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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 19, Iss. 6 — Mar. 14, 2011
  • pp: 5620–5626
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Upconversion ultraviolet random lasing in Nd3+ doped fluoroindate glass powder

Marcos A. S. de Oliveira, Cid B. de Araújo, and Younes Messaddeq  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 19, Issue 6, pp. 5620-5626 (2011)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.19.005620


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Abstract

An upconversion random laser (RL) operating in the ultraviolet is reported for Nd3+ doped fluoroindate glass powder pumped at 575 nm. The RL is obtained by the resonant excitation of the Nd3+ state 2G7/2 followed by energy transfer among two excited ions such that one ion in the pair decays to a lower energy state and the other is promoted to state 4D7/2 from where it decays emitting light at 381 nm. The RL threshold of 30 kW/cm2 was determined by monitoring the photoluminescence intensity as a function of the pump laser intensity. The RL pulses have time duration of 29 ns that is 50 times smaller than the decay time of the upconversion signal when the sample is pumped with intensities below the RL laser threshold.

© 2011 OSA

1. Introduction

The subject of random lasers (RLs) is receiving large attention due to the unique properties of RLs and to their potential applications [1

1. H. Cao, “Lasing in random media,” Waves Random Media 13(3), R1–R39 (2003). [CrossRef]

16

16. E. Pecoraro, S. García-Revilla, R. A. S. Ferreira, R. Balda, L. D. Carlos, and J. Fernández, “Real time random laser properties of Rhodamine-doped di-ureasil hybrids,” Opt. Express 18(7), 7470–7478 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Generation of laserlike emission from strongly scattering media has been observed and studied in a large variety of systems such as dye solutions containing scattering particles, semiconductor powders, polymers, and nanoparticles doped with rare-earth (RE) ions.

There are two main classes of RLs: one in which passive scatterers are embedded in a gain medium (such as TiO2 nanoparticles suspended in a colloid containing dye molecules [5

5. N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, “Laser action in strongly scattering media,” Nature 368(6470), 436–438 (1994). [CrossRef]

]) and another class in which the scatterers are active (such as ZnO nanorods arrays [6

6. H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, H. C. Ong, S. T. Ho, J. Y. Dai, J. Y. Wu, and R. P. H. Chang, “Ultraviolet lasing in resonator forward by scattering in semiconductor polycrystalline films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(25), 3656–3658 (1998). [CrossRef]

]). The RL action may occur when there is an excitation threshold, due to the multiple scattering, above which the total optical gain is larger than the losses. Optical modes with a central frequency, narrow bandwidth, short lifetime and a complex spatial profile are defined by the scattering process [3

3. D. S. Wiersma, “The physics and applications of random lasers,” Nat. Phys. 4(5), 359–367 (2008). [CrossRef]

].

The first RL based on a Nd3+ doped powder was reported in 1986 [2

2. M. A. Noginov, Solid-State Random Lasers (Springer, 2005).

]. Crystalline particles with dimensions from 1 to 10 μm were excited by a dye laser operating in the orange-red region and RL emission was obtained at 1.06 μm. The experiment was made at 77 K and the laser threshold was ≈600 kW/cm2. More recently Nd3+ nanocrystals have been investigated and the mechanisms of excitation and relaxation participating in the process were studied. A list of more than 30 materials doped with Nd3+ as well as many reports based on other RE ions are given in Ref. [2

2. M. A. Noginov, Solid-State Random Lasers (Springer, 2005).

]. It was observed that the maximum efficiency is obtained for particles with dimensions between 1 and 100 μm. In the blue region RL was obtained for Nd3+ doped alumina nanoparticles for excitation by electron beams with energy varying from 2 to 10 KeV [9

9. B. Li, G. Williams, S. C. Rand, T. Hinklin, and R. M. Laine, “Continuous-wave ultraviolet laser action in strongly scattering Nd-doped alumina,” Opt. Lett. 27(6), 394–396 (2002). [CrossRef]

,10

10. S. M. Redmond, G. L. Armstrong, H.-Y. Chan, E. Mattson, A. Mock, B. Li, J. R. Potts, M. Cui, S. C. Rand, S. L. Oliveira, J. Marchal, T. Hinklin, and R. M. Laine, “Electrical generation of stationary light in random scattering media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21(1), 214–222 (2004). [CrossRef]

].

