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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 19, Iss. 4 — Feb. 14, 2011
  • pp: 3251–3257
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Plasmon-induced transparency with detuned ultracompact Fabry-Perot resonators in integrated plasmonic devices

Zhanghua Han and Sergey I. Bozhevolnyi  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 19, Issue 4, pp. 3251-3257 (2011)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.19.003251


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Abstract

We demonstrate the realization of on-chip plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in integrated plasmonic devices using detuned Fabry-Perot resonators aperture-side-coupled to a metal-insulator-metal (MIM) waveguide, with the transmission peak occurring at the intermediate wavelength. Strong MIM mode confinement along with localized side-coupling allows one to realize subwavelength photonic components with EIT-like transmission. Numerical results show that MIM components exhibiting pronounced EIT-like spectra in near infrared with the footprint of < 0.15 μm2 and group index of ~26 can be designed.

© 2011 OSA

1. Introduction

The quantum phenomenon of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) has been a subject of intensive investigations in recent years due to the EIT-associated features of strong dispersion and slow-light propagation within the transparency (spectral) window [1

1. K.-J. Boller, A. Imamolu, and S. Harris, “Observation of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66(20), 2593–2596 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], promising a variety of potential applications, e.g. in nonlinear mixing and optical storage. However, there are several specific and strict restrictions on the realization of the original EIT (based on the quantum interference of atomic resonances), making the experimental realization of it rather challenging. Recently, a number of classical configurations have been suggested for the realization of EIT-like transmission under less demanding experimental conditions, including coupled dielectric resonators [2

2. D. D. Smith, H. Chang, K. A. Fuller, A. T. Rosenberger, and R. W. Boyd, “Coupled resonator induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. A 69(6), 063804 (2004). [CrossRef]

,3

3. Q. Xu, S. Sandhu, M. L. Povinelli, J. Shakya, S. Fan, and M. Lipson, “Experimental realization of an on-chip all-optical analogue to electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(12), 123901 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], metamaterial-induced transparency [4

4. S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, Y. Wang, M. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(4), 047401 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,5

5. N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sönnichsen, and H. Giessen, “Planar metamaterial analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency for plasmonic sensing,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1103–1107 (2010). [CrossRef]

] and phase-coupled plasmon-induced transparency [6

6. R. D. Kekatpure, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, and M. L. Brongersma, “Phase-coupled plasmon induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(24), 243902 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Among these approaches, on-chip photonic analogues of EIT in integrated photonic circuits are of special interest because potential EIT applications can be realized with guided optical devices, introducing novel functionalities into optical integrated circuits. Experimental waveguide-based realization of EIT-like transmission was reported using coupled Si ring resonators, featuring however quite large footprints of hundreds of square microns [3

3. Q. Xu, S. Sandhu, M. L. Povinelli, J. Shakya, S. Fan, and M. Lipson, “Experimental realization of an on-chip all-optical analogue to electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(12), 123901 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Plasmonic devices are more promising in constructing structures with smaller sizes because of their inherent property of strong field confinement. Two metal stripes (different in length) on top of a Si waveguide were suggested to be used as phase-coupled surface plasmon resonators that would ensure EIT-like transmission, resulting in considerably smaller footprints of ~μm2 [6

6. R. D. Kekatpure, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, and M. L. Brongersma, “Phase-coupled plasmon induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(24), 243902 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

It should be noted that the phenomenon of EIT can be considered using two alternative ways: as resulting from the destructive interference between two pathways involving the bare, dipole-allowed and metastable, states or, equivalently, the doublet of dressed states (created by the strong pump radiation) representing two closely spaced resonances decaying to the same continuum [1

1. K.-J. Boller, A. Imamolu, and S. Harris, “Observation of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66(20), 2593–2596 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,7

7. M. Fleischhauer, A. Imamoglu, and J. P. Marangos, “Electromagnetically induced transparency: Optics in coherent media,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 77(2), 633–673 (2005). [CrossRef]

]. While these two physical pictures are equivalent when dealing with the EIT in atomic systems, their realization with classical systems, whose responses are determined by their configurations and not electromagnetically induced as in the EIT, depends on the EIT mechanism that is imitated [8

8. S. I. Bozhevolnyi, A. B. Evlyukhin, A. Pors, M. G. Nielsen, M. Willatzen, and O. Albrektsen, “Optical transparency by detuned electrical dipoles,” N. J. Phys. in press.

