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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 19, Iss. 5 — Feb. 28, 2011
  • pp: 4795–4804
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Coupled photonic crystal micro-cavities with ultra-low threshold power for stimulated Raman scattering

Qiang Liu, Zhengbiao Ouyang, and Sacharia Albin  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 19, Issue 5, pp. 4795-4804 (2011)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.19.004795


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Abstract

We propose coupled cavities to realize a strong enhancement of the Raman scattering. Five sub cavities are embedded in the photonic crystals. Simulations through finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method demonstrate that one cavity, which is used to propagate the pump beam at the optical-communication wavelength, has a Q factor as high as 1.254 × 108 and modal volume as small as 0.03μm3 (0.3192(λ/n)3). These parameters result in ultra-small threshold lasing power ~17.7nW and 2.58nW for Stokes and anti-Stokes respectively. The cavities are designed to support the required Stokes and anti-Stokes modal spacing in silicon. The proposed structure has the potential for sensor devices, especially for biological and medical diagnoses.

© 2011 OSA

1. Introduction

Silicon is considered as one of the materials suitable for nano-photonic devices due to on-chip integration and low cost production. Passive silicon devices such as submicron silicon-on-insulator (SOI) waveguides, bends, splitters, and filters have been developed as well as integrated silicon optical modulators which use two-photon absorption (TPA) or the thermo-optic effect [1

1. V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “All-optical control of light on a silicon chip,” Nature 431(7012), 1081–1084 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

A photonic crystal (PC), in analogy to a semiconductor crystal, is a promising platform to build future photonic integrated devices with dimensions on the order of the operating wavelength [2

2. J. D. Joannopoulos, P. R. Villeneuve, and S. Fan, “Photonics crystals: putting a new twist on light,” Nature 386(6621), 143–149 (1997). [CrossRef]

]. PC has unique capability to modify photon interaction with host materials. By introducing crystal defects, one can create photonic defect states inside the bandgap that allows the design of lossless resonators. These so called PC micro-cavities, that are similar to microtoroid or microsphere silica cavities [3

3. S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, and K. J. Vahala, “Ultralow-threshold Raman laser using a spherical dielectric microcavity,” Nature 415(6872), 621–623 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,4

4. T. J. Kippenberg’s PhD thesis, “Nonlinear Optics in Ultra-high-Q Whispering Gallery Mode Micro-cavities” (California Institute of Technology, May 2004), http://www.mpq.mpg.de/k-lab/publications/TJKippenbergThesis.pdf.

], can also be used for the implementation of stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) as proposed in Ref [5

5. X. Yang and C. W. Wong, “Design of photonic band gap nanocavities for stimulated Raman amplification and lasing in monolithic silicon,” Opt. Express 13(12), 4723–4730 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-12-4723. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The lasing threshold of a Raman laser is proportional to the inverse of the quality factors of the pump and the lasing modes. This implies that PC micro-cavity resonators with high quality factors offer strong enhancement for the optical fields with wavelength at and near the localized defect mode, resulting in the potential for the design of ultra low threshold Raman lasers.

This paper analyzes rod-type PC Raman laser on a chip, with ultra-low threshold power of pump for both the Stokes and anti-Stokes lasing. We introduce a new structure for the implementation of SRS on silicon, the so called coupled PC micro-cavities. The structure consists of five micro-cavities based on two dimensional rod-type PC made of monolithic silicon. The coupled resonators have high quality factors and allow lasing at significantly decreased thresholds compared to that in Refs. [3

3. S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, and K. J. Vahala, “Ultralow-threshold Raman laser using a spherical dielectric microcavity,” Nature 415(6872), 621–623 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5

5. X. Yang and C. W. Wong, “Design of photonic band gap nanocavities for stimulated Raman amplification and lasing in monolithic silicon,” Opt. Express 13(12), 4723–4730 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-12-4723. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

In Sec. 2 of the paper, we give the theoretical basis for designing the coupled cavities for Raman lasing. Basic structures, simulation method and main operating parameters are introduced in Sec. 3. We present two designs in Sec. 4 for the system that only emits Stokes radiation while in Sec. 5, two more designs are shown for both Stokes and anti-Stokes radiations.