Most of the optically pumped RLs reported for RE doped systems are based on Stokes processes, i.e.: the RL wavelength is larger than the pumping wavelength. RL based on an anti-Stokes process involving RE ions was reported only for Tm3+-doped fluorozirconate glass powder containing micrometer size titanium dioxide particles excited with a laser operating at 1064 nm [11

11. H. Fujiwara and K. Sasaki, “Observation of upconversion lasing within a thulium-ion-doped glass powder film containing titanium dioxide particles,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 10B), L1337–L1339 (2004). [CrossRef]

]. Frequency upconversion (UC) RL emission at 793 nm (450 nm) was observed with pump intensity threshold of 2.6 kW/cm2 (6.3 kW/cm2).

In the present paper we report on the operation of a UC random laser emitting at 381 nm obtained from a Nd3+ - doped glass powder pumped by a pulsed dye laser operating at 575 nm, in resonance with the Nd3+ transition 4I9/22G7/2. The RL threshold was 30 kW/cm2 and RL pulses of 29 ns were observed for pumping above the threshold.

2. Experimental details

Glass samples with compositions (in mol %) (41-x)InF3-20ZnF2-20SrF2-16BaF2-2NaF-1GaF3-xNdF3 (x = 0.5, 1.0, and 3.0) were fabricated. Standard pro-analysis oxides and fluorides were used as starting materials for the glass synthesis and the classical ammonium bifluoride process was employed [17

17. C. B. de Araújo, G. S. Maciel, L. de S. Menezes, N. Rakov, E. L. Falcão-Filho, V. A. Jerez, and Y. Messaddeq, “Frequency upconversion in rare-earth doped fluoroindate glasses,” C. R. Chim. 5(12), 885–898 (2002). [CrossRef]

]. The fluoride powders were mixed together and heat treated at 700 °C for melting and then 800 °C for refining. The melt was poured and cooled into a preheated mold. Finning, casting, and annealing were carried out under dry argon atmosphere and samples with good optical quality were obtained. Afterwards a powder with grains having average size between 25 and 38 μm (measured using an electron microscope) was prepared by crushing the glass samples and passing the grains through calibrated sieves. Finally the amorphous powder was gently pressed to a volume of ≈8 mm3 using a sample-holder fabricated for the optical experiments.

The absorption spectra of the bulk samples were measured using a commercial spectrophotometer from the near-ultraviolet to the near-infrared. A dye laser using Rhodamine 590 dissolved in ethanol, pumped by the second harmonic of a pulsed Nd: YAG laser (532 nm, 8 ns, 5 Hz) was used as the excitation source. The dye laser beam was focused on the sample using a 20 cm focal length lens. The signal emitted by the sample was collected using a 5 cm focal length lens, along ≈45° direction with respect to the laser beam propagation direction. The luminescence spectrum was recorded through a 0.5 m monochromator followed by a photomultiplier coupled to a computer.

3. Results and discussion

Figure 1
Fig. 1 Absorption spectrum of fluoroindate glass doped with Nd3+ ions. Sample length: 1.8 mm.
shows the absorption spectrum of the bulk sample with x = 3.0. The features correspond to electronic transitions involving states in the 4f configuration, starting from the ground state (4I9/2) of the Nd3+ ions to the excited states labeled in the figure. The other samples present similar spectrum. The positions of the Nd3+ bands are independent of the concentration but their amplitudes are proportional to the Nd3+ concentration. The large bandwidths are due to the inhomogeneous broadening caused by the different crystalline fields in the various sites occupied by the Nd3+ ions.

