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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 19, Iss. 6 — Mar. 14, 2011
  • pp: 5551–5558
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A reversibly tunable photonic crystal nanocavity laser using photochromic thin film

Deepak Sridharan, Ranojoy Bose, Hyochul Kim, Glenn S. Solomon, and Edo Waks  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 19, Issue 6, pp. 5551-5558 (2011)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.19.005551


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Abstract

We demonstrate a reversibly tunable photonic crystal quantum dot laser using a photochromic thin film. The laser is composed of a photonic crystal cavity with a bare cavity Q as high as 4500 coupled to a high density ensemble of indium arsenide quantum dots. By depositing a thin layer of photochromic material on the photonic crystal cavities, the laser can be optically tuned smoothly and reversibly over a wavelength range of 2.68 nm. Lasing is observed at temperatures as high as 80 K in the 900-1000 nm near-infrared wavelength range. The spontaneous emission coupling factor is measured to be as high as β = 0.41, indicating that the laser operates in the high-β regime.

© 2011 OSA

Compact tunable lasers are an important enabling technology for a broad range of applications in optical communications and integrated optical data processing. Photonic crystals provide an ideal platform for implementing such lasers due to their ability to integrate a large number of optical components in a small chip-sized device [1

1. F. Xia, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, “Ultracompact optical buffers on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 65–71 (2007). [CrossRef]

3

3. S. Noda, “Applied physics. Seeking the ultimate nanolaser,” Science 314(5797), 260–261 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. These structures can be seeded by active materials such as quantum wells that offer high optical gain at room temperature [4

4. T. Ishihara, Y. Ikemoto, T. Goto, A. Tsujimura, K. Ohkawa, and T. Mitsuyu, “Optical gain in an inhomogeneously broadened exciton system,” J. Lumin. 58(1-6), 241–243 (1994). [CrossRef]

] and quantum dots which exhibit high carrier confinement, low transparency carrier density, and small nonradiative decay rates [5

5. T. B. Norris, K. Kim, J. Urayama, Z. K. Wu, J. Singh, and P. K. Bhattacharya, “Density and temperature dependence of carrier dynamics in self-organized InGaAs quantum dots,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 38(13), 2077–2087 (2005). [CrossRef]

7

7. J. Johansen, S. Stobbe, I. S. Nikolaev, T. Lund-Hansen, P. T. Kristensen, J. M. Hvam, W. L. Vos, and P. Lodahl, “Size dependence of the wavefunction of self-assembled InAs quantum dots from time-resolved optical measurements,” Phys. Rev. B 77(7), 073303 (2008). [CrossRef]

]. The engineering of photonic crystal (PhC) cavities with high quality factors (Q) and small mode volumes seeded with a variety of active materials has resulted in the development of low threshold lasers with high emission efficiencies [8

8. O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim I, “Two-dimensional photonic band-Gap defect mode laser,” Science 284(5421), 1819–1821 (1999). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

17

17. K. A. Atlasov, M. Calic, K. F. Karlsson, P. Gallo, A. Rudra, B. Dwir, and E. Kapon, “Photonic-crystal microcavity laser with site-controlled quantum-wire active medium,” Opt. Express 17(20), 18178–18183 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. In addition, the strong optical confinement of photonic crystals enables lasing with a single QD emitter [18

18. M. Nomura, N. Kumagai, S. Iwamoto, Y. Ota, and Y. Arakawa, “Laser oscillation in a strongly coupled single-quantum-dot–nanocavity system,” Nat. Phys. 6(4), 279–283 (2010). [CrossRef]

].