2. Design concept

The origin of SRS is inelastic scattering of light by optical phonons. Krause et al. [8

8. M. Krause, H. Renner, and E. Brinkmeyer, “Analysis of Raman lasing characteristics in silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Express 12(23), 5703–5710 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-23-5703. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and Perlin et al. [9

9. V. E. Perlin and H. G. Winful, “Stimulated Raman Scattering in nonlinear periodic structures,” Phys. Rev. A 64(4), 043804 (2001). [CrossRef]

] provide a good description of the dynamics in SRS through a set of time-dependent coupled nonlinear equations. The coupled mode theory for SRS in defect cavity lasers provides the conditions necessary for efficient Raman conversion [10

10. X. D. Yang and C. W. Wong, “Coupled-mode theory for stimulated Raman scattering in high-Q/V(m) silicon photonic band gap defect cavity lasers,” Opt. Express 15(8), 4763–4780 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-8-4763. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] that take into account most of the material parameters and cavity losses.

In our simulation, we have used Rsoft’s component design suite: Fullwave [12]. The electric field for excitation of pump or Stokes could be defined as:
Ep,S(r,t)=Pp,SGp,S(r)Tp,S(t)
(2)
where Pp,S, Gp,S, Tp,S are respectively the power (electro-magnetic energy), spatial component and temporal component of the wave, corresponding to pump wave ωp or Stokes waveωS.

Note that
Gp,S(r)=g^(r)eikp,S(rr0)
(3)
where kp,S=np,Sωp,S/c, c is the speed of light in vacuum. r0(x0x^,y0y^,z0z^) is the position for the source. (x^,y^, z^) are the unit vectors along the axis x, y, z direction respectively, in the Cartesian axis system. We also employ the Gaussian form to the source:
g^(r)=g^(xx^,y0y^,zz^)=e(xx0)2a12e(yy0)2b12y^
(4)
where a1 = w/2, b1 = h/2, and w, h are the width and height of the source. Note that w and h are the distance between the points when the Gaussian function attenuates to (1/e) of the maximum.

The temporal component is defined as:
Tp,S(t)=eωp,St
(5)
We have used Eqs. (2)(5) in simulating the electric field profiles of the coupled cavities.

3. Basic structure, simulation method and main operating parameters

In order to enhance Raman lasing or to decrease the threshold power of pump for Raman lasing, we apply resonance enhancement of optical field in PC defect cavities in designing the Raman laser system. Further from Eq. (1), we can see that high quality factors of both the pump and Stokes wave cavities are required to obtain low threshold power of pump for Raman lasing. With these in mind, we configure the structures as shown in Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic of the PC coupled cavities for Raman lasing in silicon. Ports A and B are for the pump, and C and D for Raman scattering waves (output); the cavities marked with yellow and green denote VC-1 and VC-2, respectively. The waveguide cavity is marked with purple.
.

In the system shown in Fig. 1, there are five coupled cavities: the waveguide cavity marked with purple, and the vertical cavities VC-1 and VC-2 marked with yellow and green, respectively. These cavities are coupled together by the dot-cavity at the center of the structure through optical tunneling. The resonance wavelength of the dot-cavity is adjusted by tuning R3 (R1, R2, and R3 represent the radii of rods 1, 2, 3 respectively). In Fig. 1, l1 and l2 are the lengths of the waveguide in vertical cavities VC-1 and VC-2 respectively. Port A and B are for pump, Port C and D are for outputs.

We need to design coupled micro-cavities, which possess high quality factors for the pump laser mode fp, and the Stokes mode fS, as well as for the anti-Stokes mode faS. In the case of silicon, these two modes need to satisfy the condition [5

5. X. Yang and C. W. Wong, “Design of photonic band gap nanocavities for stimulated Raman amplification and lasing in monolithic silicon,” Opt. Express 13(12), 4723–4730 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-12-4723. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,11

11. C. E. B. A. H. Stein’s PhD thesis, “Stimulated Raman Scattering in Silicon Coupled Photonic Crystal Microcavity Arrays” (Universität Karlsruhe, May 2006), http://www.stanford.edu/group/nqp/jv_files/thesis/Benedikt-Thesis-RamanLaserPC-Design.pdf.

