OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 19, Iss. 4 — Feb. 14, 2011
  • pp: 3218–3225
« Show journal navigation

The metal-clad semiconductor nanoring laser and its scaling properties

Min W. Kim and Pei-Cheng Ku  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 19, Issue 4, pp. 3218-3225 (2011)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.19.003218


View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (927 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

We proposed a metal-clad semiconductor nanoring laser structure that exhibited a superior scaling properties for D/λ0 > 0.5 where D is the device diameter. We theoretically analyzed the metal-cald nanoring laser and compared its scaling properties with two other similar nanolaser structures. We found that the two design parameters, namely the ring width and the ring diameter, enable independent emission wavelength control from device dimension. This property in combination with other desirable features including in-plane out-coupling and monolithic integration make the metal-clad nanoring laser highly attractive for photonic integration.

© 2011 OSA

Introduction

With metal interconnects being a bottleneck for integrated circuits in various aspects such as capacitance and speed, there has been much interest in replacing them with optical interconnects. However, the integration of optoelectronic and electronic components require a coherent light source whose dimensions are comparable to electronic components. Much attention has, therefore, been given recently to reducing the size of such light source to nanoscale dimensions. At first, in order to achieve sub-wavelength nanolasers, focus was on the development of novel geometries, including microdisk cavities [1

1. S. L. McCall, A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, “Whispering-gallery mode microdisk laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(3), 289–292 (1992). [CrossRef]

4

4. T. Baba, “Photonic crystals and microdisk cavities based on GaInAsP-InP system,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3(3), 808–830 (1997). [CrossRef]

], photonic crystals [5

5. J. Topol’ancik, S. Chakravarty, P. Bhattacharya, and S. Chakrabarti, “Electrically injected quantum-dot photonic crystal microcavity light sources,” Opt. Lett. 31(2), 232–234 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], and nanowires [6

6. M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8

8. P. J. Pauzauskie, D. J. Sirbuly, and P. Yang, “Semiconductor nanowire ring resonator laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(14), 143903 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], in order to maximize photon confinement in the smallest possible space. However, as more recently demonstrated, one of the most promising schemes to reduce the physical dimension of a laser seems to be the use of metal. Light penetrates little into the metal layer and can, therefore, be confined in a much tighter space. With the presence of metal, optical modes can take on various shapes: pure surface plasmon, standing-wave hybrid dielectric-plasmonic, and traveling hybrid dielectric-plasmonic. State-of-the-art standing wave hybrid dielectric-plasmonic lasers include bowtie cavity lasers [9

9. N. Yu, E. Cubukcu, L. Diehl, D. Bour, S. Corzine, J. Zhu, G. Höfler, K. B. Crozier, and F. Capasso, “Bowtie plasmonic quantum cascade laser antenna,” Opt. Express 15(20), 13272–13281 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,10

10. S.-W. Chang, and S.-L. Chuang, “Plasmonic nanolaser based on metallic bowtie cavity,” Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), QTuJ5, 2008.

], metal-clad nanopillar and Fabry-Perot lasers [11

11. M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Notzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007). [CrossRef]

,12

12. M. T. Hill, M. Marell, E. S. P. Leong, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, M. Sun, P. J. van Veldhoven, E. J. Geluk, F. Karouta, Y.-S. Oei, R. Nötzel, C.-Z. Ning, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metal-insulator-metal sub-wavelength plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express 17(13), 11107–11112 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], and plasmonic nanowire lasers [13

13. R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Examples of pure surface plasmon nanolasers include spacer-based nanolasers [14

14. M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature 460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], and surface plasmon-enabled sub-wavelength injection laser (SPESIL) [15

15. M. W. Kim, Y.-H. Chen, J. Moore, Y.-K. Wu, L. J. Guo, P. Bhattacharya, and P.-C. Ku, “Subwavelength surface plasmon optical cavity – scaling, amplification and coherence,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(5), 1521–1528 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. In all of the three cases, use of metal increases absorption loss significantly, with pure surface plasmon cavities suffering the greatest metal loss owing to the large overlap between the lasing mode and the metal. By shifting the peak of the electric field away from metal, the hybrid dielectric-plasmonic modes are able to lessen the burden of metal loss. However, the hybrid mode requires a larger laser cavity. Hence the trade-off needs to be understood in order to optimize the semiconductor laser structures while scaling. This paper addresses this need.

