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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 19, Iss. 5 — Feb. 28, 2011
  • pp: 4310–4315
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Fluorescence and phosphorescence properties of new long-lasting phosphor Ba4(Si3O8)2:Eu2+, Dy3+

Yu Gong, Yuhua Wang, Yanqin Li, Xuhui Xu, and Wei Zeng  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 19, Issue 5, pp. 4310-4315 (2011)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.19.004310


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Abstract

A novel long-lasting phosphorescence (LLP) material Ba4(Si3O8)2:Eu2+, Dy3+ with high chemical stability was achieved successfully. Two emission centers (Eu (I) and Eu (II)) were found in Ba4(Si3O8)2 due to the substitution of Eu2+ in different Ba2+ sites. Both Eu (I) and Eu (II) had contribution to the afterglow process, however, the decay rate of Eu (I) was higher than that of Eu (II). Ba3.982(Si3O8)2: 0.008Eu2+, 0.01Dy3+ exhibited a long-lasting phosphorescence whose duration was more than 24 h. Through the analysis of the thermoluminescence (TL) curves, we found that Eu2+ single doped Ba4(Si3O8)2 has a possibility to be a kind of storage phosphor. This work provides a new and efficient candidate for LLP and storage materials.

© 2011 OSA

1. Introduction

Many efforts have been done to make the solar energy more available in recent years. One of the proposals is to use the long-lasting phosphorescence (LLP) materials to absorb and store the sunlight energy in daytime and then emit slowly at night for illumination purposes [1

1. S. Lian, Y. Qi, C. Rong, L. Yu, A. Zhu, D. Yin, and S. Liu, “Effectively Leveraging Solar Energy through Persistent Dual Red Phosphorescence:Preparation, Characterization, and Density Functional Theory Study of Ca2Zn4Ti16O38:Pr3+,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(15), 7196–7204 (2010). [CrossRef]

]. At present, the best LLP materials are still Eu2+ doped alkaline earth aluminate phosphors, e.g. SrAl2O4: Eu2+, Dy3+ (green) and CaAl2O4: Eu2+, Nd3+ (blue) [2

2. T. Matsuzawa, Y. Aoki, N. Takeuchi, and Y. Murayama, “A new long phosphorescent phosphor with high brightness, SrAl2O4: Eu2+, Dy3+,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 143(8), 2670 (1996). [CrossRef]

]. However, the aluminate-base materials have bad water resistance. Moreover, the synthetic process usually needs H3BO3 as a flux and the synthetic temperature of these materials is usually too high (>1400 °C) [2

2. T. Matsuzawa, Y. Aoki, N. Takeuchi, and Y. Murayama, “A new long phosphorescent phosphor with high brightness, SrAl2O4: Eu2+, Dy3+,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 143(8), 2670 (1996). [CrossRef]

], which limits the application of LLP materials.

New applications for LLP materials have been presented lately, such as radiation detection [3

3. M. Kowatari, D. Koyama, Y. Satoh, K. Iinuma, and S. Uchida, “The temperature dependence of luminescence from a long-lasting phosphor exposed to ionizing radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 480(2-3), 431–439 (2002). [CrossRef]

], sensors for structural damage, fracture of materials [4

4. C.-N. Xu, T. Watanabe, M. Akiyama, and X.-G. Zheng, “Direct view of stress distribution in solids by mechanoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(17), 2414–2416 (1999). [CrossRef]

6

6. M. Akiyama, C.-N. Xu, Y. Liu, K. Nonaka, and T. Watanabe, “Influence of Eu, Dy co-doped strontium aluminate composition on mechanoluminescence intensity,” J. Lumin. 97(1), 13–18 (2002). [CrossRef]

] and temperature [7

7. H. Aizawa, T. Katsumata, J. Takahashi, K. Matsunaga, S. Komuro, T. Morikawa, and E. Toba, “Fiber-optic thermometer using afterglow phosphorescence from long duration phosphor,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 5(9), H17–H19 (2002). [CrossRef]

], which requires that the duration of LLP materials is long enough and the host materials of LLP are steadier than aluminate host.

2. Experimental

Ba4(Si3O8)2: Eu2+, Dy3+ were synthesized by a conventional solid–state reaction method. The raw materials were high purity BaCO3,H2SiO3, Eu2O3 (99.99%), Dy2O3 (99.99%). Stoichiometric mixtures of starting materials were homogeneously mixed with ethanol in an agate mortar and ground. Then the samples were sintered in a tube furnace under a reducing atmosphere (N2: H2 = 95:5) for 6 h at 1250 °C. After annealing, the samples were cooled to room temperature in the furnace, and ground again into powder for subsequent use.