]. The first (bare-state) picture suggests employing radiative (coupled to a bus waveguide) and subradiant (not coupled to the waveguide) resonators that are mutually coupled by being closely placed [2

2. D. D. Smith, H. Chang, K. A. Fuller, A. T. Rosenberger, and R. W. Boyd, “Coupled resonator induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. A 69(6), 063804 (2004). [CrossRef]

]. Alternatively viewed, the EIT is achieved due to the cancelation of opposite contributions from two detuned resonances, which are equally spaced but with opposite signs of detuning from the probe frequency (with the detuning being close to the resonance linewidth), due to the Fano-like interference of the decay channels [7

7. M. Fleischhauer, A. Imamoglu, and J. P. Marangos, “Electromagnetically induced transparency: Optics in coherent media,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 77(2), 633–673 (2005). [CrossRef]

]. Consequently, the second (dressed-state) picture suggests using detuned resonators that are both coupled to a bus waveguide [3

3. Q. Xu, S. Sandhu, M. L. Povinelli, J. Shakya, S. Fan, and M. Lipson, “Experimental realization of an on-chip all-optical analogue to electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(12), 123901 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 6

6. R. D. Kekatpure, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, and M. L. Brongersma, “Phase-coupled plasmon induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(24), 243902 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. In the latter realizations, however, the two detuned resonators were separated by an integer number of mode wavelengths because of the design constraints [3

3. Q. Xu, S. Sandhu, M. L. Povinelli, J. Shakya, S. Fan, and M. Lipson, “Experimental realization of an on-chip all-optical analogue to electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(12), 123901 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 6

6. R. D. Kekatpure, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, and M. L. Brongersma, “Phase-coupled plasmon induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(24), 243902 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], but such a separation is, in principle, not required for realization of EIT-like behavior.

2. Aperture-coupled Fabry-Perot resonators in MIM waveguides

In this paper, we demonstrate that on-chip EIT-like transmission can be realized with detuned aperture-side-coupled Fabry-Perot resonators (FPRs) in MIM waveguides. MIM waveguides utilize gap surface plasmons allowing extremely tight mode confinement with moderate propagation loss [9

9. S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Effective-index modeling of channel plasmon polaritons,” Opt. Express 14(20), 9467–9476 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-20-9467. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], and are thereby especially suitable for deep subwavelength photonic integration. Various plasmonic waveguides of the MIM type have been experimentally investigated, including V-groove channel plasmon-polariton waveguides [10

10. S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and plasmonic slot waveguides [11

11. Z. Han, A. Y. Elezzabi, and V. Van, “Experimental realization of subwavelength plasmonic slot waveguides on a silicon platform,” Opt. Lett. 35(4), 502–504 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. When MIM waveguides are terminated within a metal background, the reflectivity at the end is quite high (≈1) due to the small skin depth of metals in optical regime, which makes MIM waveguides ideal candidates for FPRs. FPRs with ultra-compact lateral dimension and ultra-short lengths can then be constructed, which lead to FPRs with ultra-small footprints. The length of the FPRs can be estimated with the following equation:
Re(kMIM)L=mπ
(1)
where Re(kMIM)is real part of the propagation constant kMIMof the gap surface plasmon mode in the MIM waveguide, L is the length of the FPR and m is an integer, which is the resonance mode order of the FPR. When the width of the MIM waveguide is not too small, kMIMcan be further approximated as [12

12. S. I. Bozhevolnyi and J. Jung, “Scaling for gap plasmon based waveguides,” Opt. Express 16(4), 2676–2679 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-4-2676. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]:
kMIM=k0εd+2εdεdεmk0w(εm)
(2)
in which ko is the optical wave vector in vacuum, w is the width of the MIM waveguide and εm and εd are the dielectric constants of the metal and insulator respectively.

We start with the consideration of individual MIM-based FPRs utilizing the lowest cavity mode supported in the FPR, i.e. m = 1 in Eq [1

1. K.-J. Boller, A. Imamolu, and S. Harris, “Observation of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66(20), 2593–2596 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The upper inset in Fig. 1(a)
Fig. 1 Transmission and reflection spectra for an aperture-coupled FPR with length L being 300nm (a) and 600nm (b); In both figures, upper Inset is the schematic figure of the structure and lower inset shows magnetic field at resonance.
shows the schematic figure for the aperture-coupled FPR, where the background material in yellow is silver, whose permittivity is described by the Drude modelεr=εωp2/(ω2+jγω), with ε = 3.7, ωp = 9.1eV and γ = 0.018eV (parameters obtained by fitting the experimental data [15