2. Proposal of the semiconductor nanoring laser

In this paper, we propose a new type of metal-clad nanolaser structure—semiconductor nanoring laser—that exhibits superior scaling properties and possesses desired features for on-chip integration. The metal-clad semiconductor nanoring laser is expected to preserve the advantages of their metal-free microring laser counterpart while enabling scaling to the sub-wavelength dimension. In addition, the small laser dimension can considerably increase the free-spectral range, allowing single longitudinal operation to be attained without additional feedback structures.

We will present the scaling properties of metal-clad nanoring laser which supports a hybrid dielectric-plasmonic traveling wave optical mode. Due to two degrees of design freedom, ring width and diameter, it will also be shown that metal-clad nanoring laser possesses superior properties of scalability and is highly desirable for integration with electronic components. As a comparison, we will compare the scaling properties of the metal-clad nanoring laser with two other similar nanolaser structures that have been previously proposed, namely metal-clad nanopillar lasers and SPESILs. The cross-sectional view of all three laser structures is shown in Figs. 1(a)
Fig. 1 (a). Side view of the sub-wavelength ring laser. The semiconductor ring is covered with metal everywhere. Hybrid dielectric-plasmonic traveling wave. (b). Side view of the metal-coated pillar laser used in simulations. The semiconductor pillar is covered with metal everywhere. Hybrid dielectric-plasmonic standing wave. (c). Surface plasmon-enhanced sub-wavelength injection laser used in simulations. The top layer is metal sitting in close proximity to quantum well gain medium. Pure surface plasmonic wave.
, 1(b) and 1(c), respectively. The metal-clad nanopillar laser possesses only one design parameter, the pillar diameter, and has hybrid dielectric-plasmonic standing wave optical mode [11

11. M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Notzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007). [CrossRef]

]. Furthermore, nanolasers can exhibit a very low threshold carrier density owing to the highly efficient coupling of spontaneous emission into the lasing modes due to the ultrasmall mode volume [21

21. T. Baba, “Photonic crystal and microdisk cavities based on GaInAsP-InP systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3(3), 808–830 (1997). [CrossRef]

]. Hence, when one compares the nanoring laser against the nanopillar laser, assuming identical Q factor and diameter, the nanoring structure can allow a smaller active region volume, and therefore, can reduce the threshold current or pump power. For example, for nanopillar and nanoring lasers of 1.2-μm diameter, their respective mode volumes are 0.068 μm3 and 0.04 μm3. The SPESIL has pure surface plasmon confinement at the interface between metal and semiconductor [15

15. M. W. Kim, Y.-H. Chen, J. Moore, Y.-K. Wu, L. J. Guo, P. Bhattacharya, and P.-C. Ku, “Subwavelength surface plasmon optical cavity – scaling, amplification and coherence,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(5), 1521–1528 (2009). [CrossRef]

].

3. Theoretical modeling and results

The sub-wavelength nanoring laser can be formed by conformally depositing a metal layer over a semiconductor ring structure. The metal enables tight optical confinement and improves heat conduction of the device, resulting in a device that can be scaled to sub-wavelengths in all three directions. Figures 2(a)
Fig. 2 (a). WGM lateral confinement of sub-wavelength ring laser. (b). Transverse confinement of sub-wavelength ring laser, done via refractive index differences between InP and InGaAs layers. The left side of the graph is the top of the ring and the right side is the InP substrate.
and 2(b) show the calculated lateral and transverse optical modes, respectively. The radial mode profile shows the hybrid nature of dielectric and surface plasmonic confinement as manifested by the electric field profile near the metal-semiconductor interface. The transverse mode is from the conventional dielectric confinement with the active region acting as the waveguide core. Simulations were performed using MEEP, which is a finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulator [22