Figure 2
Fig. 2 Luminescence spectra in the wavelength range of interest. Excitation wavelength: 575 nm.
shows the luminescence spectrum of the powder samples for excitation at 575 nm in resonance with the transition 4I9/22G7/2. Other luminescence transitions were observed in other wavelengths but they are not relevant for the present experiment (the complete UC spectrum for the bulk sample was published in Ref. [19

19. L. de S. Menezes, C. B. de Araújo, Y. Messaddeq, and M. A. Aegerter, “Frequency upconversion in Nd3+ doped fluoroindate glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 213–214, 256–260 (1997). [CrossRef]

]). The spectra for the other powder samples present the same emission lines. For small excitation intensity the violet and blue luminescence exhibited a quadratic dependence with the laser intensity indicating that two laser photons are necessary to generate each UC photon.

The UC lines in the 365 to 435 range were also reported for bulk samples in [20

20. G. S. Maciel, L. de S. Menezes, C. B. de Araújo, and Y. Messaddeq, “Violet and blue light amplification in Nd3+ doped fluoroindate glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 85, 6782–6785 (1999). [CrossRef]

]. Gain parameters were determined for both spectral lines using a broad band incoherent light source as the probe beam at the spectral region of interest (~360–440 nm) and a pump beam at 583 or 532 nm. The emission at 381 nm was attributed to transitions 4D7/24I13/2 and 4D3/24I11/2 while the emission at 412 nm was attributed to the transition 4D3/24I13/2. The measured gain for the line at 381 nm for Nd3+ concentrations (x = 0.5, 1.0, and 3.0) assumed values between 30% and 100% larger than for the 412 nm line.

In the present experiments with FIG powders, the RL behavior was identified only for the emission at 381 nm and therefore the intensity behavior of the emission at 412 nm will not be discussed.

Although the UC light was emitted along a large solid angle, the signal recorded was contained in a small solid angle centered in the 45° direction with respect to the propagation of the pump laser. The intensity emitted did not change much for small angular deviations with respect to the direction of observation.

Figure 3(a)
Fig. 3 (a) Intensity at 381 nm versus the input intensity at 575 nm (sample with x = 3.0). (b) Temporal evolution of the UC signal. Laser intensity: 50 kW/cm2. (c) UC spectra for pumping at 575 nm (red line) and 532 nm (green line).
shows the dependence of the intensity at 381 nm as a function of the incident laser intensity for the sample with x = 3.0. A fast signal with ≈29 ns duration is observed for pump intensities of 40 and 50 kW/cm2 followed by a long tail that extends for microseconds. For pump intensity of 20 kW/cm2 only the slow signal, with the decay and rise times given in Table 1

Table 1. Decay and Rise Times of the 381 nm Signal for Pump Intensities Smaller Than 20 kW/cm2, Obtained Through Fittings of the Functionf(t)|et/t1et/t2|

table-icon
View This Table
, is observed. Figure 3(b) shows the time evolution of the 381 nm signal for the three samples for pump intensity of 50 kW/cm2. Figure 3(c) shows the UC lineshapes for pump at 575 nm and at 532 nm, with intensity of 50 kW/cm2. The spectral change is attributed to the signal amplification of a particular class of ions in the inhomogeneously broadened line.

To analyze the results we first consider that two possible UC pathways may contribute for the results. From the energy level scheme of the Nd3+ ions, shown in Fig. 4(a)
Fig. 4 (a) Simplified energy level scheme of Nd3+ ions with indication of the radiative transitions (solid lines) and the relevant energy transfer process (dashed lines). (b) Pair states involved in the UC process.
, we observe that one possible pathway would start by one–photon absorption from the ground state to state 2G7/2 followed by excited state absorption to states with energy of ≈34780 cm−1.