One of the primary limitations of photonic crystal lasers is that they are very difficult to tune locally after fabrication. Such local tuning is essential for integrated optical structures to ensure that individual optical components are resonantly excited. In addition, local tunability could enable the engineering of reconfigurable optical devices whose functionality can be modified post-fabrication. Photonic crystal structures can be tuned via temperature [19

19. T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, J. Hendrickson, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, G. Rupper, C. Ell, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, “Vacuum Rabi splitting with a single quantum dot in a photonic crystal nanocavity,” Nature 432(7014), 200–203 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], gas deposition methods [20

20. S. Mosor, J. Hendrickson, B. C. Richards, J. Sweet, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, “Scanning a photonic crystal slab nanocavity by condensation of xenon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(14), 141105 (2005). [CrossRef]

], but these methods are non-local and will tune all optical structures on the fabricated device simultaneously. Improved temperature tuning methods based on local heating pads have been demonstrated [21

21. A. Faraon and J. Vučković, “Local temperature control of photonic crystal devices via micron-scale electrical heaters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(4), 043102 (2009). [CrossRef]

] and provide more localization but still require large spacing between optical components. Other techniques based on chalcogenide glass film deposition provide highly localized tunability but are not reversible [22

22. A. Faraon, D. Englund, D. Bulla, B. Luther-Davies, B. J. Eggleton, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. Vučković, “Local tuning of photonic crystal cavities using chalcogenide glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 043123 (2008). [CrossRef]

]. Electrical tuning of photonic crystal laser with nematic liquid crystal infiltration has also been demonstrated [23

23. B. Maune, M. Lončar, J. Witzens, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, D. Psaltis, A. Scherer, and Y. Qiu, “Liquid-crystal electric tuning of a photonic crystal laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(3), 360 (2004). [CrossRef]

]. More recently a novel laser based on a tapered fiber evanescently coupled to a photonic crystal nanobeam cavity has been shown to be reversibly tunable by up to 7 nm [13

13. Y. Gong, B. Ellis, G. Shambat, T. Sarmiento, J. S. Harris, and J. Vuckovic, “Nanobeam photonic crystal cavity quantum dot laser,” Opt. Express 18(9), 8781–8789 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. This technique relies on locally positioning a tapered fiber on a photonic crystal structure, making the extension to tuning of multiple closely packed devices challenging.

Recently, an alternate method for local reversible tuning of photonic crystal devices has been demonstrated using photochromic thin-films [24

24. D. Sridharan, E. Waks, G. Solomon, and J. T. Fourkas, “Reversible tuning of photonic crystal cavities using photochromic thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(15), 153303 (2010). [CrossRef]

]. These films exhibit a reversible change in their index of refraction when irradiated by UV and visible light, enabling a highly controllable all-optical tuning of the cavity mode at near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths. By depositing these films on a photonic crystal cavity coupled to a low density of QD spontaneous emitters, reversible cavity-frequency tuning was observed through the fluorescence of the device. Here, we demonstrate a method for using these photochromic thin films to create a reversibly tunable photonic crystal laser. The laser consists of a cavity coupled to an active high gain medium composed of three high density quantum dot layers embedded in the device. The tuning method we present is both local and reversible, enabling the tuning of multiple closely spaced lasers on an integrated optical chip. We show that by controlling film thickness we can maintain a high bare cavity Q to support lasing while simultaneously achieving a sufficiently large modification of the effective index to enable a reversible tuning range of up to 2.68 nm.

A schematic of the device used to realize the tunable laser is shown in Fig. 1a
Fig. 1 a) Schematic showing the cross section of photonic crystal cavity laser with 3 QD layers embedded at the center of the GaAs slab. After fabrication, the photochromic thin-film is spun on the surface. b) SEM image of cavity with side holes A, B, C shifted. Scale bar: 1μm. c) Cavity emission spectrum of a typical device at 80 K recorded for increasing excitation powers using the 780 nm pump laser.
. The initial wafer was comprised of a 160-nm gallium arsenide (GaAs) membrane with three layers of InAs QDs grown at the center (corresponding to a QD density of ~500 µm−2), on a 1-µm thick sacrificial layer of aluminum gallium arsenide (Al0.78Ga0.22As). Photonic crystals were defined on the GaAs membrane using electron-beam lithography and chlorine-based inductively coupled plasma dry etching, followed by a selective wet etch to remove the sacrificial AlGaAs layer, resulting in a free-standing GaAs membrane. The cavity design used in this experiment was a three-hole linear defect (L3) cavity with three-hole tuning [25

25. Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, “Fine-tuned high-Q photonic-crystal nanocavity,” Opt. Express 13(4), 1202–1214 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] as shown in the fabricated device in Fig. 1b. The parameter a was set to 240 nm and the hole diameter was varied between 130 nm and 160 nm to achieve cavity resonances across the QD gain bandwidth. The three holes at the edge of the cavity, labeled A, B, and C in the figure, were shifted by 0.176a, 0.024a and 0.176a respectively.

After fabricating the devices, the photochromic material was prepared as outlined in Ref [23

23. B. Maune, M. Lončar, J. Witzens, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, D. Psaltis, A. Scherer, and Y. Qiu, “Liquid-crystal electric tuning of a photonic crystal laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(3), 360 (2004). [CrossRef]

]. by mixing 5 wt% 1,3,3-Trimethylindolinonaphthospirooxazine (TCI America) and 0.5 wt % 950 PMMA A4 dissolved in anisol. The polymer mixture was spun on the sample at a spinning rate of 3500 RPM, resulting in a film of 50 nm thickness. This thickness was found to be small enough to minimally affect the cavity quality factors while providing a sufficiently high index change to reversibly tune the resonances of the nanocavities. For device characterization, the fabricated structures were placed in a continuous-flow liquid He cryostat and cooled to a temperature ranging between 20K and 80 K. In order to observe lasing, the QDs in the cavity region were excited above-band by a continuous wave titanium sapphire laser tuned to 780 nm wavelength. Emission was collected by a confocal microscope setup using a 0.7 NA objective lens and measured by a grating spectrometer with a wavelength resolution of 0.02 nm.

Upon exciting the cavity with the 780 nm pump laser, a bright narrowband emission is observed from the cavity, as shown in Fig. 1c. This figure shows several representative spectra for the cavity emission with increasing pump powers at 80K. As the pumping power is increased, there is a visible change in the output emission spectrum from a broad emission to a sharp narrowband lasing emission. The small shift of 0.3 nm in the cavity mode emission with increasing power is due to thermal effects caused by above band pumping [12

12. M. Nomura, S. Iwamoto, K. Watanabe, N. Kumagai, Y. Nakata, S. Ishida, and Y. Arakawa, “Room temperature continuous-wave lasing in photonic crystal nanocavity,” Electron. Lett. 38, 967–968 (2002).

].

In order to verify that the bright emission from the cavity mode is due to lasing, we investigate both the output power and linewidth of the cavity emission as a function of pump power. The measurement results are shown in Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Laser output intensity (red circles) and linewidth (green diamonds) as function of input power at 20K. The blue line represent the theoretical fit to the cavity intensity using Eq. (1). (b) Cavity resonance as a function of input power at 20K (c) Laser output intensity (red circles) and linewidth (green diamonds) as function of input power at 80K. The blue line represents the theoretical fit to the cavity intensity using Eq. (1). (d) Cavity resonance as a function of input power at 80K
. Figure 2a plots the cavity output power (red circles) and linewidth (green diamonds) as a function of input pump power at 20 K temperature where the QD linewidth is minimally perturbed by phonon broadening. The cavity output power curve, commonly referred to as the light-in light-out (L-L) curve, exhibits a clear threshold behavior in that the emitted light power rapidly increases when the pump power exceeds a critical value. Well above threshold the output power is linearly increasing with pump power, as expected from standard laser theory. To estimate the pumping threshold we extrapolate the linear region of the L-L curve to determine the x-intercept. Using this method, we estimate the lasing threshold to be 80µW at 20K.