15. P. Johnson and R. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972). [CrossRef]

] at the infrared frequencies). The insulator index is assumed to be 1.45 and the width w for both the bus waveguide and the FPR is 100nm. The gap g between the waveguide and the resonator is 50nm, which allows one to easily make the structure with state-of-the art nanofabrication facilities, and this value is assumed to be constant throughout this paper. Note that the magnetic field in the lowest mode is anti-symmetric along the central plane of the FPR, while the magnetic field into the FPR due to the aperture is symmetric. In order to excite this mode, one has to shift the aperture (over a distance s) away from the FPR center. The finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method with fast Fourier transform is used to obtain the spectral response of the FPR. The transmission and reflection spectra, when the FPR length L is 300nm and the aperture (width d = 60nm) is 50nm away from the center of the FPR, are shown in Fig. 1(a). One can see that a strong resonance appears at the wavelength around 1.089μm with a high transmission extinction ratio (≈20dB). The quality factor at the resonant wavelength is not quite large due to the intrinsic loss in the FPR, as well as the fast decaying rate of power from the FPR to the bus waveguide. The latter can be simply adjusted by changing the aperture width d. Note that the transmission spectrum suffers from a much lower extinction ratio in this spectral range when there is no aperture (d = 0) and the gap g is 50nm because of the weak evanescent coupling. The magnetic field in the structure at the resonance is shown as the lower inset in Fig. 1(a), from which we can see that a strong cavity mode with one magnetic field node is formed in the FPR.

For the resonance wavelength of 1.089μm, with Eq [2

2. D. D. Smith, H. Chang, K. A. Fuller, A. T. Rosenberger, and R. W. Boyd, “Coupled resonator induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. A 69(6), 063804 (2004). [CrossRef]

]. we can calculate the FPR length and find it to be 311nm, which is quite close to the value of 300nm that we use in the FDTD simulation. The small discrepancy can be attributed to the difference between the approximation of kMIMand its exact value for the gap width of 100nm, the additional phase introduced by the aperture which is not taken into account in Eq [1

1. K.-J. Boller, A. Imamolu, and S. Harris, “Observation of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66(20), 2593–2596 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], as well as some numerical errors in the FDTD simulations. However, we note that Eq [1

1. K.-J. Boller, A. Imamolu, and S. Harris, “Observation of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66(20), 2593–2596 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. can still provide a good estimation of the FPR length and thus can be used to roughly design the FPR. We can also use the 2nd order FPR mode, whose magnetic field is symmetric along the central plane of FPR and then the aperture can be placed at the center of the resonator. The transmission and reflection spectrums in this case where FPR length is 600nm, and aperture width d = 50nm are shown in Fig. 0.1(b). One can see that comparable results to Fig. 1(a) are achieved and the lower inset of Fig. 1(b) clearly shows the characteristic field distribution of second order mode.

3. Plasmon-induced-transparency with aperture-coupled FPRs

We further found that, when two aperture-coupled FPRs with slightly different resonant frequencies are placed on the opposite side of the bus waveguide, the EIT-like behavior shows up in transmission spectra (Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) EIT-like transmission spectra for two FPRs with L2 equaling to 310nm (solid line), 320nm (dashed line) and L1 being kept as 300nm. Inset is the schematic figure of the structure. (b) Snapshots of the magnetic field when the light at three different wavelengths is incident into the structure in which L1 = 300nm and L2 = 310nm. The black dashed line indicates the incident plane.
). Detuned FPRs (DFPRs) can be realized by choosing different geometrical parameters. Here, for simplicity, we consider DFPRs with different FPR lengths while keeping their width the same. We put the two apertures away with the same distance s from the center of the DFPR [see inset in Fig. 2(a)]. Numerical results, for the DFPR transmission spectra with one FPR length L 1 = 300nm while the length L 2 of the other FPR is 310nm/320nm, are shown in Fig. 2(a). The reflection spectra are omitted here for the sake of clarity. One can see that pronounced EIT-like transmission occurs for both cases, with a high-transmission peak appearing in a wide low-transmission band. The peak transmission is higher than 0.75 when the length deviation between the two FPRs is just 10nm, and increases as the detuning of resonant wavelengths becomes larger. The quality factor for the transmission peak corresponding to L 2 = 310nm is about 60, twice of that for a single aperture-coupled FPR. Although the tradeoff between the quality factor and the peak transmission still exists, both of them can be adjusted by changing the aperture width, which in turn changes the coupling coefficient. Detailed investigations over this topic show that the optimal condition for the EIT-like spectrum is the case when the detuning δ of the two transmission-dip wavelengths from the central wavelength λ01 = λ0δ2 = λ0 + δ) equals to 0.5Γ, where Γ is the width of the transmission dip when there is only one FPR as shown in Fig. 1 with the resonance wavelength around λ0. This criterion can be used as a guideline for the designing of these kinds of devices. It should be noted, that a similar condition of the detuning to be close to the broadening of two resonances is also found in the dressed-state picture of the EIT for atomic media [1