On the other hand, the 381 nm signal exhibits contributions of both transitions: 4D7/24I13/2 (fast UC signal) and 4D3/24I11/2 (slow UC signal) when the excitation intensity is larger than 30 kW/cm2. In this case the number of ions excited to level 4D7/2 becomes large enough and the amplified spontaneous emission corresponding to transition 4D7/24I13/2 becomes relevant. Therefore, the dynamical behavior of the 381 nm signal is described by f(t)=A1et/t1+A2et/t2A3et/t3, where A2et/t2 is due to the transition 4D7/24I13/2. The fitting of f(t) to the 381 nm signal for the sample with x = 3.0 is shown of Fig. 5(a)
Fig. 5 (a) Temporal behavior of the 318 nm signal for the sample with x = 3.0. Laser intensity: 50 kW/cm2. The solid blue line represents a fitting of f(t) with the parameters indicated in the text. (b) Temporal behavior of the RL signal (pump intensity: 50 kW/cm2). The inset shows the signal behavior for pump intensity of 20 kW/cm2. (c) RL intensity as a function of the laser intensity. Sample: x = 3.0.
where A1 = 0.9; A2 = 19.9; A3 = 57.9; t1 = 2.1 μs; t2 = 0.02 μs; and t3 = 0.01 μs. The horizontal scale used in Fig. 5(a) allows observing clearly the signal rise time. The inset in Fig. 5(a) shows the fitting for longer times. Figure 5(b) shows the temporal profile of the fast signal component for the sample with x = 3.0, after subtraction of the slow signal component. The inset of the figure shows the signal time behavior at the pumping intensity 20 kW/cm2. The amplitude of the ≈29 ns pulse is shown in Fig. 5(c) as a function of the pump intensity. The inset in Fig. 5(c) shows the log-log plot of the data. A RL threshold of ≈30 kW/cm2 can be observed. Notice that by increasing the pump intensity from 20 kW/cm2 to 55 kW/cm2 we obtained a 70-fold increase in the emitted intensity at 381 nm.

In summary, the results presented demonstrate a UC random laser operating in the ultraviolet. The laser is based on the orange-to-ultraviolet conversion obtained in a Nd3+ doped fluoride glass powder. The contribution of an energy transfer mechanism for RL generation is reported here for the first time. Considering the large variety known of efficient UC processes involving rare-earth ions the present results show that there is good potential to operate RLs with basis in other UC schemes.

Acknowledgments

We acknowledge the support from the Brazilian Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq) through the National Institute of Photonics Project (INCT de Fotônica) and the Fundação de Amparo à Ciência e Tecnologia do Estado de Pernambuco (FACEPE). The Centro de Tecnologias Estratégicas para o Nordeste (CETENE) is acknowledged for electron microscope images.

References and links

1.

H. Cao, “Lasing in random media,” Waves Random Media 13(3), R1–R39 (2003). [CrossRef]

2.

M. A. Noginov, Solid-State Random Lasers (Springer, 2005).

3.

D. S. Wiersma, “The physics and applications of random lasers,” Nat. Phys. 4(5), 359–367 (2008). [CrossRef]

4.

D. S. Wiersma and M. A. Noginov, “Nano and random lasers,” J. Opt. 12(2), 020201–024014 (2010). [CrossRef]

5.

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, “Laser action in strongly scattering media,” Nature 368(6470), 436–438 (1994). [CrossRef]

6.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, H. C. Ong, S. T. Ho, J. Y. Dai, J. Y. Wu, and R. P. H. Chang, “Ultraviolet lasing in resonator forward by scattering in semiconductor polycrystalline films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(25), 3656–3658 (1998). [CrossRef]

7.

X. Meng, K. Fujita, S. Murai, and K. Tanaka, “Coherent random lasers in weakly scattering polymer films containing silver nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. A 79(5), 053817 (2009). [CrossRef]

8.

A. M. Brito-Silva, A. Galembeck, A. S. L. Gomes, A. J. Jesus-Silva, and C. B. de Araújo, “Random laser action in dye solutions containing Stöber silica nanoparticles,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(3), 033508 (2010). [CrossRef]

9.

B. Li, G. Williams, S. C. Rand, T. Hinklin, and R. M. Laine, “Continuous-wave ultraviolet laser action in strongly scattering Nd-doped alumina,” Opt. Lett. 27(6), 394–396 (2002). [CrossRef]

10.