The phases of as-prepared phosphor samples were identified by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis (Rigaku D/max-2400/pc with Ni-filter Cu Ka radiation). The photoluminescence (PL) spectra and photoluminescence excitation spectra (PLE) were obtained using FLS920T spectrofluorometer with Xe 900 (450W xenon arc lamp) as the light source. The decay curves were performed by a PR305 Phosphorophotometer after the samples were irradiated by UV light (365nm) for 10 min. Thermoluminescence (TL) curves were measured on an FJ-427A TL meter (Beijing Nuclear Instrument Factory). The samples weights were kept constant (5 mg). Prior to the TL measurements, powder samples were first exposed for 10 min by UV light (365nm), and then heated from room temperature to 400°C with a heating rate of 1°C/s. All the measurements were performed at room temperature except TL spectra.

2. Results and discussion

Figure 1
Fig. 1 XRD patterns of Ba3.992(Si3O8)2: 0.008Eu2+, Ba3.982(Si3O8)2: 0.008Eu2+, 0.01Dy3+ and JCPDS Card No.83-1442.
shows the typical XRD patterns of Ba3.992(Si3O8)2: 0.008Eu2+ and Ba3.982(Si3O8)2: 0.008Eu2+, 0.01Dy3+. All the peaks can be indexed to the phase of Ba4(Si3O8)2 (JCPDS#83-1442). No impurity phase has been observed in any samples, clearly implying that the obtained samples are single phase and the doping of Eu2+ and Dy3+ does not cause any significant change in the host structure.

Figure 2
Fig. 2 The emission spectrum of Ba3.992(Si3O8)2: 0.008Eu2+ and the excitation and the emission spectra of Ba3.982(Si3O8)2: 0.008Eu2+, 0.01Dy3+ (the dot line is the excitation spectrum monitored at 500nm and the dash line is the excitation spectrum monitored at 550 nm; the green lines are the Gaussian profiles).
displays the excitation and emission spectra of Ba3.982(Si3O8)2: 0.008Eu2+, 0.01Dy3+ and Ba3.992(Si3O8)2: 0.008Eu2+. The emission spectra of Eu2+ single doped and Eu2+, Dy3+ co-doped samples are nearly the same, except for that the PL intensity of Eu2+, Dy3+ co-doped sample is a little higher than that of Eu2+ single doped sample. The above describe shows that Dy3+ plays a role of sensitize center. The phosphor reveals an asymmetric emission band centered at 506 nm which can be ascribed to the typical 4f65d1- 4f7 transition of Eu2+. Although the 4f electrons of Eu2+ are not sensitive to their surroundings, the 5d electrons are split by the crystal field. And when the crystal field is weak, the emission band of Eu2+ will exist in the short wavelength [13

13. G. Blasse, and B. C. Grabmaier, Luminescent Materials (Springer, 1994).

]. Two non-equivalent barium ions (Ba (I) and Ba (II)) which can be substituted by Eu2+ exist in Ba4(Si3O8)2. And either non-equivalent barium ion is coordinated by eight oxygen ions. However, the polyhedron around Ba (I) is more distorted than that around Ba (II) [14

14. K.-F. Hesse and F. Liebau, “Crystal chemistry of silica-rich Barium silicates,” Z. Kristallogr. 153(1_2), 3–17 (1980). [CrossRef]

], leading to the crystal field of Eu (I) (substitute Ba (I) site) is much weaker than that of Eu (II) (substitute Ba (II) site) [15

15. B. Henderson, and G. G. Imbush, Optical Spectroscopy of Inorganic Solids (Clarendon, 1989).

]. Based on the above analysis, the asymmetric emission band could be attributed to Eu2+ in different Ba2+ sites, and the emission bands centered at 500 nm and 550nm are due to the Eu (I) and Eu (II) who substitute Ba (I) and Ba (II) sites, respectively, as shown in Fig. 2 (the Gaussian profiles). The excitation spectrum monitored at 550 nm (the dash line) is different from the excitation spectrum excited by 500 nm (the dot line), which also means there could be two distinguishable cation sites in Ba3.982(Si3O8)2.

