. Kakeya, U. Welp, L. Ozyuzer, A. Koshelev, C. Kurter, K. E. Gray, and W.-K. Kwok, “Direct observation of terahertz electromagnetic waves emitted from intrinsic Josephson junctions in single crystalline Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ,” Physica C 468(7-10), 634–639 (2008). [CrossRef]

,24

24. K. Kadowaki, M. Tsujimoto, K. Yamaki, T. Yamamoto, T. Kashiwagi, H. Minami, M. Tachiki, and R. A. Klemm, “Evidence for dual-source mechanism of THz radiation from rectangular mesa of single crystalline Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ intrinsic Josephson junctions,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 79(2), 023703 (2010). [CrossRef]

].

In this paper, the results of two samples, #A with dimensions of w = 80 μm and t = 1.1 μm, and #B with dimensions of w = 80 μm and t = 1.5 μm, are reported. Details of the technique and method used to make the electrical contacts have been described elsewhere [18

18. L. Ozyuzer, A. E. Koshelev, C. Kurter, N. Gopalsami, Q. Li, M. Tachiki, K. Kadowaki, T. Yamamoto, H. Minami, H. Yamaguchi, T. Tachiki, K. E. Gray, W.-K. Kwok, and U. Welp, “Emission of coherent THz radiation from superconductors,” Science 318(5854), 1291–1293 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,19

19. K. Kadowaki, H. Yamaguchi, K. Kawamata, T. Yamamoto, H. Minami, I. Kakeya, U. Welp, L. Ozyuzer, A. Koshelev, C. Kurter, K. E. Gray, and W.-K. Kwok, “Direct observation of terahertz electromagnetic waves emitted from intrinsic Josephson junctions in single crystalline Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ,” Physica C 468(7-10), 634–639 (2008). [CrossRef]

,29

29. M. Tsujimoto, K. Yamaki, T. Yamamoto, H. Minami, and K. Kadowaki, “Terahertz radiation generated from cylindrical mesas of Bi2212,” Physica C 470, S779–S781 (2010). [CrossRef]

]. The shape and dimensions of the mesa were checked using AFM measurements. As a result, it turns out that the fabricated mesas have a trapezoidal shape, with a considerable slope at their edges. The differences in width and length are about 13 μm when measured at both the top and bottom of the mesas, corresponding to 15% and 3% of the total width and length.

Figure 1(a)
Fig. 1 (a) A schematic view of the mesa. Ag and Au are evaporated on top of the mesa, and the electrodes are fabricated on the mesa surface and single crystal substrate. The angles θ 1 and θ 2 are defined as shown in the figure. A current is applied along the c-axis. (b) An optical micrographic image of the mesa is shown inside the yellow oval. The length of the mesa is 400 μm, and its width is 80 μm. (c) The temperature dependence of the resistivity for sample (#A).
shows a schematic view of the sample, where θ 2 is defined as the polar angle from the top of the mesa to the longer side of the rectangular surface (length), and θ 1 is the polar angle from the top of the mesa to the shorter side (width). An optical micrograph of the mesa (sample #A) is also shown in Fig. 1(b).

3. Results and discussions

3.1 R-T measurement

The temperature dependence of the c-axis resistance (R-T) of the mesa (#A) is shown in Fig. 1(c). Sample #A showed a superconducting transition at 80 K with a width of ΔT = 3 K, which was broadened a few times from the original transition width after the mesa fabrication process. The resistance of the mesa at room temperature was 14 Ω and 35 Ω at just above T c. The residual resistance was 3 Ω below T c because of the contact resistance associated with the three-terminal measurement, and the ratio was R (RT)/R (T c) = 0.34 (the residual resistance was subtracted). The corresponding values for sample #B were T c = 89 K, ΔT = 2 K, and R (RT)/R (T c) = 0.57.