22. A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, “MEEP: A flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181(3), 687–702 (2010). [CrossRef]

]. Cavity resonant frequencies were calculated using the filter diagonalization method [23

23. V. A. Mandelshtam and H. S. Taylor, “Harmonic inversion of time signals,” J. Chem. Phys . 107(17), 6756–6769 (1997). Erratum, ibid.109(10), 4128 (1998) [CrossRef]

]. For simulations, InGaAs thickness was 400nm and the total height of the ring was 1μm. Gold (Au) was used as the metal of choice. 10nm of silicon nitride with a refractive index of 2 was used as an insulator material to separate the InGaAs active region from the Au. To reach the lasing threshold, the optical gain must overcome all the losses including metal absorption, diffraction, and scattering loss. In our simulations, the scattering loss is simulated by the grid size of the FDTD calculations. The total cavity loss was represented by a cavity Q factor. Because the optical mode propagates parallel to the substrate in this device, the laser output is expected to be primarily from the circumference of the ring via diffraction and scattering losses.

To show that the meta-clad nanoring laser indeed exhibits a superior scaling property, Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Cavity Q factor vs. D/λo for subwavelength ring laser, metal-coated pillar laser and SPESIL. Lines are for visual guidance only.
compares the cavity Q factors versus the device dimension, normalized to the free-space wavelength λ0, for the three metal-clad nanolaser structures—the nanoring, nanopillar, and SPESIL—and the conventional microdisk laser. In SPESILs, the transverse mode is a pure surface plasmon polariton (SPP) mode whose propagation loss is limited by the metal loss rather than by the diffraction loss for a device dimension greater than 0.5λ0. As a result, the cavity Q factor in a SPESIL structure shows a saturation behavior even with an increasing device size for D0 > 0.5 where D is the device diameter. Although the diffraction loss is even larger in this regime as shown by the cavity Q factor of the microdisk laser, the combination of dielectric and metal confinement can considerably increase the cavity Q. This is attributed to better dielectric confinement as a result of the metallic interface which suppresses the diffraction loss. Both metal-clad nanopillar and nanoring lasers show benefits of the hybrid dielectric-plasmon mode. However, owing to one extra design parameter, the nanoring laser shows a superior scaling property compared to the nanopillar laser. In the simulation, lasers of some diameters did not have a resonance at λo. Additionally, as the resonant wavelength is constant, the mode type is not always the lowest order mode. For example, for D/ λo = 1.2, nanopillar laser has a TE mode with m = 4 and n = 2.

In addition to the superior cavity Q behavior for D/λo > 0.5, the metal-clad nanoring laser also possesses the desired features of optoelectronic integration previously mentioned. First, the nanoring laser can be electrically injected from the top by insulating the sidewalls of the ring. The bottom contact can be made from the substrate. The nanoring laser also has an in-plane orientation. It can be epitaxially grown and the output can be easily coupled to an in-plane waveguide. The output coupling will be discussed in more detail later. Furthermore, the ring structure has two design parameters—the ring diameter and width—which allow independent control of the resonance wavelength and cavity Q factor. Figure 4(a)
Fig. 4 (a). Cavity Q factor vs. ring width for 4 different ring diameters. λres = 1μm. (b). Ring width tolerance for FWHM of Q factor in nm for a given ring diameter. Lines are for visual guidance only.
shows how cavity Q factor changes for various ring widths given a ring diameter for the resonance wavelength of 1μm. It can be seen that the cavity Q can be optimized at a different ring width for a given laser dimension. The simultaneous optimization of the cavity Q factor and control of the resonance wavelength is critical for the practical applications of nanolasers. Without such a capability, it will be extremely difficult to fix the output wavelength of a nanolaser due to the large free spectral range that is typical for a nanolaser. According to Fig. 4(a), as the laser dimension becomes larger, the optimal ring width also becomes larger. For example, the optimal ring width for a 700nm diameter laser is 125nm whereas that for a 900nm diameter laser is 200nm. However, as the optimal nanoring laser design below 500nm diameter becomes a nanopillar laser, this trend disappears for smaller devices. Figure 4(b) shows how tolerable a nanoring laser of a given diameter is to non-optimal ring widths. As the ring diameter increases, ring width tolerance for FWHM of cavity Q factor decreases significantly. For ring diameter equal to 700nm, the Q decreases to half of the maximum value within 50nm on either side of the optical ring width. However, as the diameter increases to 1100nm, the tolerance is only 10nm on either side. Therefore, there is a stricter design requirement for a larger diameter sub-wavelength ring laser.