An important signature of lasing is the dependence of linewidth of the laser emission on the pump power. In a microcavity laser, the linewidth is expected to initially decrease due to absorption saturation, then increase near threshold due to gain-refractive index coupling, and finally decrease again due to onset of stimulated emission [17

17. K. A. Atlasov, M. Calic, K. F. Karlsson, P. Gallo, A. Rudra, B. Dwir, and E. Kapon, “Photonic-crystal microcavity laser with site-controlled quantum-wire active medium,” Opt. Express 17(20), 18178–18183 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,26

26. G. Björk, A. Karlsson, and Y. Yamamoto, “On the linewidth of microcavity lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(3), 304–306 (2009). [CrossRef]

28

28. M. Bagheri, M. H. Shih, S. J. Choi, J. D. O'Brien, and P. D. Dapkus, “Microcavity Laser Linewidth Close to Threshold,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(8), 945–949 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. For microcavity lasers with high spontaneous emission coupling factors the linewidth broadening near threshold is small and is usually observed as a plateau rather than an increase [29

29. K. Tanabe, M. Nomura, D. Guimard, S. Iwamoto, and Y. Arakawa, “Room temperature continuous wave operation of InAs/GaAs quantum dot photonic crystal nanocavity laser on silicon substrate,” Opt. Express 17(9), 7036–7042 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,30

30. M. Nomura, S. Iwamoto, A. Tandaechanurat, Y. Ota, N. Kumagai, and Y. Arakawa, “Photonic band-edge micro lasers with quantum dot gain,” Opt. Express 17(2), 640–648 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The emission linewidth of the laser, shown in Fig. 2a, is calculated by fitting the spectrum at each pumping power to a Lorentzian. The linewidth exhibits an initial drop from the absorption limited linewidth of 0.73 nm (Q = 1300) to a cavity linewidth of 0.31 nm followed by a plateau right at threshold. From the linewidths at the threshold power we estimate the bare cavity Q to be 3100, which corresponds to a bare cavity decay rate of κ = 0.31nm. The experimentally measured bare cavity Q is limited by a combination of fabrication errors and degradation in Q due to the photochromic film. The linewidth then continues to decrease beyond the threshold region, as expected from standard microcavity laser theory.

An important figure of merit for a microcavity laser is the spontaneous emission coupling factor β, defined as the percentage of spontaneous emission that couples to the lasing mode [31

31. G. Bjork and Y. Yamamoto, “Analysis of semiconductor microcavity lasers using rate equations,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27(11), 2386–2396 (2002). [CrossRef]

]. This parameter can be extracted from the L-L curve. Using a simple rate equation model, the relation between the input power Pin and output power Poutis given by [32

32. H. Kim, M. T. Rakher, D. Bouwmeester, and P. M. Petroff, “Electrically pumped quantum post vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(13), 131104 (2009). [CrossRef]

]:
Pin=ωκβη[p1+p(1+ξ)(1+βp)ξβp],
(1)
where κ is the decay rate of the cavity, ω is the cavity resonant frequency, p=Pout/ωκ is the photon number in the cavity and η is the coupling efficiency. The parameter ξ is a dimensionless parameter which scales as the ratio of the phonon dephasing rate to the spontaneous emission rate of the QDs. We fit the measured L-L curve to the above equation, treating β, ξ and η as fitting parameters, and setting κ to the decay rate calculated from the emission linewidth at threshold. The best fit, shown as a solid curves in Fig. 2a, is attained for β = 0.41, indicating that the laser operates in the high β regime.