3.2 I-V characteristics and detection of emission

3.3 Observation of highly intense emission

3.4 FT-IR measurements

FT-IR spectroscopy measurements were also carried out for both intense and ordinary types of emission, and are shown in Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Emission spectra observed at V = 0.644 V (intense) and 0.667 V (ordinary). The frequencies are 0.49 and 0.43 THz for the ordinary and intense emissions, respectively. The inset shows a magnification of the fundamental frequency. The intensity was normalized against the maximum intensity of each emission type.
. The intensity was normalized by the maximum intensity of each type of emission, as shown in the figure inset. The frequencies are 0.49 and 0.43 THz for the ordinary and intense emissions, respectively.

The difference in the emitted frequency of the two modes may be explained as follows. The frequency of ordinary radiation resonates at the top side of the mesa width. On the other hand, the new intense emission resonates at the bottom side. The percentage of this difference in emitted frequency, 15%, corresponds to the difference in width between the top and bottom of the mesa. As a result, the cavity resonance condition is fulfilled in both cases.

An interesting point is that the full width at half maximum (FWHM) for an ordinary emission of sample #A is about 3 times broader than that of an intense emission; that is, despite both spectra being from the same mesa, their line shapes are different. It seems that the broad FWHM for an ordinary emission may be composed of second lines closely located along the main line. This appears more clearly at the 2nd harmonics line and is a much more broadened line than the one located at the 2nd harmonics line in the intense emission.

The intensity of emission, S (arbitrary unit), is estimated based on the integration of the spectrum area. The value of S ordinary, which is 14.5, is compared with the 81.2 of S intense. Although the peak height intensity is about 12 times greater (19 and 242 in arbitrary unit), the integrated intensity is only 7 times greater. This coincides with the value of the intensity estimated by the bolometer.

3.5 Estimation of radiated power

The total emission power was calculated based on a factor of 0.8 for the Winston cone loss, filter transparency, and window loss, and a calibration factor of 2.19 × 105 [V/W] for the bolometer (Infrared Laboratories Inc. LN-6/C). The directivity of the emission was checked based on angular dependence measurements of the output power as previously reported [24

24. K. Kadowaki, M. Tsujimoto, K. Yamaki, T. Yamamoto, T. Kashiwagi, H. Minami, M. Tachiki, and R. A. Klemm, “Evidence for dual-source mechanism of THz radiation from rectangular mesa of single crystalline Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ intrinsic Josephson junctions,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 79(2), 023703 (2010). [CrossRef]

]. As a result, the total output power of the emission is estimated to be about 30 μW from an 80 mV output signal of the bolometer at 30 K, where θ 1 = 70° and θ 2 = 0°. Improvement of the output power above a factor of 7 was confirmed by both the bolometer output and peak intensity of the FT-IR spectroscopic measurements.

4. Conclusion

Acknowledgments

This work has been performed in close collaboration with Dr. Wai -K. Kwok and his group (especially Dr. U. Welp) at the Argonne National Laboratory. It was supported by the Strategic Initiative (A), Univ. of Tsukuba, and by a Grant-in-Aid for JSPS Fellows. The authors thank Prof. M. Tachiki, Prof. T. Hattori at the University of Tsukuba, Prof. A. Irie at the Utsunomiya University, and Prof. L. Ozyuzer at the Izmir Institute of Technology for helpful discussions. We also thank Prof. Y. Ootuka at the University of Tsukuba for his advice and the use of his photolithography facility.

References and links

1.

R. Kleiner, F. Steinmeyer, G. Kunkel, and P. Müller, “Intrinsic Josephson effects in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 single crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68(15), 2394–2397 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2.

G. Oya, N. Aoyama, A. Irie, S. Kishida, and H. Tokutaka, “Observation of Josephson junctionlike behavior in single-crystal (Bi,Pb)2Sr2CaCu2Oy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31(Part 2, No. 7A), L829–L831 (1992). [CrossRef]

3.

R. Kleiner and P. Müller, “Intrinsic Josephson effects in high-Tc superconductors,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 49(2), 1327–1341 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4.

M. Tachiki, T. Koyama, and S. Takahashi, “Electromagnetic phenomena related to a low-frequency plasma in cuprate superconductors,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 50(10), 7065–7084 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

T. Koyama and M. Tachiki, “Plasma excitation by vortex flow,” Solid State Commun. 96(6), 367–371 (1995). [CrossRef]

6.