Conventional semiconductor lasers use bulky optics for output coupling into an optical waveguide. An ideal nanolaser must have a nanoscale output coupling scheme so that it can be easily integrated with other nanoscale optoelectronic components. In order to achieve this, an opening in the metal layer at the outer edge of the nanoring cavity can be introduced and an optical waveguide can be inserted from such an opening. To keep the opening as small as possible, the beginning segment of the output waveguide can also be metal-clad to improve confinement. The same output coupling scheme can be used in the nanopillar laser structure too. Inevitably, the output coupling of a nanolaser is going to decrease the cavity Q factor. Figures 5(a)
Fig. 5 (a). Cavity Q factor vs. waveguide width for D/λo = 0.6 and ring width = 150nm. (b). Cavity Q factor vs. waveguide width for D/λo = 0.9 and ring width = 200nm.
and 5(b) show the cavity Q factors of both the nanoring and nanopillar lasers versus the width of the output waveguide. It can be seen that the nanoring laser exhibits a higher cavity Q factor than the nanopillar laser does with output waveguides attached to them for all sizes. In addition, a smaller nanoring laser has a better tolerance to the perturbation created by the presence of a waveguide. This is attributed to the results shown in Fig. 4(b) that a larger nanoring laser has a more stringent design requirement.

As mentioned above, a metal-clad nanolaser exhibits better photon confinement than a microdisk laser does owing to the metal confinement. It is, therefore, important to optimize the metal layer thickness. As shown in Fig. 6(a)
Fig. 6 (a). Cavity Q factor vs. metal thickness for semiconductor (excluding metal thickness) ring diameter = 800nm and ring width = 200nm. Resonance = 1μm. (b). E-field profile with varying metal thickness.
, when the metal layer is too thin, the optical mode cannot be tightly confined inside the semiconductor region, causing more metal absorption and diffraction losses and resulting in a low cavity Q factor. As the metal layer thickness increases, more and more field is confined inside the semiconductor, therefore increasing the cavity Q. Figure 6(b) shows the electric field profiles with 3 different metal layer thicknesses (50nm, 90nm and 200nm). In Fig. 6(b), x = 0 denotes the center of the ring and the semiconductor region is located between x = −200nm and −400nm. Due to the boundary condition and the exponentially decaying electric field profile inside the metal, more electric field lies within the semiconductor for devices with a thicker metal coverage. Furthermore, with a thinner metal thickness such as 50nm, the optical mode is concentrated more toward the inner perimeter of the ring. Because the grid size used in FDTD calculations, 12nm, simulates the surface scattering loss, this causes a higher loss for a ring with a thinner metal thickness.