S. M. Redmond, G. L. Armstrong, H.-Y. Chan, E. Mattson, A. Mock, B. Li, J. R. Potts, M. Cui, S. C. Rand, S. L. Oliveira, J. Marchal, T. Hinklin, and R. M. Laine, “Electrical generation of stationary light in random scattering media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21(1), 214–222 (2004). [CrossRef]

11.

H. Fujiwara and K. Sasaki, “Observation of upconversion lasing within a thulium-ion-doped glass powder film containing titanium dioxide particles,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 10B), L1337–L1339 (2004). [CrossRef]

12.

M. A. R. C. Alencar, A. S. L. Gomes, and C. B. de Araújo, “Directional laserlike emission from a dye-doped polymer containing rutile nanoparticles,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20(3), 564–567 (2003). [CrossRef]

13.

C. J. S. de Matos, L. de S Menezes, A. M. Brito-Silva, M. A. Martinez Gámez, A. S. L. Gomes, and C. B. de Araújo, “Random fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(15), 153903 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

Q. Song, L. Liu, and L. Xu, “Directional random-laser emission from Bragg gratings with irregular perturbation,” Opt. Lett. 34(3), 344–346 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15.

M. Gagné and R. Kashyap, “Demonstration of a 3 mW threshold Er-doped random fiber laser based on a unique fiber Bragg grating,” Opt. Express 17(21), 19067–19074 (2009). [CrossRef]

16.

E. Pecoraro, S. García-Revilla, R. A. S. Ferreira, R. Balda, L. D. Carlos, and J. Fernández, “Real time random laser properties of Rhodamine-doped di-ureasil hybrids,” Opt. Express 18(7), 7470–7478 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

17.

C. B. de Araújo, G. S. Maciel, L. de S. Menezes, N. Rakov, E. L. Falcão-Filho, V. A. Jerez, and Y. Messaddeq, “Frequency upconversion in rare-earth doped fluoroindate glasses,” C. R. Chim. 5(12), 885–898 (2002). [CrossRef]

18.

E. L. Falcão-Filho, C. B. de Araújo, and Y. Messaddeq, “Frequency upconversion involving triads and quartets of íons in a Pr3+ / Nd3+ codoped fluoroindate glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(6), 3065–3070 (2002). [CrossRef]

19.

L. de S. Menezes, C. B. de Araújo, Y. Messaddeq, and M. A. Aegerter, “Frequency upconversion in Nd3+ doped fluoroindate glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 213–214, 256–260 (1997). [CrossRef]

20.

G. S. Maciel, L. de S. Menezes, C. B. de Araújo, and Y. Messaddeq, “Violet and blue light amplification in Nd3+ doped fluoroindate glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 85, 6782–6785 (1999). [CrossRef]

21.

M. Yamane and Y. Asahara, Glasses for Photonics (Cambridge University Press, 2000).

OCIS Codes
(140.3530) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, neodymium
(140.3610) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, ultraviolet
(140.5680) Lasers and laser optics : Rare earth and transition metal solid-state lasers
(190.0190) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics
(140.3613) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, upconversion

ToC Category:
Lasers and Laser Optics

History
Original Manuscript: February 3, 2011
Revised Manuscript: February 28, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: February 28, 2011
Published: March 10, 2011

Citation
Marcos A. S. de Oliveira, Cid B. de Araújo, and Younes Messaddeq, "Upconversion ultraviolet random lasing in Nd3+ doped fluoroindate glass powder," Opt. Express 19, 5620-5626 (2011)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-6-5620