M. Tachiki, M. Iizuka, K. Minami, S. Tejima, and H. Nakamura, “Emission of continuous coherent terahertz wave with tunable frequency by intrinsic Josephson junctions,” Phys. Rev. B 71(13), 134515 (2005). [CrossRef]

7.

S. Savel’ev, V. Yampol’skii, A. Rakhmanov, and F. Nori, “Generation of tunable terahertz out-of-plane radiation using Josephson vortices in modulated layered superconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 72(14), 144515 (2005). [CrossRef]

8.

L. N. Bulaevskii and A. E. Koshelev, “Radiation from a single Josephson junction into free space due to Josephson oscillations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(26), 267001 (2006). [CrossRef]

9.

S. Lin and X. Hu, “Possible dynamic state in inductively coupled intrinsic Josephson junctions of layered high-Tc superconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(24), 247006 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

A. E. Koshelev and L. N. Bulaevskii, “Resonant electromagnetic emission from intrinsic Josephson-junction states with laterally modulated Josephson critical current,” Phys. Rev. B 77(1), 014530 (2008). [CrossRef]

11.

A. L. Rakhmanov, S. E. Savel’ev, and F. Nori, “Resonant electromagnetic emission from intrinsic Josephson-junction stacks in a magnetic field,” Phys. Rev. B 79(18), 184504 (2009). [CrossRef]

12.

S. Savel’ev, V. A. Yampol’skii, A. L. Rakhmanov, and F. Nori, “Terahertz Josephson plasma waves in layered superconductors: spectrum, generation, nonlinear and quantum phenomena,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 73(2), 026501 (2010). [CrossRef]

13.

M.-H. Bae, H.-J. Lee, and J.-H. Choi, “Josephson-vortex-flow terahertz emission in layered high-Tc superconducting single crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(2), 027002 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

E. Kume, I. Iguchi, and H. Takahashi, “On-chip spectroscopic detection of terahertz radiation emitted from a quasiparticle-injected nonequilibrium superconductor using a high-Tc Josephson junction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(18), 2809 (1999). [CrossRef]

15.

K. Lee, W. Wang, I. Iguchi, M. Tachiki, K. Hirata, and T. Mochiku, “Josephson plasma emission from Bi2Sr2CaCu2Oy intrinsic junctions due to quasiparticle injection,” Phys. Rev. B 61(5), 3616–3619 (2000). [CrossRef]

16.

I. E. Batov, X. Y. Jin, S. V. Shitov, Y. Koval, P. Müller, and A. V. Ustinov, “Detection of 0.5 THz radiation from intrinsic Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 Josephson junctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(26), 262504 (2006). [CrossRef]

17.

V. M. Krasnov, A. Yurgens, D. Winkler, and P. Delsing, “Self-heating in small mesa structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(10), 5578 (2001). [CrossRef]

18.

L. Ozyuzer, A. E. Koshelev, C. Kurter, N. Gopalsami, Q. Li, M. Tachiki, K. Kadowaki, T. Yamamoto, H. Minami, H. Yamaguchi, T. Tachiki, K. E. Gray, W.-K. Kwok, and U. Welp, “Emission of coherent THz radiation from superconductors,” Science 318(5854), 1291–1293 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

19.

K. Kadowaki, H. Yamaguchi, K. Kawamata, T. Yamamoto, H. Minami, I. Kakeya, U. Welp, L. Ozyuzer, A. Koshelev, C. Kurter, K. E. Gray, and W.-K. Kwok, “Direct observation of terahertz electromagnetic waves emitted from intrinsic Josephson junctions in single crystalline Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ,” Physica C 468(7-10), 634–639 (2008). [CrossRef]

20.

H. Minami, N. Orita, T. Koike, T. Yamamoto, and K. Kadowaki, “Continuous and reversible operation of Bi2212 based THz emitters just below Tc,” Physica C 470, S822–S823 (2010). [CrossRef]

21.

H. B. Wang, S. Guénon, J. Yuan, A. Iishi, S. Arisawa, T. Hatano, T. Yamashita, D. Koelle, and R. Kleiner, “Hot spots and waves in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 intrinsic Josephson junction stacks: a study by low temperature scanning laser microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(1), 017006 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

22.