1. K.-J. Boller, A. Imamolu, and S. Harris, “Observation of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66(20), 2593–2596 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,7

7. M. Fleischhauer, A. Imamoglu, and J. P. Marangos, “Electromagnetically induced transparency: Optics in coherent media,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 77(2), 633–673 (2005). [CrossRef]

] as well as in that realized with plasmonic metamaterials based on detuned electrical dipoles [8

8. S. I. Bozhevolnyi, A. B. Evlyukhin, A. Pors, M. G. Nielsen, M. Willatzen, and O. Albrektsen, “Optical transparency by detuned electrical dipoles,” N. J. Phys. in press.

].

4. Conclusion

In summary, we have demonstrated the on-chip plasmonic EIT analogue with well-pronounced EIT-like transmission in integrated plasmonic devices using aperture- coupled DFPRs realized with MIM waveguides. Group indexes of up to 26(25) can be achieved at near-infrared wavelengths with the footprints being less than 0.15μm2 (0.25μm2) for the lowest (2nd order) FPR modes. It is relatively straightforward to employ the same design principle for constructing more sophisticated configurations known from (dielectric-based) photonics, e.g. balanced side-coupled sequences of resonators [17

17. J. B. Khurgin and P. A. Morton, “Tunable wideband optical delay line based on balanced coupled resonator structures,” Opt. Lett. 34(17), 2655–2657 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. We believe that the plasmonic DFPR-based components will find broad applications in nanophotonics and introduce novel functionalities into guided plasmonic circuits, advancing further the subwavelength photonic integration with surface plasmons.

Note added in proof: After submission of our manuscript, we have learned about simulations demonstrating the EIT-like effect of optical transparency achieved in a similar system of side-coupled detuned waveguide-ring resonators [18

18. Y. Zhang, S. Darmawan, L. Y. M. Tobing, T. Mei, and D. H. Zhang, “Coupled resonator-induced transparency in ring-bus-ring Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28(1), 28–36 (2011). [CrossRef]

].

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the Danish Council for Independent Research (FTP-project No. 09-072949 ANAP).

References and links

1.

K.-J. Boller, A. Imamolu, and S. Harris, “Observation of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66(20), 2593–2596 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2.

D. D. Smith, H. Chang, K. A. Fuller, A. T. Rosenberger, and R. W. Boyd, “Coupled resonator induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. A 69(6), 063804 (2004). [CrossRef]

3.

Q. Xu, S. Sandhu, M. L. Povinelli, J. Shakya, S. Fan, and M. Lipson, “Experimental realization of an on-chip all-optical analogue to electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(12), 123901 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4.

S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, Y. Wang, M. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(4), 047401 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sönnichsen, and H. Giessen, “Planar metamaterial analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency for plasmonic sensing,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1103–1107 (2010). [CrossRef]

6.

R. D. Kekatpure, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, and M. L. Brongersma, “Phase-coupled plasmon induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(24), 243902 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

M. Fleischhauer, A. Imamoglu, and J. P. Marangos, “Electromagnetically induced transparency: Optics in coherent media,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 77(2), 633–673 (2005). [CrossRef]

8.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, A. B. Evlyukhin, A. Pors, M. G. Nielsen, M. Willatzen, and O. Albrektsen, “Optical transparency by detuned electrical dipoles,” N. J. Phys. in press.

9.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Effective-index modeling of channel plasmon polaritons,” Opt. Express 14(20), 9467–9476 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-20-9467. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

Z. Han, A. Y. Elezzabi, and V. Van, “Experimental realization of subwavelength plasmonic slot waveguides on a silicon platform,” Opt. Lett. 35(4), 502–504 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi and J. Jung, “Scaling for gap plasmon based waveguides,” Opt. Express 16(4), 2676–2679 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-4-2676. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

Z. Han, “Ultracompact plasmonic racetrack resonators in metal-insulator-metal waveguides,” Photonics and Nanostructures-Fundamentals and Applications 8(3), 172–176 (2010). [CrossRef]

14.