In Fig. 2b we plot the resonance wavelength of the cavity mode as a function of pump power. As the pump power is increased, the cavity resonance blue shifts as threshold is approached, then reaches a stable value which is shifted by 0.25 nm from the initial low pump power regime. This blue shift may be attributed to the change in refractive index of the cavity medium due to the injection of free carriers [33

33. F. Raineri, C. Cojocaru, R. Raj, P. Monnier, A. Levenson, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, and P. Viktorovitch, “Tuning a two-dimensional photonic crystal resonance via optical carrier injection,” Opt. Lett. 30(1), 64–66 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

Each spectrum acquired over the 50 s tuning window was fit to a Lorentzian in order to extract the linewidth, center frequency and intensity. The Lorentzian fits for the different snapshots shown in Fig. 3a are plotted as solid lines. Fig, 3b plots both the linewidth and integrated lasing emission intensity as a function of emission wavelength shift over a 2.5 nm tuning range. We observe that the power output of the laser is stable over the photochromic tuning process with fluctuations of less than 10%. The cavity mode linewidth also stays near the threshold value of 0.10 during the tuning process. The variations in the linewidth and intensity for the first few steps of photochromic tuning are likely caused by slight drifts in the cavity position due to vibrations in the optical setup. Because our pump laser was highly focused, drift in the cavity caused it to be pumped less hard resulting in an increase in linewidth and a simultaneous decrease in output intensity. In general, the lasing mode spectrum was found to be highly sensitive to the excitation spot of the 780 nm laser.

One limitation of spiropyran-based photochromic films is that the reversibility fatigues over repeated cycles, reducing the range over which the device can be tuned. This fatigue can be readily observed both at 20 K and 80 K through a decrease in the tunability with successive exposures. After four consecutive cycles of red and blue shifting, the reversible tuning range, defined as the wavelength range over which the laser is reversibly tunable in each UV-green cycle, is reduced from its maximum value of 1.23 nm to 0.38 nm at 20 K, while at 80 K it is reduced from 2.68 nm to 0.83 nm. Both cases represent a 70% reduction of the maximum tuning range on the fourth cycle. Once the film has fatigued, it can be removed with acetone and a new film can be spun without destroying the device itself.

In conclusion, we have demonstrated a locally and reversibly tunable near-infrared photonic crystal laser with high beta factors (0.14-0.41). Tunability was achieved using a photochromic thin-film that was spun onto the sample surface. The resulting bare cavity Qs were measured to be as high as 4500, while lasing threshold was achieved at pump powers of 80μW at 20 K and 920μW at 80K. The reversible tuning range of the device was measured to be 1.23 nm at 20 K and 2.68 nm at 80 K, while the maximum tuning range was measured to be 3.4 nm. The photochromic tuning process was found to maintain a stable output power emission linewidth over the entire tuning range of the device. Larger tuning could be potentially achieved at higher temperatures using a different gain medium such as quantum wells that can support room temperature operation. Further device improvements in reversibility and tuning range could be attained by using other photochromic materials that exhibit better reversibility over hundreds of tuning cycles [40

40. K. Uchida, T. Ishikawa, M. Takeshita, and M. Irie, “Thermally irreversible photochromic systems. Reversible photocyclization of 1,2-bis(thiazolyl)perfluorocyclopentenes,” Tetrahedron 54(24), 6627–6638 (1998). [CrossRef]

,41

41. M. Irie, T. Lifka, K. Uchida, S. Kobatake, and Y. Shindo, “Fatigue resistant properties of photochromic dithienylethenes: by-product formation,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 8(8), 747–750 (1999). [CrossRef]

]. Furthermore, the method we demonstrate for reversible tuning is not restricted to photonic crystals, and could be applied to a broad range of other photonic structures such as microdisks and distributed feedback structures in a straightforward way. The combination of photochromics with integrated devices could open up the possibility for integration of tunable lasers, filters, beamsplitters, and other optical components to create highly reconfigurable photonic systems, with applications in optical communications and optical computation.

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to acknowledge support from the ARO MURI on hybrid quantum interactions (grant number W911NF09104), the physics frontier center at the Joint Quantum Institute, and the ONR Applied Electromagnetic Center. E. Waks would like to acknowledge support from an NSF CAREER award (grant number ECCS – 0846494).