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References

  1. H. Cao, “Lasing in random media,” Waves Random Media 13(3), R1–R39 (2003). [CrossRef]
  2. M. A. Noginov, Solid-State Random Lasers (Springer, 2005).
  3. D. S. Wiersma, “The physics and applications of random lasers,” Nat. Phys. 4(5), 359–367 (2008). [CrossRef]
  4. D. S. Wiersma and M. A. Noginov, “Nano and random lasers,” J. Opt. 12(2), 020201–024014 (2010). [CrossRef]
  5. N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, “Laser action in strongly scattering media,” Nature 368(6470), 436–438 (1994). [CrossRef]
  6. H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, H. C. Ong, S. T. Ho, J. Y. Dai, J. Y. Wu, and R. P. H. Chang, “Ultraviolet lasing in resonator forward by scattering in semiconductor polycrystalline films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(25), 3656–3658 (1998). [CrossRef]
  7. X. Meng, K. Fujita, S. Murai, and K. Tanaka, “Coherent random lasers in weakly scattering polymer films containing silver nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. A 79(5), 053817 (2009). [CrossRef]
  8. A. M. Brito-Silva, A. Galembeck, A. S. L. Gomes, A. J. Jesus-Silva, and C. B. de Araújo, “Random laser action in dye solutions containing Stöber silica nanoparticles,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(3), 033508 (2010). [CrossRef]
  9. B. Li, G. Williams, S. C. Rand, T. Hinklin, and R. M. Laine, “Continuous-wave ultraviolet laser action in strongly scattering Nd-doped alumina,” Opt. Lett. 27(6), 394–396 (2002). [CrossRef]
  10. S. M. Redmond, G. L. Armstrong, H.-Y. Chan, E. Mattson, A. Mock, B. Li, J. R. Potts, M. Cui, S. C. Rand, S. L. Oliveira, J. Marchal, T. Hinklin, and R. M. Laine, “Electrical generation of stationary light in random scattering media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21(1), 214–222 (2004). [CrossRef]
  11. H. Fujiwara and K. Sasaki, “Observation of upconversion lasing within a thulium-ion-doped glass powder film containing titanium dioxide particles,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 10B), L1337–L1339 (2004). [CrossRef]
  12. M. A. R. C. Alencar, A. S. L. Gomes, and C. B. de Araújo, “Directional laserlike emission from a dye-doped polymer containing rutile nanoparticles,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20(3), 564–567 (2003). [CrossRef]
  13. C. J. S. de Matos, L. de S Menezes, A. M. Brito-Silva, M. A. Martinez Gámez, A. S. L. Gomes, and C. B. de Araújo, “Random fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(15), 153903 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. Q. Song, L. Liu, and L. Xu, “Directional random-laser emission from Bragg gratings with irregular perturbation,” Opt. Lett. 34(3), 344–346 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. M. Gagné and R. Kashyap, “Demonstration of a 3 mW threshold Er-doped random fiber laser based on a unique fiber Bragg grating,” Opt. Express 17(21), 19067–19074 (2009). [CrossRef]
  16. E. Pecoraro, S. García-Revilla, R. A. S. Ferreira, R. Balda, L. D. Carlos, and J. Fernández, “Real time random laser properties of Rhodamine-doped di-ureasil hybrids,” Opt. Express 18(7), 7470–7478 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. C. B. de Araújo, G. S. Maciel, L. de S. Menezes, N. Rakov, E. L. Falcão-Filho, V. A. Jerez, and Y. Messaddeq, “Frequency upconversion in rare-earth doped fluoroindate glasses,” C. R. Chim. 5(12), 885–898 (2002). [CrossRef]
  18. E. L. Falcão-Filho, C. B. de Araújo, and Y. Messaddeq, “Frequency upconversion involving triads and quartets of íons in a Pr3+ / Nd3+ codoped fluoroindate glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(6), 3065–3070 (2002). [CrossRef]
  19. L. de S. Menezes, C. B. de Araújo, Y. Messaddeq, and M. A. Aegerter, “Frequency upconversion in Nd3+ doped fluoroindate glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 213–214, 256–260 (1997). [CrossRef]
  20. G. S. Maciel, L. de S. Menezes, C. B. de Araújo, and Y. Messaddeq, “Violet and blue light amplification in Nd3+ doped fluoroindate glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 85, 6782–6785 (1999). [CrossRef]
  21. M. Yamane and Y. Asahara, Glasses for Photonics (Cambridge University Press, 2000).

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