H. B. Wang, S. Guénon, B. Gross, J. Yuan, Z. G. Jiang, Y. Y. Zhong, M. Grünzweig, A. Iishi, P. H. Wu, T. Hatano, D. Koelle, and R. Kleiner, “Coherent terahertz emission of intrinsic Josephson junction stacks in the hot spot regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(5), 057002 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

23.

S. Guenon, M. Grunzweig, B. Gross, J. Yuan, Z. G. Jiang, Y. Y. Zhong, A. Iishi, P. H. Wu, T. Hatano, D. Koelle, H. B. Wang, and R. Kleiner, “Interaction of hot spots and THz waves in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 intrinsic Josephson junction stacks of various geometry,” arXiv:1005.2341v1.

24.

K. Kadowaki, M. Tsujimoto, K. Yamaki, T. Yamamoto, T. Kashiwagi, H. Minami, M. Tachiki, and R. A. Klemm, “Evidence for dual-source mechanism of THz radiation from rectangular mesa of single crystalline Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ intrinsic Josephson junctions,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 79(2), 023703 (2010). [CrossRef]

25.

C. Kurter, K. E. Gray, J. F. Zasadzinski, L. Ozyuzer, A. E. Koshelev, Q. Li, T. Yamamoto, K. Kadowaki, W.-K. Kwok, M. Tachiki, and U. Welp, “Thermal Management in Large Bi2212 Mesas used for Terahertz Sources,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 19(3), 428–431 (2009). [CrossRef]

26.

K. E. Gray, A. E. Koshelev, C. Kurter, K. Kadowaki, T. Yamamoto, H. Minami, H. Yamaguchi, M. Tachiki, W.-K. Kwok, and U. Welp, “Emission of Terahertz Waves from Stacks of Intrinsic Josephson Junctions,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 19(3), 886–890 (2009). [CrossRef]

27.

H. Minami, I. Kakeya, H. Yamaguchi, T. Yamamoto, and K. Kadowaki, “Characteristics of terahertz radiation emitted from the intrinsic Josephson junctions in high-Tc superconductor Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(23), 232511 (2009). [CrossRef]

28.

M. Tsujimoto, K. Yamaki, K. Deguchi, T. Yamamoto, T. Kashiwagi, H. Minami, M. Tachiki, K. Kadowaki, and R. A. Klemm, “Geometrical resonance conditions for THz radiation from the intrinsic Josephson junctions in Bi(2)Sr(2)CaCu(2)O(8+δ).,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(3), 037005 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

29.

M. Tsujimoto, K. Yamaki, T. Yamamoto, H. Minami, and K. Kadowaki, “Terahertz radiation generated from cylindrical mesas of Bi2212,” Physica C 470, S779–S781 (2010). [CrossRef]

30.

K. Yamaki, M. Tsujimoto, T. Yamamoto, H. Minami, and K. Kadowaki, “Magnetic field effects on THz radiation from rectangular shape Bi2212 IJJ’s,” Physica C 470, S804–S805 (2010). [CrossRef]

31.

N. Orita, H. Minami, T. Koike, T. Yamamoto, and K. Kadowaki, “Synchronized operation of two serially connected Bi2212 THz emitters,” Physica C 470, S786–S787 (2010). [CrossRef]

32.

T. Kshiwagi at University of Tsukuba is preparing a manuscript to be called, “Geometrical full-wavelength resonance mode generating terahertz waves from a single crystalline Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ rectangular mesa.”

33.

T. Mochiku and K. Kadowaki, “Growth and properties of Bi2Sr2(Ca,Y)Cu2O8+δ single crystals,” Physica C 235–240, 523 (1994). [CrossRef]

34.

V. R. Misko, S. Savel’ev, A. L. Rakhmanov, and F. Nori, “Nonuniform self-organized dynamical states in superconductors with periodic pinning,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(12), 127004 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

35.