]:
Δf=fpfS=15.6THz
(6)
For numerical experiments, we solve the full 2D nonlinear Maxwell’s equations by FDTD method, with perfectly matched layer boundary conditions. The Courant stable condition is satisfied since the mesh sizes in both the x and z directions are set to be a /16, with the time step fixed at 8.33×10−2 fs. In the following simulations, we consider a PC of square lattice consisting of circular rods with a lattice period of a = 575nm and radius 0.2a (except for rods 1, 2, 3 in Fig. 1); the refractive index of the circular rods is n = 3.4, and the refractive index of the background air is nb = 1. Furthermore, only TE-mode operation is considered. In TE-mode operation, the electric vector of the wave is perpendicular to the propagation route of waves in the waveguide and parallel to the axis of poles in the PCs.

In the case of a defect-free uniform PC under the above operating parameters, a standard plane-wave expansion method yields a large bandgap: the light with wavelengths between 2.381a and 3.509a cannot pass through the uniform PCs and thus is completely reflected at the PCs boundary [13

13. N. C. Panoiu, M. Bahl, and R. M. Osgood Jr., “All-optical tunability of a nonlinear photonic crystal channel drop filter,” Opt. Express 12(8), 1605–1610 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-8-1605. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Since the pump and Raman scattering waves should be confined to propagate in the waveguide, the wavelengths of the pump and Raman scattering waves should be chosen to be within the bandgap of the PCs.

Finally, the difficulty in fabrication should also be taken into consideration in choosing either the air-hole type or the dielectric-rod type [14

14. C. G. Bostan, R. M. de Ridder, V. J. Gadgil, L. Kuipers, and A. Driessen, “Line-Defect Waveguides in Hexagon-Hole type Photonic Crystal Slabs: Design and Fabrication using Focused Ion Beam Technology,” in Proceedings of Symposium IEEE/LEOS Benelux Chapter (Enschede 2003) pp. 253–256.

20

20. R. B. Wehrspohn, H. S. kitzerow, and K. Busch, Nanophotonic Materials: Photonic Crystals, Plasmonics, and Metamaterials (Wiley-VCH, 2008).

], even though their transmission efficiencies and out-of-plane radiation losses are comparable [20

20. R. B. Wehrspohn, H. S. kitzerow, and K. Busch, Nanophotonic Materials: Photonic Crystals, Plasmonics, and Metamaterials (Wiley-VCH, 2008).

]. Air-hole type PC is easier to fabricate than the latter by using standard pattern generation methods and such a waveguide operates usually in multimode [14

14. C. G. Bostan, R. M. de Ridder, V. J. Gadgil, L. Kuipers, and A. Driessen, “Line-Defect Waveguides in Hexagon-Hole type Photonic Crystal Slabs: Design and Fabrication using Focused Ion Beam Technology,” in Proceedings of Symposium IEEE/LEOS Benelux Chapter (Enschede 2003) pp. 253–256.

]. A bottom up fabrication method is preferred to make rod-type PCs [15

15. T. Xu, S. Yang, S. V. Nair, and H. E. Ruda, “Nanowire-array based photonics crystal cavity by finite-difference time domain calculations,” Phys. Rev. B 75(12), 125104 (2007). [CrossRef]

] that can be easily operated in single mode. With careful control of the surface roughness and fabrication steps, our design of dielectric-rod type PC with high quality is achievable in practice.

4. The structure emitting Stokes only

We now consider the system shown in Fig. 1 that only emits Stokes. For this purpose, the two vertical cavities should have the same resonant wavelength and be equal to the Stokes wavelength. So, we set R1 = R2. For being concise, we just consider the structure for emitting Stokes waves. Generally we need to take l1 = l2 = ma, where m = 3, 4, 5, etc, because the lattice period neffa is set to be about a half of the wavelength of the pump wave and the wavelength difference between the Stokes and pump waves is small. Here neff is the effective refractive index of the photonic crystal.