References and links

1.

F. Xia, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, “Ultracompact optical buffers on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 65–71 (2007). [CrossRef]

2.

M. Notomi, E. Kuramochi, and T. Tanabe, “Large-scale arrays of ultrahigh-Q coupled nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 2(12), 741–747 (2008). [CrossRef]

3.

S. Noda, “Applied physics. Seeking the ultimate nanolaser,” Science 314(5797), 260–261 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4.

T. Ishihara, Y. Ikemoto, T. Goto, A. Tsujimura, K. Ohkawa, and T. Mitsuyu, “Optical gain in an inhomogeneously broadened exciton system,” J. Lumin. 58(1-6), 241–243 (1994). [CrossRef]

5.

T. B. Norris, K. Kim, J. Urayama, Z. K. Wu, J. Singh, and P. K. Bhattacharya, “Density and temperature dependence of carrier dynamics in self-organized InGaAs quantum dots,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 38(13), 2077–2087 (2005). [CrossRef]

6.

J. Johansen, S. Stobbe, I. S. Nikolaev, T. L. Hansen, P. T. Kristensen, J. M. Hvam, W. L. Vos, and P. Lodahl, “Quantum efficiency of self-assembled quantum dots determined by a modified optical local density of states,” in Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference, 2007. QELS'07 (2008), pp. 1–2.

7.

J. Johansen, S. Stobbe, I. S. Nikolaev, T. Lund-Hansen, P. T. Kristensen, J. M. Hvam, W. L. Vos, and P. Lodahl, “Size dependence of the wavefunction of self-assembled InAs quantum dots from time-resolved optical measurements,” Phys. Rev. B 77(7), 073303 (2008). [CrossRef]

8.

O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim I, “Two-dimensional photonic band-Gap defect mode laser,” Science 284(5421), 1819–1821 (1999). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

T. Yoshie, O. B. Shchekin, H. Chen, D. G. Deppe, and A. Scherer, “Quantum dot photonic crystal lasers,” Electron. Lett. 38(17), 967–968 (2002). [CrossRef]

10.

H. Altug and J. Vučković, “Photonic crystal nanocavity array laser,” Phys. Lett. 81, 2680–2682 (2002).

11.

S. Strauf, K. Hennessy, M. T. Rakher, Y. S. Choi, A. Badolato, L. C. Andreani, E. L. Hu, P. M. Petroff, and D. Bouwmeester, “Self-tuned quantum dot gain in photonic crystal lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(12), 127404 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

M. Nomura, S. Iwamoto, K. Watanabe, N. Kumagai, Y. Nakata, S. Ishida, and Y. Arakawa, “Room temperature continuous-wave lasing in photonic crystal nanocavity,” Electron. Lett. 38, 967–968 (2002).

13.

Y. Gong, B. Ellis, G. Shambat, T. Sarmiento, J. S. Harris, and J. Vuckovic, “Nanobeam photonic crystal cavity quantum dot laser,” Opt. Express 18(9), 8781–8789 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

B. Ellis, I. Fushman, D. Englund, B. Zhang, Y. Yamamoto, and J. Vučković, “Dynamics of quantum dot photonic crystal lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(15), 151102 (2007). [CrossRef]

15.

Y. Zhang, M. Khan, Y. Huang, J. Ryou, P. Deotare, R. Dupuis, and M. Lončar, “Photonic crystal nanobeam lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(5), 051104 (2010). [CrossRef]

16.

J. Hendrickson, B. C. Richards, J. Sweet, S. Mosor, C. Christenson, D. Lam, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, O. Shchekin, and D. Deppe, “Quantum dot photonic-crystal-slab nanocavities: Quality factors and lasing,” Phys. Rev. B 72(19), 193303 (2005). [CrossRef]

17.