Z. Han, V. Van, W. N. Herman, and P.-T. Ho, “Aperture-coupled MIM plasmonic ring resonators with sub-diffraction modal volumes,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12678–12684 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-15-12678. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15.

P. Johnson and R. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972). [CrossRef]

16.

A. B. Evlyukhin, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, A. Pors, M. G. Nielsen, I. P. Radko, M. Willatzen, and O. Albrektsen, “Detuned electrical dipoles for plasmonic sensing,” Nano Lett. 10(11), 4571–4577 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

17.

J. B. Khurgin and P. A. Morton, “Tunable wideband optical delay line based on balanced coupled resonator structures,” Opt. Lett. 34(17), 2655–2657 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18.

Y. Zhang, S. Darmawan, L. Y. M. Tobing, T. Mei, and D. H. Zhang, “Coupled resonator-induced transparency in ring-bus-ring Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28(1), 28–36 (2011). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(240.6680) Optics at surfaces : Surface plasmons
(160.3918) Materials : Metamaterials

ToC Category:
Optics at Surfaces

History
Original Manuscript: January 10, 2011
Revised Manuscript: January 26, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: January 30, 2011
Published: February 3, 2011

Citation
Zhanghua Han and Sergey I. Bozhevolnyi, "Plasmon-induced transparency with detuned ultracompact Fabry-Perot resonators in integrated plasmonic devices," Opt. Express 19, 3251-3257 (2011)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-4-3251


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References

  1. K.-J. Boller, A. Imamolu, and S. Harris, “Observation of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66(20), 2593–2596 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. D. D. Smith, H. Chang, K. A. Fuller, A. T. Rosenberger, and R. W. Boyd, “Coupled resonator induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. A 69(6), 063804 (2004). [CrossRef]
  3. Q. Xu, S. Sandhu, M. L. Povinelli, J. Shakya, S. Fan, and M. Lipson, “Experimental realization of an on-chip all-optical analogue to electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(12), 123901 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, Y. Wang, M. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(4), 047401 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sönnichsen, and H. Giessen, “Planar metamaterial analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency for plasmonic sensing,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1103–1107 (2010). [CrossRef]
  6. R. D. Kekatpure, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, and M. L. Brongersma, “Phase-coupled plasmon induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(24), 243902 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. Fleischhauer, A. Imamoglu, and J. P. Marangos, “Electromagnetically induced transparency: Optics in coherent media,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 77(2), 633–673 (2005). [CrossRef]
  8. S. I. Bozhevolnyi, A. B. Evlyukhin, A. Pors, M. G. Nielsen, M. Willatzen, and O. Albrektsen, “Optical transparency by detuned electrical dipoles,” N. J. Phys. in press.
  9. S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Effective-index modeling of channel plasmon polaritons,” Opt. Express 14(20), 9467–9476 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-20-9467 . [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. Z. Han, A. Y. Elezzabi, and V. Van, “Experimental realization of subwavelength plasmonic slot waveguides on a silicon platform,” Opt. Lett. 35(4), 502–504 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. S. I. Bozhevolnyi and J. Jung, “Scaling for gap plasmon based waveguides,” Opt. Express 16(4), 2676–2679 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-4-2676 . [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. Z. Han, “Ultracompact plasmonic racetrack resonators in metal-insulator-metal waveguides,” Photonics and Nanostructures-Fundamentals and Applications 8(3), 172–176 (2010). [CrossRef]
  14. Z. Han, V. Van, W. N. Herman, and P.-T. Ho, “Aperture-coupled MIM plasmonic ring resonators with sub-diffraction modal volumes,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12678–12684 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-15-12678 . [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. P. Johnson and R. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972). [CrossRef]
  16. A. B. Evlyukhin, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, A. Pors, M. G. Nielsen, I. P. Radko, M. Willatzen, and O. Albrektsen, “Detuned electrical dipoles for plasmonic sensing,” Nano Lett. 10(11), 4571–4577 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. J. B. Khurgin and P. A. Morton, “Tunable wideband optical delay line based on balanced coupled resonator structures,” Opt. Lett. 34(17), 2655–2657 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. Y. Zhang, S. Darmawan, L. Y. M. Tobing, T. Mei, and D. H. Zhang, “Coupled resonator-induced transparency in ring-bus-ring Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28(1), 28–36 (2011). [CrossRef]

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Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3
 
Fig. 4
 

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