Research on cavity Raman gain enhancement has been conducted by several groups [3

3. S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, and K. J. Vahala, “Ultralow-threshold Raman laser using a spherical dielectric microcavity,” Nature 415(6872), 621–623 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,22

22. Y. Wu, X. Yang, and P. T. Leung, “Theory of microcavity-enhanced Raman gain,” Opt. Lett. 24(5), 345–347 (1999). [CrossRef]

26

26. A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, R. J. Letargat, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, “On cavity modification of stimulated Raman scattering,” J. Opt. B Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 5(3), 272–278 (2003). [CrossRef]

]. For example, Lin [24

24. H. B. Lin and A. J. Campillo, “cw nonlinear optics in droplet microcavities diplaying enhanced gain,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73(18), 2440–2443 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,25

25. H. B. Lin and A. J. Campillo, “Microcavity enhanced Raman gain,” Opt. Commun. 133(1–6), 287–292 (1997). [CrossRef]

] introduced the effective interaction length Lc expressed as Lc=Qp,Sλp,S/2πnp,S, to estimate Raman gain enhancement. Here, in our simulation, the high-Q (e.g.,8.8938×105) of the coupled cavity has an effective interaction length of 70.1mm, a factor of 2.0631 × 104 larger than the physical length (~3.4μm) of the cavity for the Stokes wavelength at 1684.9nm.

5. The structure emitting Stokes and anti-Stokes waves simultaneously and separately

We now consider the system shown in Fig. 1 that emits Stokes and anti-Stokes waves simultaneously and separately. We set l2 = 2a and l1l2, so that Stokes goes out from port C and anti-Stokes goes out from port D in Fig. 1. By fine-tuning the R2 and R3, we can get the distinct modes which meet the need of Δf for Raman scattering in silicon.

As a first example of this design (Design III), we take l1 = 3a, and the optimized parameters are: a = 575nm, R1 = 0.15a, R2 = 0.07a and R3 = 0.51a. When a Gaussian impulse is launched at the center of the structure, Stokes and anti-Stokes modes are symmetrical with the pump mode as shown in Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The normalized resonant frequencies of the pump, Stokes and anti-Stokes modes for Design III. These are within the photonic band gap. The Stokes mode is localized in VC-1, while the anti-Stokes mode is in VC-2. There exists one extra mode in VC-1, however only Stokes mode will be excited when the pump wavelength is fixed, according to Eq. (6).
.

As a second example of design (Design IV), we take l1 = 4a. For Design IV, optimized parameters are: a = 553nm, R1 = 0.36a, R2 = 0.13a and R3 = 0.54a. Ultra-low threshold power as small as 17.7nW and 2.58nW can be obtained for the pump to produce Stokes and anti-Stokes lasing respectively. To obtain both lasing simultaneously, the total threshold power should be the sum of the two. Such low threshold is useful for ultra-sensitive devices, especially for applications in biological and medical diagnoses. As reported in Ref. [27

27. R. Claps, V. Raghunathan, D. Dimitropoulos, and B. Jalali, “Anti-Stokes Raman conversion in silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 11(22), 2862–2872 (2003), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-11-22-2862. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], in silicon waveguides, the maximum measured Stokes/anti-Stokes power conversion efficiency is 10−5, resulting in ultra-low output power, which is on the order of nW. In this case, the coupled structure can emit laser at the Raman wavelength and may serve as a sensor to detect such weak signals. In cancer diagnosis, Raman signals (or tissue fluorescence) are usually weak and require sensitive detectors [28

28. V. M. N. Passaro, F. Dell’Olio, B. Casamassima, and F. De Leonardis, “Guided-Wave Optical Biosensors,” Sensors (Basel Switzerland) 7(4), 508–536 (2007). [CrossRef]

], our design could be used to collect optical signals exiting from the sample, with ultra-low threshold lasing which could be easily detected. In particular, our design for the simultaneous and separate signals for Stokes and anti-Stoke emission could be amenable to conducting coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) studies on chemical and biological samples. The pump frequency can be tuned by changing R3 on multiple cavity designs on the same silicon chip. When the difference between the pump and Stokes frequencies is matched with the molecular vibrational frequency, a strong signal could exit from the anti-Stokes port [29

29. A. Downes and A. Elfick, “Raman Spectroscopy and Related Techniques in Biomedicine,” Sensors (Basel Switzerland) 10(3), 1871–1889 (2010). [CrossRef]

,30

30. C. L. Evans and X. S. Xie, “Coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering microscopy: chemical imaging for biology and medicine,” Annu Rev Anal Chem (Palo Alto Calif) 1(1), 883–909 (2008). [CrossRef]

].