In fabricating the sub-wavelength nanoring laser, it is critical to form a conformal coverage of the metal on the semiconductor ring structure. If there are sidewalls that are not covered with metal, the field confinement inside the semiconductor will be weakened, resulting in a smaller cavity Q factor. However, with the presence of a deep cylindrical trench in the middle of the ring, much attention must be given to filling the trench completely without forming a pinhole. One potential solution is electrodeposition [24

24. T. P. Moffat, D. Wheeler, M. D. Edelstein, and D. Josell, “Superconformal film growth: mechanism and quantification,” IBM J. Res. Develop. 49(1), 19–36 (2005). [CrossRef]

]. Electrodeposition reduces the metallic cations in the liquid electrolyte to the conducting surface of the substrate. Because liquid-semiconductor interface can be formed conformally, it is expected that the electrodeposition can give us a uniform coating of the metal onto the semiconductor. To initiate the electrodeposition process, the semiconductor nanoring surface must be made conducting. This can be achieved by depositing a few monolayers using electron beam evaporation or atomic layer deposition. Figure 7
Fig. 7 Scanning electron micrograph of a sub-wavelength laser geometry, illustrating uniform metal coverage of a center trench via electrodeposition.
shows a cross sectional view of the nanoring device fabricated using electrodeposition. A seed layer of Au was at first evaporated using electron beam evaporation after which the rest of Au was deposited using electrodeposition. The scanning electron micrograph was taken after milling away half of the ring geometry using focused ion beam (FIB). It shows that the center trench of a sub-wavelength ring laser device can indeed be filled uniformly without forming a pinhole using the combination of electron beam evaporation and electrodeposition.

4. Conclusion

In summary, a metal-clad semiconductor nanoring laser structure was proposed, theoretically analyzed, and compared to two other similar metal-clad nanolaser structures. Each of the nanolasers compared possesses a different metal-confined optical mode. The proposed sub-wavelength nanoring laser, exhibiting a traveling hybrid dielectric-plasmonic mode, was shown to exhibit superior scaling properties for D/λo > 0.5. Moreover, it possessed desired features for photonic integration and scaling—electrical injection, in-plane orientation, independent control of resonance wavelength and laser dimensional, and output coupling. Two design parameters including ring diameter and ring width allow for the optimization of the cavity Q factor to be independent from the control of the resonance wavelength. It was found that a larger nanoring laser requires a more stringent control on the design parameters to achieve the optimal cavity Q. The output coupling of a metal-clad nanolaser was discussed. A nanoscale waveguide inserting into the nanoring and nanopillar lasers was found to be feasible. Finally, we presented a potential fabrication strategy to the metal-clad nanoring cavity by electrodeposition.

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the DARPA/MTO NACHOS Program.

References and links

1.

S. L. McCall, A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, “Whispering-gallery mode microdisk laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(3), 289–292 (1992). [CrossRef]

2.

J. Van Campenhout, P. Rojo Romeo, P. Regreny, C. Seassal, D. Van Thourhout, S. Verstuyft, L. Di Cioccio, J.-M. Fedeli, C. Lagahe, and R. Baets, “Electrically pumped InP-based microdisk lasers integrated with a nanophotonic silicon-on-insulator waveguide circuit,” Opt. Express 15(11), 6744–6749 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3.

Z. Zhang, L. Yang, V. Liu, T. Hong, K. Vahala, and A. Scherer, “Visible submicron microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 111119 (2007). [CrossRef]

4.

T. Baba, “Photonic crystals and microdisk cavities based on GaInAsP-InP system,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3(3), 808–830 (1997). [CrossRef]

5.

J. Topol’ancik, S. Chakravarty, P. Bhattacharya, and S. Chakrabarti, “Electrically injected quantum-dot photonic crystal microcavity light sources,” Opt. Lett. 31(2), 232–234 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

J. C. Johnson, H. J. Choi, K. P. Knutsen, R. D. Schaller, P. D. Yang, and R. J. Saykally, “Single gallium nitride nanowire lasers,” Nat. Mater. 1(2), 106–110 (2002). [CrossRef]

8.