V. R. Misko, S. Savel’ev, A. L. Rakhmanov, and F. Nori, “Negative differential resistivity in superconductors with periodic arrays of pinning sites,” Phys. Rev. B 75(2), 024509 (2007). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(190.4720) Nonlinear optics : Optical nonlinearities of condensed matter
(270.1670) Quantum optics : Coherent optical effects

ToC Category:
Nonlinear Optics

History
Original Manuscript: November 9, 2010
Revised Manuscript: January 30, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: January 31, 2011
Published: February 3, 2011

Citation
Kazuhiro Yamaki, Manabu Tsujimoto, Takashi Yamamoto, Akio Furukawa, Takanari Kashiwagi, Hidetoshi Minami, and Kazuo Kadowaki, "High-power terahertz electromagnetic wave emission from high-Tc superconducting Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ mesa structures," Opt. Express 19, 3193-3201 (2011)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-4-3193


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References

  1. R. Kleiner, F. Steinmeyer, G. Kunkel, and P. Müller, “Intrinsic Josephson effects in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 single crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68(15), 2394–2397 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. G. Oya, N. Aoyama, A. Irie, S. Kishida, and H. Tokutaka, “Observation of Josephson junctionlike behavior in single-crystal (Bi,Pb)2Sr2CaCu2Oy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31(Part 2, No. 7A), L829–L831 (1992). [CrossRef]
  3. R. Kleiner and P. Müller, “Intrinsic Josephson effects in high-Tc superconductors,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 49(2), 1327–1341 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. M. Tachiki, T. Koyama, and S. Takahashi, “Electromagnetic phenomena related to a low-frequency plasma in cuprate superconductors,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 50(10), 7065–7084 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. T. Koyama and M. Tachiki, “Plasma excitation by vortex flow,” Solid State Commun. 96(6), 367–371 (1995). [CrossRef]
  6. M. Tachiki, M. Iizuka, K. Minami, S. Tejima, and H. Nakamura, “Emission of continuous coherent terahertz wave with tunable frequency by intrinsic Josephson junctions,” Phys. Rev. B 71(13), 134515 (2005). [CrossRef]
  7. S. Savel’ev, V. Yampol’skii, A. Rakhmanov, and F. Nori, “Generation of tunable terahertz out-of-plane radiation using Josephson vortices in modulated layered superconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 72(14), 144515 (2005). [CrossRef]
  8. L. N. Bulaevskii and A. E. Koshelev, “Radiation from a single Josephson junction into free space due to Josephson oscillations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(26), 267001 (2006). [CrossRef]
  9. S. Lin and X. Hu, “Possible dynamic state in inductively coupled intrinsic Josephson junctions of layered high-Tc superconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(24), 247006 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. A. E. Koshelev and L. N. Bulaevskii, “Resonant electromagnetic emission from intrinsic Josephson-junction states with laterally modulated Josephson critical current,” Phys. Rev. B 77(1), 014530 (2008). [CrossRef]
  11. A. L. Rakhmanov, S. E. Savel’ev, and F. Nori, “Resonant electromagnetic emission from intrinsic Josephson-junction stacks in a magnetic field,” Phys. Rev. B 79(18), 184504 (2009). [CrossRef]
  12. S. Savel’ev, V. A. Yampol’skii, A. L. Rakhmanov, and F. Nori, “Terahertz Josephson plasma waves in layered superconductors: spectrum, generation, nonlinear and quantum phenomena,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 73(2), 026501 (2010). [CrossRef]
  13. M.-H. Bae, H.-J. Lee, and J.-H. Choi, “Josephson-vortex-flow terahertz emission in layered high-Tc superconducting single crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(2), 027002 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. E. Kume, I. Iguchi, and H. Takahashi, “On-chip spectroscopic detection of terahertz radiation emitted from a quasiparticle-injected nonequilibrium superconductor using a high-Tc Josephson junction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(18), 2809 (1999). [CrossRef]
  15. K. Lee, W. Wang, I. Iguchi, M. Tachiki, K. Hirata, and T. Mochiku, “Josephson plasma emission from Bi2Sr2CaCu2Oy intrinsic junctions due to quasiparticle injection,” Phys. Rev. B 61(5), 3616–3619 (2000). [CrossRef]
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