K. A. Atlasov, M. Calic, K. F. Karlsson, P. Gallo, A. Rudra, B. Dwir, and E. Kapon, “Photonic-crystal microcavity laser with site-controlled quantum-wire active medium,” Opt. Express 17(20), 18178–18183 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18.

M. Nomura, N. Kumagai, S. Iwamoto, Y. Ota, and Y. Arakawa, “Laser oscillation in a strongly coupled single-quantum-dot–nanocavity system,” Nat. Phys. 6(4), 279–283 (2010). [CrossRef]

19.

T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, J. Hendrickson, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, G. Rupper, C. Ell, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, “Vacuum Rabi splitting with a single quantum dot in a photonic crystal nanocavity,” Nature 432(7014), 200–203 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

20.

S. Mosor, J. Hendrickson, B. C. Richards, J. Sweet, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, “Scanning a photonic crystal slab nanocavity by condensation of xenon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(14), 141105 (2005). [CrossRef]

21.

A. Faraon and J. Vučković, “Local temperature control of photonic crystal devices via micron-scale electrical heaters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(4), 043102 (2009). [CrossRef]

22.

A. Faraon, D. Englund, D. Bulla, B. Luther-Davies, B. J. Eggleton, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. Vučković, “Local tuning of photonic crystal cavities using chalcogenide glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 043123 (2008). [CrossRef]

23.

B. Maune, M. Lončar, J. Witzens, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, D. Psaltis, A. Scherer, and Y. Qiu, “Liquid-crystal electric tuning of a photonic crystal laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(3), 360 (2004). [CrossRef]

24.

D. Sridharan, E. Waks, G. Solomon, and J. T. Fourkas, “Reversible tuning of photonic crystal cavities using photochromic thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(15), 153303 (2010). [CrossRef]

25.

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, “Fine-tuned high-Q photonic-crystal nanocavity,” Opt. Express 13(4), 1202–1214 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

26.

G. Björk, A. Karlsson, and Y. Yamamoto, “On the linewidth of microcavity lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(3), 304–306 (2009). [CrossRef]

27.

R. Hui, S. Benedetto, and I. Montrosset, “Near threshold operation of semiconductor lasers and resonant-type laser amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29(6), 1488–1497 (2002). [CrossRef]

28.

M. Bagheri, M. H. Shih, S. J. Choi, J. D. O'Brien, and P. D. Dapkus, “Microcavity Laser Linewidth Close to Threshold,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(8), 945–949 (2009). [CrossRef]

29.

K. Tanabe, M. Nomura, D. Guimard, S. Iwamoto, and Y. Arakawa, “Room temperature continuous wave operation of InAs/GaAs quantum dot photonic crystal nanocavity laser on silicon substrate,” Opt. Express 17(9), 7036–7042 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

30.

M. Nomura, S. Iwamoto, A. Tandaechanurat, Y. Ota, N. Kumagai, and Y. Arakawa, “Photonic band-edge micro lasers with quantum dot gain,” Opt. Express 17(2), 640–648 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

31.

G. Bjork and Y. Yamamoto, “Analysis of semiconductor microcavity lasers using rate equations,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27(11), 2386–2396 (2002). [CrossRef]

32.

H. Kim, M. T. Rakher, D. Bouwmeester, and P. M. Petroff, “Electrically pumped quantum post vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(13), 131104 (2009). [CrossRef]

33.

F. Raineri, C. Cojocaru, R. Raj, P. Monnier, A. Levenson, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, and P. Viktorovitch, “Tuning a two-dimensional photonic crystal resonance via optical carrier injection,” Opt. Lett. 30(1), 64–66 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

34.

P. Borri, W. Langbein, S. Schneider, U. Woggon, R. L. Sellin, D. Ouyang, and D. Bimberg, “Ultralong dephasing time in InGaAs quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(15), 157401 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

35.

T. Ide, T. Baba, J. Tatebayashi, S. Iwamoto, T. Nakaoka, and Y. Arakawa, “Lasing characteristics of InAs quantum-dot microdisk from 3 K to room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(8), 1326 (2004). [CrossRef]

36.

G. Berkovic, V. Krongauz, and V. Weiss, “Spiropyrans and spirooxazines for memories and switches,” Chem. Rev. 100(5), 1741–1754 (2000). [CrossRef]

37.

J. Buback, M. Kullmann, F. Langhojer, P. Nuernberger, R. Schmidt, F. Würthner, and T. Brixner, “Ultrafast bidirectional photoswitching of a spiropyran,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132(46), 16510–16519 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

38.

N. P. Ernsting, B. Dick, and T. Arthen-Engeland, “The primary photochemical reaction step of unsubstituted indolino-spiropyrans,” Pure Appl. Chem. 62(8), 1483–1488 (1990). [CrossRef]

39.

R. C. Bertelson, i n: Photochromism, G.H. Brown (Ed.). Wilev-Interscience, New York p 45 (1969).

40.

K. Uchida, T. Ishikawa, M. Takeshita, and M. Irie, “Thermally irreversible photochromic systems. Reversible photocyclization of 1,2-bis(thiazolyl)perfluorocyclopentenes,” Tetrahedron 54(24), 6627–6638 (1998). [CrossRef]

41.

M. Irie, T. Lifka, K. Uchida, S. Kobatake, and Y. Shindo, “Fatigue resistant properties of photochromic dithienylethenes: by-product formation,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 8(8), 747–750 (1999). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(140.3600) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, tunable
(350.4238) Other areas of optics : Nanophotonics and photonic crystals

ToC Category:
Lasers and Laser Optics

History
Original Manuscript: December 13, 2010
Revised Manuscript: February 4, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: February 20, 2011
Published: March 10, 2011

Citation
Deepak Sridharan, Ranojoy Bose, Hyochul Kim, Glenn S. Solomon, and Edo Waks, "A reversibly tunable photonic crystal nanocavity laser using photochromic thin film," Opt. Express 19, 5551-5558 (2011)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-6-5551


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  34. P. Borri, W. Langbein, S. Schneider, U. Woggon, R. L. Sellin, D. Ouyang, and D. Bimberg, “Ultralong dephasing time in InGaAs quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(15), 157401 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. T. Ide, T. Baba, J. Tatebayashi, S. Iwamoto, T. Nakaoka, and Y. Arakawa, “Lasing characteristics of InAs quantum-dot microdisk from 3 K to room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(8), 1326 (2004). [CrossRef]
  36. G. Berkovic, V. Krongauz, and V. Weiss, “Spiropyrans and spirooxazines for memories and switches,” Chem. Rev. 100(5), 1741–1754 (2000). [CrossRef]
  37. J. Buback, M. Kullmann, F. Langhojer, P. Nuernberger, R. Schmidt, F. Würthner, and T. Brixner, “Ultrafast bidirectional photoswitching of a spiropyran,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132(46), 16510–16519 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  38. N. P. Ernsting, B. Dick, and T. Arthen-Engeland, “The primary photochemical reaction step of unsubstituted indolino-spiropyrans,” Pure Appl. Chem. 62(8), 1483–1488 (1990). [CrossRef]
  39. R. C. Bertelson, i n: Photochromism, G.H. Brown (Ed.). Wilev-Interscience, New York p 45 (1969).
  40. K. Uchida, T. Ishikawa, M. Takeshita, and M. Irie, “Thermally irreversible photochromic systems. Reversible photocyclization of 1,2-bis(thiazolyl)perfluorocyclopentenes,” Tetrahedron 54(24), 6627–6638 (1998). [CrossRef]
  41. M. Irie, T. Lifka, K. Uchida, S. Kobatake, and Y. Shindo, “Fatigue resistant properties of photochromic dithienylethenes: by-product formation,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 8(8), 747–750 (1999). [CrossRef]

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