P. J. Pauzauskie, D. J. Sirbuly, and P. Yang, “Semiconductor nanowire ring resonator laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(14), 143903 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

N. Yu, E. Cubukcu, L. Diehl, D. Bour, S. Corzine, J. Zhu, G. Höfler, K. B. Crozier, and F. Capasso, “Bowtie plasmonic quantum cascade laser antenna,” Opt. Express 15(20), 13272–13281 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

S.-W. Chang, and S.-L. Chuang, “Plasmonic nanolaser based on metallic bowtie cavity,” Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), QTuJ5, 2008.

11.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Notzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007). [CrossRef]

12.

M. T. Hill, M. Marell, E. S. P. Leong, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, M. Sun, P. J. van Veldhoven, E. J. Geluk, F. Karouta, Y.-S. Oei, R. Nötzel, C.-Z. Ning, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metal-insulator-metal sub-wavelength plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express 17(13), 11107–11112 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature 460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15.

M. W. Kim, Y.-H. Chen, J. Moore, Y.-K. Wu, L. J. Guo, P. Bhattacharya, and P.-C. Ku, “Subwavelength surface plasmon optical cavity – scaling, amplification and coherence,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(5), 1521–1528 (2009). [CrossRef]

16.

D. R. Scifres, R. D. Burnham, and W. Streifer, “Grating-coupled GaAs single heterostructure ring laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 28(11), 681 (1976). [CrossRef]

17.

N. Matsumoto and K. Kumabe, “AlGaAs-GaAs Semiconductor Ring Laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 16(8), 1395–1398 (1977). [CrossRef]

18.

G. Sorel, G. Giuliani, A. Scire, R. Miglierina, S. Donati, P. J. R. Laybourn, M Giuliani, A Scire, R Miglieria, S Donati, and P. J. R Laybourn, “Operating regimes of GaAs-AlGaAs semiconductor ring lasers: Experiment and model,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39(10), 1187–1195 (2003). [CrossRef]

19.

L. Gelens, S. Beri, G. Van der Sande, G. Mezosi, M. Sorel, J. Danckaert, and G. Verschaffelt, “Exploring multistability in semiconductor ring lasers: theory and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(19), 193904 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

20.

W. Coomans, S. Beri, G. Van der Sande, L. Gelens, and J. Danckaert, “Optical injection in semiconductor ring lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 81(3), 033802 (2010). [CrossRef]

21.

T. Baba, “Photonic crystal and microdisk cavities based on GaInAsP-InP systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3(3), 808–830 (1997). [CrossRef]

22.

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, “MEEP: A flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181(3), 687–702 (2010). [CrossRef]

23.

V. A. Mandelshtam and H. S. Taylor, “Harmonic inversion of time signals,” J. Chem. Phys . 107(17), 6756–6769 (1997). Erratum, ibid.109(10), 4128 (1998) [CrossRef]

24.

T. P. Moffat, D. Wheeler, M. D. Edelstein, and D. Josell, “Superconformal film growth: mechanism and quantification,” IBM J. Res. Develop. 49(1), 19–36 (2005). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(250.0250) Optoelectronics : Optoelectronics
(250.5960) Optoelectronics : Semiconductor lasers

ToC Category:
Optoelectronics

History
Original Manuscript: December 3, 2010
Revised Manuscript: January 9, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: January 23, 2011
Published: February 3, 2011

Citation
Min W. Kim and Pei-Cheng Ku, "The metal-clad semiconductor nanoring laser and its scaling properties," Opt. Express 19, 3218-3225 (2011)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-4-3218