Figure 3
Fig. 3 Afterglow decay curves of Ba3.992(Si3O8)2: 0.008Eu2+ and Ba3.982(Si3O8)2: 0.008Eu2+, 0.01Dy3+. Inset A: long afterglow photographs of Ba3.982(Si3O8)2: 0.008Eu2+, 0.01Dy3+. Inset B: long afterglow photographs of Ba3.992(Si3O8)2: 0.008Eu2+. The photographs were taken in the darkroom for 1 min after the removal of the 365 nm ultraviolet lamp.
exhibits the afterglow decay curves of Ba3.992(Si3O8)2: 0.008Eu2+ and Ba3.982(Si3O8)2: 0.008Eu2+, 0.01Dy3+. The lasting time of Ba3.992(Si3O8)2: 0.008Eu2+ is only 2 min which leads to the afterglow decay curve seems like a vertical line in Fig. 3. A very significant result from our present work is that by co-doping Dy3+, the lasting time increases largely. The duration of Ba3.982(Si3O8)2: 0.008Eu2+, 0.01Dy3+ is more than 24 h at a recognizable intensity level (≧0.32 mcd/m2), which is comparable for the commercial aluminate phosphors. The afterglow photographs of Ba3.992(Si3O8)2: 0.008Eu2+ and Ba3.982(Si3O8)2: 0.008Eu2+, 0.01Dy3+ are also shown in the inset of Fig. 3. It is obvious that the afterglow of Eu2+, Dy3+ co-doped sample (inset of Fig. 3 A) is much stronger than that of Eu2+ single doped sample(inset of Fig. 3 B), indicating that Dy3+ plays an important role in the afterglow process.

Figure 4
Fig. 4 Phosphorescence spectra of Ba3.982(Si3O8)2: 0.008Eu2+, 0.01Dy3+ measure at different times after the removal of the excitation source (λex = 367nm).
reveals the phosphorescence spectra of Ba3.982(Si3O8)2: 0.008Eu2+, 0.01Dy3+ measured at different time after removing the excitation source. Only the emission peak of Eu2+ is found, which means that during the afterglow process Dy3+ may not serve as the luminescence center in Ba3.982(Si3O8)2: 0.008Eu2+, 0.01Dy3+. As shown in Fig. 4, the emission peak of Eu2+ moves from 506 nm to 522 nm as the delay time increases, which suggests that both Eu (I) and Eu (II) have contribution to the afterglow process, however, the decay rate of Eu (I) (500 nm) is higher than that of Eu (II) (550nm).

The extraordinarily long afterglow could be attributed to the energy exchange processes between traps or traps and emission states [16

16. Y. Lin, Z. Tang, Z. Zhang, and C. W. Nan, “Anomalous luminescence in Sr4Al14O25:Eu, Dy phosphors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(6), 996 (2002). [CrossRef]

]. The information with regard to the trap and trapping level can be obtained by the TL curve. As shown in Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Thermoluminescence glow curves of Ba3.992(Si3O8)2: 0.008Eu2+ (dot line) and Ba3.982(Si3O8)2: 0.008Eu2+, 0.01Dy3+ (solid line) after ceasing the UV irradiation for 1 min. Inset shows the thermoluminescence glow curves of Ba3.992(Si3O8)2: 0.008Eu2+ with different delay times after ceasing the UV irradiation.
(dot line, we use the letter “T” to represent the trap), for Eu2+ single doped sample, at least three kinds of traps exist in the phosphor (T1, T2 and T3) centered at 71, 124 and 250 °C, respectively. Ordinarily, the TL band at somewhere between 70 and 150 °C is suitable for LLP materials to free the trapped carriers slowly by thermal energy at room temperature [17

17. T. Kinoshita, M. Yamazaki, H. Kawazoe, and H. Hosono, “Long lasting phosphorescence and photostimulated luminescence in Tb-ion-activated reduced calcium aluminate glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(7), 3729 (1999). [CrossRef]

,18

18. T. Aitasalo, P. Deren, J. Hölsä, H. Junger, J.-C. Krupa, M. Lastusaari, J. Legendziewicz, J. Niittykoski, and W. Strek, “Persistent luminescence phenomena in materials doped with rare earth ions,” J. Solid State Chem. 171(1-2), 114–122 (2003). [CrossRef]

]. If the TL temperature is above this range, the trap is too deep to free the carries trapped before and it is infaust to the LLP. Consequently, the traps of T1 and T2 are appropriate for LLP, on the contrary, the trap of T3 is harmful for LLP. As discussed above, Dy3+ plays an important role in the afterglow process. By co-doping Dy3+ into the sample, the intensity of the TL bands of T1 and T2 increase largely, however, the TL band of T3 disappears, as displayed in Fig. 5. It indicates that the codopant Dy3+ does not import new traps into the phosphor, however, it aggrandizes the traps which are benefit for the LLP materials and reduces the traps which are deleterious. Nevertheless, from the nowadays data, it is hard to identify whether the traps in the phosphor are the electron traps or the hole traps, which still needs further research.

Another very interesting result from the work is that Eu2+ single doped Ba4(Si3O8)2 phosphor has a possibility to be a candidate for storage phosphor. The storage phosphor needs deep and stable traps which can immobilize the carriers permanently at room temperature and it has already found these phosphors have important applications as photostimulated materials [19

19. S. Schweizer, “Physics and Current Understanding of X-Ray Storage Phosphors,” Phys. Status Solidi A 187(2), 335–393 (2001). [CrossRef]

,20

20. W. Chen, “Luminescence, Storage Mechanisms, and Applications of X-Ray Storage Phosphors.” In Handbook of Luminescence, Display Materials and Devices; H. S. Nalwa, L. S. Rohwer, eds. (American Scientific Publishers, 2003); Vol. 2, pp 1–44.

]. As mentioned before, the duration of Ba4(Si3O8)2: Eu2+ is only 2 min (Fig. 3), which means there should not be any TL peak after ceasing the UV irradiation for 2 min. However, as shown in the inset of Fig. 5, the TL peaks of T1 and T2 still subsist, and the TL peak of T3 does not change at all even after ceasing the UV irradiation for 40 h. The above description suggests that after ceasing the UV irradiation, some of the energy attributed to the recombination of electrons and holes released by T1 and T2 can be transferred to the luminescent center which causes 2 min afterglow, whereas most of the energy are released by non-radiative transition, such as thermal energy. The deep traps in the phosphor are stably existed and cannot release the carriers at room temperature, which are baneful for LLP materials but benefit for the storage phosphor.

4. Conclusion

A new long-lasting phosphor Ba4(Si3O8)2:Eu2+, Dy3+ was synthesized by a solid state reaction. The Eu substituted the Ba (I) and Ba (II) site shows an emission band centered at 500 and 550 nm, respectively. Both Eu (I) and Eu (II) have contribution to the afterglow process, however, the decay rate of Eu (I) is higher than that of Eu (II). The codopant Dy3+ can increase the traps which are benefit for LLP materials and decrease the traps which are deleterious compared with Eu2+ single doped sample. The duration of Eu2+, Dy3+ co-doped Ba4(Si3O8)2 is more than 24 h at a recognizable intensity level (≧0.32 mcd/m2). Eu2+ single doped Ba4(Si3O8)2 has a possibility to be a kind of storage phosphors due to their deep and stable traps which can immobilize the carriers permanently at room temperature.

Acknowledgment

This work is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 10874061), the National Science Foundation for Distinguished Young Scholars (No. 50925206), and the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education (No. 200807300010).

References and links

1.

S. Lian, Y. Qi, C. Rong, L. Yu, A. Zhu, D. Yin, and S. Liu, “Effectively Leveraging Solar Energy through Persistent Dual Red Phosphorescence:Preparation, Characterization, and Density Functional Theory Study of Ca2Zn4Ti16O38:Pr3+,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(15), 7196–7204 (2010). [CrossRef]

2.

T. Matsuzawa, Y. Aoki, N. Takeuchi, and Y. Murayama, “A new long phosphorescent phosphor with high brightness, SrAl2O4: Eu2+, Dy3+,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 143(8), 2670 (1996). [CrossRef]

3.

M. Kowatari, D. Koyama, Y. Satoh, K. Iinuma, and S. Uchida, “The temperature dependence of luminescence from a long-lasting phosphor exposed to ionizing radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 480(2-3), 431–439 (2002). [CrossRef]

4.

C.-N. Xu, T. Watanabe, M. Akiyama, and X.-G. Zheng, “Direct view of stress distribution in solids by mechanoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(17), 2414–2416 (1999). [CrossRef]

5.

C.-N. Xu, X.-G. Zheng, M. Akiyama, K. Nonaka, and T. Watanabe, “Dynamic visualization of stress distribution by mechanoluminescence image,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(2), 179–181 (2000). [CrossRef]

6.

M. Akiyama, C.-N. Xu, Y. Liu, K. Nonaka, and T. Watanabe, “Influence of Eu, Dy co-doped strontium aluminate composition on mechanoluminescence intensity,” J. Lumin. 97(1), 13–18 (2002). [CrossRef]

7.

H. Aizawa, T. Katsumata, J. Takahashi, K. Matsunaga, S. Komuro, T. Morikawa, and E. Toba, “Fiber-optic thermometer using afterglow phosphorescence from long duration phosphor,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 5(9), H17–H19 (2002). [CrossRef]

8.

T. L. Barry, “Fluorescence of Eu2+ activated phase in binary alkaline earth orthosilicate systems,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 115(11), 1181 (1968). [CrossRef]

9.

Y. Lin, Z. Tang, Z. Zhang, X. Wang, and J. Zhang, “Preparation of a new long afterglow blue-emitting Sr2MgSi2O7-based photoluminescent phosphor,” J. Mater. Sci. Lett. 20(16), 1505–1506 (2001). [CrossRef]

10.

Y. Lin, Z. Zhang, Z. Tang, X. Wang, and Z. Zheng, “Luminescent properties of a new long afterglow Eu2+ and Dy3+ activated Ca3MgSi2O8 phospho,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 21(5), 683–685 (2001). [CrossRef]

11.

C. Shi, Y. Fu, B. Liu, G. Zhang, Y. Chen, Z. Qi, and X. Luo, “The roles of Eu2+ and Dy3+ in the blue long-lasting phosphor Sr2MgSi2O7: Eu2+, Dy3+,” J. Lumin. 122–123, 11–13 (2007). [CrossRef]

12.

L. Jiang, C. Chang, D. Mao, and C. Feng, “Luminescent properties of Ca2MgSi2O7 phosphor activated by Eu2+, Dy3+ and Nd3+,” Opt. Mater. 27(1), 51–55 (2004). [CrossRef]

13.

G. Blasse, and B. C. Grabmaier, Luminescent Materials (Springer, 1994).

14.

K.-F. Hesse and F. Liebau, “Crystal chemistry of silica-rich Barium silicates,” Z. Kristallogr. 153(1_2), 3–17 (1980). [CrossRef]

15.

B. Henderson, and G. G. Imbush, Optical Spectroscopy of Inorganic Solids (Clarendon, 1989).

16.

Y. Lin, Z. Tang, Z. Zhang, and C. W. Nan, “Anomalous luminescence in Sr4Al14O25:Eu, Dy phosphors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(6), 996 (2002). [CrossRef]

17.

T. Kinoshita, M. Yamazaki, H. Kawazoe, and H. Hosono, “Long lasting phosphorescence and photostimulated luminescence in Tb-ion-activated reduced calcium aluminate glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(7), 3729 (1999). [CrossRef]

18.

T. Aitasalo, P. Deren, J. Hölsä, H. Junger, J.-C. Krupa, M. Lastusaari, J. Legendziewicz, J. Niittykoski, and W. Strek, “Persistent luminescence phenomena in materials doped with rare earth ions,” J. Solid State Chem. 171(1-2), 114–122 (2003). [CrossRef]

19.

S. Schweizer, “Physics and Current Understanding of X-Ray Storage Phosphors,” Phys. Status Solidi A 187(2), 335–393 (2001). [CrossRef]

20.

W. Chen, “Luminescence, Storage Mechanisms, and Applications of X-Ray Storage Phosphors.” In Handbook of Luminescence, Display Materials and Devices; H. S. Nalwa, L. S. Rohwer, eds. (American Scientific Publishers, 2003); Vol. 2, pp 1–44.

OCIS Codes
(160.4670) Materials : Optical materials
(160.4760) Materials : Optical properties
(250.5230) Optoelectronics : Photoluminescence

ToC Category:
Materials

History
Original Manuscript: December 7, 2010
Revised Manuscript: February 10, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: February 10, 2011
Published: February 18, 2011

Citation
Yu Gong, Yuhua Wang, Yanqin Li, Xuhui Xu, and Wei Zeng, "Fluorescence and phosphorescence properties of new long-lasting phosphor Ba4(Si3O8)2:Eu2+, Dy3+," Opt. Express 19, 4310-4315 (2011)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-5-4310


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References

  1. S. Lian, Y. Qi, C. Rong, L. Yu, A. Zhu, D. Yin, and S. Liu, “Effectively Leveraging Solar Energy through Persistent Dual Red Phosphorescence:Preparation, Characterization, and Density Functional Theory Study of Ca2Zn4Ti16O38:Pr3+,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(15), 7196–7204 (2010). [CrossRef]
  2. T. Matsuzawa, Y. Aoki, N. Takeuchi, and Y. Murayama, “A new long phosphorescent phosphor with high brightness, SrAl2O4: Eu2+, Dy3+,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 143(8), 2670 (1996). [CrossRef]
  3. M. Kowatari, D. Koyama, Y. Satoh, K. Iinuma, and S. Uchida, “The temperature dependence of luminescence from a long-lasting phosphor exposed to ionizing radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 480(2-3), 431–439 (2002). [CrossRef]
  4. C.-N. Xu, T. Watanabe, M. Akiyama, and X.-G. Zheng, “Direct view of stress distribution in solids by mechanoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(17), 2414–2416 (1999). [CrossRef]
  5. C.-N. Xu, X.-G. Zheng, M. Akiyama, K. Nonaka, and T. Watanabe, “Dynamic visualization of stress distribution by mechanoluminescence image,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(2), 179–181 (2000). [CrossRef]
  6. M. Akiyama, C.-N. Xu, Y. Liu, K. Nonaka, and T. Watanabe, “Influence of Eu, Dy co-doped strontium aluminate composition on mechanoluminescence intensity,” J. Lumin. 97(1), 13–18 (2002). [CrossRef]
  7. H. Aizawa, T. Katsumata, J. Takahashi, K. Matsunaga, S. Komuro, T. Morikawa, and E. Toba, “Fiber-optic thermometer using afterglow phosphorescence from long duration phosphor,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 5(9), H17–H19 (2002). [CrossRef]
  8. T. L. Barry, “Fluorescence of Eu2+ activated phase in binary alkaline earth orthosilicate systems,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 115(11), 1181 (1968). [CrossRef]
  9. Y. Lin, Z. Tang, Z. Zhang, X. Wang, and J. Zhang, “Preparation of a new long afterglow blue-emitting Sr2MgSi2O7-based photoluminescent phosphor,” J. Mater. Sci. Lett. 20(16), 1505–1506 (2001). [CrossRef]
  10. Y. Lin, Z. Zhang, Z. Tang, X. Wang, and Z. Zheng, “Luminescent properties of a new long afterglow Eu2+ and Dy3+ activated Ca3MgSi2O8 phospho,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 21(5), 683–685 (2001). [CrossRef]
  11. C. Shi, Y. Fu, B. Liu, G. Zhang, Y. Chen, Z. Qi, and X. Luo, “The roles of Eu2+ and Dy3+ in the blue long-lasting phosphor Sr2MgSi2O7: Eu2+, Dy3+,” J. Lumin. 122–123, 11–13 (2007). [CrossRef]
  12. L. Jiang, C. Chang, D. Mao, and C. Feng, “Luminescent properties of Ca2MgSi2O7 phosphor activated by Eu2+, Dy3+ and Nd3+,” Opt. Mater. 27(1), 51–55 (2004). [CrossRef]
  13. G. Blasse, and B. C. Grabmaier, Luminescent Materials (Springer, 1994).
  14. K.-F. Hesse and F. Liebau, “Crystal chemistry of silica-rich Barium silicates,” Z. Kristallogr. 153(1_2), 3–17 (1980). [CrossRef]
  15. B. Henderson, and G. G. Imbush, Optical Spectroscopy of Inorganic Solids (Clarendon, 1989).
  16. Y. Lin, Z. Tang, Z. Zhang, and C. W. Nan, “Anomalous luminescence in Sr4Al14O25:Eu, Dy phosphors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(6), 996 (2002). [CrossRef]
  17. T. Kinoshita, M. Yamazaki, H. Kawazoe, and H. Hosono, “Long lasting phosphorescence and photostimulated luminescence in Tb-ion-activated reduced calcium aluminate glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(7), 3729 (1999). [CrossRef]
  18. T. Aitasalo, P. Deren, J. Hölsä, H. Junger, J.-C. Krupa, M. Lastusaari, J. Legendziewicz, J. Niittykoski, and W. Strek, “Persistent luminescence phenomena in materials doped with rare earth ions,” J. Solid State Chem. 171(1-2), 114–122 (2003). [CrossRef]
  19. S. Schweizer, “Physics and Current Understanding of X-Ray Storage Phosphors,” Phys. Status Solidi A 187(2), 335–393 (2001). [CrossRef]
  20. W. Chen, “Luminescence, Storage Mechanisms, and Applications of X-Ray Storage Phosphors.” In Handbook of Luminescence, Display Materials and Devices; H. S. Nalwa, L. S. Rohwer, eds. (American Scientific Publishers, 2003); Vol. 2, pp 1–44.

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