For getting better insight into the physics of the coupled structure for this case, the electric field profiles of Stokes mode and of anti-Stokes mode are illustrated in Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The electric field profiles of Stokes mode (a) and anti-Stokes mode (b) for Design IV.
. The Stokes mode is localized in the VC-1, while the anti-Stokes mode is localized in the VC-2, so that the two modes can be easily separated. As demonstrated, the size of VC-1 is larger than that of VC-2, which makes the Stokes wave with a longer wavelength be localized in the top cavity and the anti-Stokes wave with a shorter wavelength in the bottom cavity.

Compared with Design III, where R3 = 0.51a, the QaS increases by a factor of 20. This could be explained as follows: when R3 = 0.54a, normalized anti-Stokes frequency f aS = 0.3854302 is further away from the band gap edge (f edge = 0.419639) and closer to the bandgap center, resulting in higher quality factor Q and thus lower radiation losses [5

5. X. Yang and C. W. Wong, “Design of photonic band gap nanocavities for stimulated Raman amplification and lasing in monolithic silicon,” Opt. Express 13(12), 4723–4730 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-12-4723. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

The operating parameters and properties for Design III and IV are summarized in Table 2. The threshold power of pump for anti-Stokes lasing is an order of magnitude lower than that for Stokes lasing.

6. Conclusion

Acknowledgments

This research was supported by Old Dominion University.

References and links

1.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “All-optical control of light on a silicon chip,” Nature 431(7012), 1081–1084 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2.

J. D. Joannopoulos, P. R. Villeneuve, and S. Fan, “Photonics crystals: putting a new twist on light,” Nature 386(6621), 143–149 (1997). [CrossRef]

3.

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, and K. J. Vahala, “Ultralow-threshold Raman laser using a spherical dielectric microcavity,” Nature 415(6872), 621–623 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4.

T. J. Kippenberg’s PhD thesis, “Nonlinear Optics in Ultra-high-Q Whispering Gallery Mode Micro-cavities” (California Institute of Technology, May 2004), http://www.mpq.mpg.de/k-lab/publications/TJKippenbergThesis.pdf.

5.

X. Yang and C. W. Wong, “Design of photonic band gap nanocavities for stimulated Raman amplification and lasing in monolithic silicon,” Opt. Express 13(12), 4723–4730 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-12-4723. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

Q. Quan, P. B. Deotare, and M. Lončar, “Photonic Crystal Nanobeam Cavity Strongly Coupled to the Feeding Waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(20), 203102 (2010). [CrossRef]

7.

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, “High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Nature 425(6961), 944–947 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

M. Krause, H. Renner, and E. Brinkmeyer, “Analysis of Raman lasing characteristics in silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Express 12(23), 5703–5710 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-23-5703. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

V. E. Perlin and H. G. Winful, “Stimulated Raman Scattering in nonlinear periodic structures,” Phys. Rev. A 64(4), 043804 (2001). [CrossRef]

10.

X. D. Yang and C. W. Wong, “Coupled-mode theory for stimulated Raman scattering in high-Q/V(m) silicon photonic band gap defect cavity lasers,” Opt. Express 15(8), 4763–4780 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-8-4763. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

C. E. B. A. H. Stein’s PhD thesis, “Stimulated Raman Scattering in Silicon Coupled Photonic Crystal Microcavity Arrays” (Universität Karlsruhe, May 2006), http://www.stanford.edu/group/nqp/jv_files/thesis/Benedikt-Thesis-RamanLaserPC-Design.pdf.

12.

http://www.rsoftdesign.com/.

13.

N. C. Panoiu, M. Bahl, and R. M. Osgood Jr., “All-optical tunability of a nonlinear photonic crystal channel drop filter,” Opt. Express 12(8), 1605–1610 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-8-1605. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

C. G. Bostan, R. M. de Ridder, V. J. Gadgil, L. Kuipers, and A. Driessen, “Line-Defect Waveguides in Hexagon-Hole type Photonic Crystal Slabs: Design and Fabrication using Focused Ion Beam Technology,” in Proceedings of Symposium IEEE/LEOS Benelux Chapter (Enschede 2003) pp. 253–256.

15.

T. Xu, S. Yang, S. V. Nair, and H. E. Ruda, “Nanowire-array based photonics crystal cavity by finite-difference time domain calculations,” Phys. Rev. B 75(12), 125104 (2007). [CrossRef]

16.

S. Assefa, P. T. Rakich, P. Bienstman, S. G. Johnson, G. S. Petrich, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. A. Kolodziejski, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “Guiding 1.5 μm light in photonic crystals based on dielectric rods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(25), 6110–6112 (2004). [CrossRef]

17.

M. Tokushima, H. Yamada, and Y. Arakawa, “1.5 μm-wavelength light guiding in waveguides in square-lattice-of-rod photonic crystal slab,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(21), 4298–4300 (2004). [CrossRef]

18.

E. Schonbrun, M. Tinker, W. Park, and J. B. Lee, “Negative refraction in a Si-polymer photonic crystal membrane,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(6), 1196–1198 (2005). [CrossRef]

19.

W. Y. Chiu, T. W. Huang, Y. H. Wu, Y. J. Chan, C. H. Hou, H. T. Chien, and C. C. Chen, “A photonic crystal ring resonator formed by SOI nano-rods,” Opt. Express 15(23), 15500–15506 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-23-15500. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

20.

R. B. Wehrspohn, H. S. kitzerow, and K. Busch, Nanophotonic Materials: Photonic Crystals, Plasmonics, and Metamaterials (Wiley-VCH, 2008).

21.

Z. Ouyang, X. Luo, J. C. Wang, C. P. Liu, and C. J. Wu, “A combined cavity for high sensitivity THz signal detection,” Proc. SPIE 6840, 684008, 684008-8 (2007). [CrossRef]

22.

Y. Wu, X. Yang, and P. T. Leung, “Theory of microcavity-enhanced Raman gain,” Opt. Lett. 24(5), 345–347 (1999). [CrossRef]

23.

B. Min, T. J. Kippenberg, and K. J. Vahala, “Compact, fiber-compatible, cascaded Raman laser,” Opt. Lett. 28(17), 1507–1509 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

24.

H. B. Lin and A. J. Campillo, “cw nonlinear optics in droplet microcavities diplaying enhanced gain,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73(18), 2440–2443 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

25.

H. B. Lin and A. J. Campillo, “Microcavity enhanced Raman gain,” Opt. Commun. 133(1–6), 287–292 (1997). [CrossRef]

26.

A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, R. J. Letargat, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, “On cavity modification of stimulated Raman scattering,” J. Opt. B Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 5(3), 272–278 (2003). [CrossRef]

27.

R. Claps, V. Raghunathan, D. Dimitropoulos, and B. Jalali, “Anti-Stokes Raman conversion in silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 11(22), 2862–2872 (2003), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-11-22-2862. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

28.

V. M. N. Passaro, F. Dell’Olio, B. Casamassima, and F. De Leonardis, “Guided-Wave Optical Biosensors,” Sensors (Basel Switzerland) 7(4), 508–536 (2007). [CrossRef]

29.

A. Downes and A. Elfick, “Raman Spectroscopy and Related Techniques in Biomedicine,” Sensors (Basel Switzerland) 10(3), 1871–1889 (2010). [CrossRef]

30.

C. L. Evans and X. S. Xie, “Coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering microscopy: chemical imaging for biology and medicine,” Annu Rev Anal Chem (Palo Alto Calif) 1(1), 883–909 (2008). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(130.6010) Integrated optics : Sensors
(140.3550) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, Raman
(190.4390) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics, integrated optics
(230.5750) Optical devices : Resonators
(230.5298) Optical devices : Photonic crystals

ToC Category:
Photonic Crystals

History
Original Manuscript: December 2, 2010
Revised Manuscript: January 28, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: January 30, 2011
Published: February 25, 2011

Virtual Issues
Vol. 6, Iss. 3 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Citation
Qiang Liu, Zhengbiao Ouyang, and Sacharia Albin, "Coupled photonic crystal micro-cavities with ultra-low threshold power for stimulated Raman scattering," Opt. Express 19, 4795-4804 (2011)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-5-4795


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References

  1. V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “All-optical control of light on a silicon chip,” Nature 431(7012), 1081–1084 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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