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. S. L. McCall, A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, “Whispering-gallery mode microdisk laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(3), 289–292 (1992). [CrossRef]
  2. J. Van Campenhout, P. Rojo Romeo, P. Regreny, C. Seassal, D. Van Thourhout, S. Verstuyft, L. Di Cioccio, J.-M. Fedeli, C. Lagahe, and R. Baets, “Electrically pumped InP-based microdisk lasers integrated with a nanophotonic silicon-on-insulator waveguide circuit,” Opt. Express 15(11), 6744–6749 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. Z. Zhang, L. Yang, V. Liu, T. Hong, K. Vahala, and A. Scherer, “Visible submicron microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 111119 (2007). [CrossRef]
  4. T. Baba, “Photonic crystals and microdisk cavities based on GaInAsP-InP system,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3(3), 808–830 (1997). [CrossRef]
  5. J. Topol’ancik, S. Chakravarty, P. Bhattacharya, and S. Chakrabarti, “Electrically injected quantum-dot photonic crystal microcavity light sources,” Opt. Lett. 31(2), 232–234 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. C. Johnson, H. J. Choi, K. P. Knutsen, R. D. Schaller, P. D. Yang, and R. J. Saykally, “Single gallium nitride nanowire lasers,” Nat. Mater. 1(2), 106–110 (2002). [CrossRef]
  8. P. J. Pauzauskie, D. J. Sirbuly, and P. Yang, “Semiconductor nanowire ring resonator laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(14), 143903 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. N. Yu, E. Cubukcu, L. Diehl, D. Bour, S. Corzine, J. Zhu, G. Höfler, K. B. Crozier, and F. Capasso, “Bowtie plasmonic quantum cascade laser antenna,” Opt. Express 15(20), 13272–13281 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. S.-W. Chang, and S.-L. Chuang, “Plasmonic nanolaser based on metallic bowtie cavity,” Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), QTuJ5, 2008.
  11. M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Notzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007). [CrossRef]
  12. M. T. Hill, M. Marell, E. S. P. Leong, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, M. Sun, P. J. van Veldhoven, E. J. Geluk, F. Karouta, Y.-S. Oei, R. Nötzel, C.-Z. Ning, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metal-insulator-metal sub-wavelength plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express 17(13), 11107–11112 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature 460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. M. W. Kim, Y.-H. Chen, J. Moore, Y.-K. Wu, L. J. Guo, P. Bhattacharya, and P.-C. Ku, “Subwavelength surface plasmon optical cavity – scaling, amplification and coherence,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(5), 1521–1528 (2009). [CrossRef]
  16. D. R. Scifres, R. D. Burnham, and W. Streifer, “Grating-coupled GaAs single heterostructure ring laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 28(11), 681 (1976). [CrossRef]
  17. N. Matsumoto and K. Kumabe, “AlGaAs-GaAs Semiconductor Ring Laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 16(8), 1395–1398 (1977). [CrossRef]
  18. G. Sorel, G. Giuliani, A. Scire, R. Miglierina, S. Donati, P. J. R. Laybourn, M Giuliani, A Scire, R Miglieria, S Donati, and P. J. R Laybourn, “Operating regimes of GaAs-AlGaAs semiconductor ring lasers: Experiment and model,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39(10), 1187–1195 (2003). [CrossRef]
  19. L. Gelens, S. Beri, G. Van der Sande, G. Mezosi, M. Sorel, J. Danckaert, and G. Verschaffelt, “Exploring multistability in semiconductor ring lasers: theory and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(19), 193904 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. W. Coomans, S. Beri, G. Van der Sande, L. Gelens, and J. Danckaert, “Optical injection in semiconductor ring lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 81(3), 033802 (2010). [CrossRef]
  21. T. Baba, “Photonic crystal and microdisk cavities based on GaInAsP-InP systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3(3), 808–830 (1997). [CrossRef]
  22. A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, “MEEP: A flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181(3), 687–702 (2010). [CrossRef]
  23. V. A. Mandelshtam and H. S. Taylor, “Harmonic inversion of time signals,” J. Chem. Phys . 107(17), 6756–6769 (1997). Erratum, ibid.109(10), 4128 (1998) [CrossRef]
  24. T. P. Moffat, D. Wheeler, M. D. Edelstein, and D. Josell, “Superconformal film growth: mechanism and quantification,” IBM J. Res. Develop. 49(1), 19–36 (2005). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited