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Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 19, Iss. 6 — Mar. 14, 2011
  • pp: 5690–5697
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Femtosecond pulse damage thresholds of dielectric coatings in vacuum

Duy N. Nguyen, Luke A. Emmert, Paul Schwoebel, Dinesh Patel, Carmen S. Menoni, Michelle Shinn, and Wolfgang Rudolph  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 19, Issue 6, pp. 5690-5697 (2011)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.19.005690


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Abstract

The dielectric breakdown behavior of dielectric coatings in studied for different ambient gas pressures with femtosecond laser pulses. At 10−7 Torr, the multiple femtosecond pulse damage threshold, Fm, is about 10% of the single pulse damage fluence F(1) for hafnia and silica films compared to about 65% and 50%, respectively, at 630 Torr. In contrast, the single-pulse damage threshold is pressure independent. The decrease of Fm with decreasing air pressure correlates with the water vapor and oxygen content of the ambient gas with the former having the greater effect. The decrease in Fm is likely associated with an accumulation of defects derived from oxygen deficiency, for example vacancies. From atmospheric air pressure to pressures of ~3x10−6 Torr, the damage “crater” starts deterministically at the center of the beam and grows in diameter as the fluence increases. At pressure below 3x10−6 Torr, damage is initiated at random “sites” within the exposed area in hafnia films, while the damage morphology remains deterministic in silica films. A possible explanation is that absorbing centers are created at predisposed sample sites in hafnia, for example at boundaries between crystallites, or crystalline and amorphous phases.

© 2011 OSA

1. Introduction

We report here on the fs pulse dielectric breakdown behavior of optical coatings under low pressure conditions for various ambient gases. The studies were performed on ion-beam sputtered hafnia and silica films, which form the backbone of optical interference coatings. The drop in damage threshold is dependent on water vapor and oxygen pressures, but for reasons different than discussed previously for nanosecond pulses. In hafnia films, we also observed a change in the damage mechanism from a deterministic process at high pressure to a stochastic process for pressures below a few 10−6 Torr. Our results are of particular interest for high-intensity femtosecond laser interactions with coated optical components under low pressure (< 1 Torr) conditions as are typical for terawatt and petawatt systems [2

2. M. D. Perry and G. Mourou, “Terawatt to petawatt subpicosecond lasers,” Science 264(5161), 917–924 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

2. Experimental

The threshold fluence for dielectric breakdown (damage) was measured for various gas pressures and atmospheres. A diagram of the experimental setup is shown in Fig. 1(a)
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic diagram of the fs dielectric breakdown (damage) measurements in various ambient gas environments and at different pressures. (b) RGA spectrum at a base pressure of 3x10−7 Torr.
. A fs Ti:sapphire oscillator-amplifier system produced 800-nm, 1-kHz pulse trains containing an adjustable number of pulses. The pulse duration in all experiments was set by the compressor stage of the amplifier to 50 fs. The energy of the pulses was controlled coarsely with an attenuator inside the amplifier, while fine tuning was done by a pair of in-line counter-rotating, glass plates near Brewster’s angle. The energy of each individual excitation pulse was measured with a calibrated photodiode. The samples were placed inside a vacuum chamber and the pulses were focused through a fused silica window. The waist of the Gaussian beam, w0, at the sample surface was about 20 μm.

The chamber was evacuated by a turbo-molecular pump to a base pressure of 3x10−7 Torr. The pressure and gas composition for the experiment was set by introducing different gasses of interest through a variable-rate leak valve. A cold trap removed residual water vapor in the gas line when necessary. A Residual Gas Analyzer (RGA100, Stanford Research Systems) allowed us to analyze the partial pressure of gaseous components inside the chamber as long as the total pressure was below 10−4 Torr. Figure 1(b) shows a typical RGA spectrum at the base pressure of 3x10−7 Torr, indicating that the chamber was essentially free of organic contamination with partial pressures above 10−8 Torr.

Film damage was observed with a microscope and CCD camera (online) by monitoring the change of scattered light at the illuminated spot. A round-robin experiment comparing different damage diagnostic techniques showed that this method is accurate within acceptable error bars [14

14. K. Starke and D. Ristau, “S., Martin, A. Hertwig, J. Krueger, P. Allenspacher, W. Riede, S. Meister, C. Theiss, A. J. Sabbah, W. Rudolph, V. Raab, R. Grigonis, T. Rikickas, V. Sirutkaitis, “Results of a round-robin experiment in multiple-pulse LIDT measurement with ultrashort pulses,” Proc. SPIE 5273, 388–395 (1994). [CrossRef]

]. The damage morphology of the films was studied ex situ with a Nomarski microscope (Olympus BX60).

For the single-pulse experiments (1-on-1) the sample was moved after each pulse regardless of whether visible damage occurred to avoid any pulse accumulation effects. For multiple pulse experiments (S-on-1), the sample was illuminated with a burst of a pre-selected number (S) of pulses. For large numbers of pulses (S > 5,000) the pulse train continuously illuminated the sample until damage occurred or until a maximum number of pulses (1.8x106) were reached. Pulse-to-pulse energy fluctuations of the laser system were approximately 2%.

Unless stated otherwise the samples were quarter-wave (λ = 800 nm) thick hafnia (HfO2) films deposited on super-polished fused silica substrates using dual ion-beam sputtering (DIBS) with a hafnium-metal target [15

15. B. Langdon, D. Patel, E. Krous, J. J. Rocca, C. S. Menoni, F. Tomasel, S. Kholi, P. R. McCurdy, P. Langston, and A. Ogloza, “Influence of process conditions on the optical properties HfO2/SiO2 thin films for high power laser coatings,” Proc. SPIE 6720, 67200X, 67200X-8 (2007). [CrossRef]

].

3. Results

Figure 2
Fig. 2 Damage fluence as a function of pulse number exciting one and the same sample site (S-on-1) for 50 fs pulses at two different pressures. The sample was a single HfO2 layer deposited on super-polished fused silica substrate. The solid square represents the fluence for which no damage was observed within 30 min (1.8x106 pulses) of illumination.
shows the breakdown fluence as a function of the number of pulses illuminating one and the same sample site at atmospheric pressure (630 Torr at an elevation of 1,600 m) and for 3x10−7 Torr. The data at atmospheric pressure show the expected behavior [16

16. L. A. Emmert, M. Mero, and W. Rudolph, “Modeling the effect of native and laser-induced states on the dielectric breakdown of wide band gap optical materials by multiple subpicosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(4), 043523 (2010). [CrossRef]

]. For the maximum number of pulses tested (S = 300,000) the damage fluence drops with increasing number of pulses until it levels off at a minimum value F m, which is a few tens of percent below the value for single pulses. This drop can be explained with the occupation of native and laser induced defects during the pulse train and their re-excitation by subsequent pulses [11

11. A. Rosenfeld, M. Lorenz, R. Stoian, and D. Ashkenasi, “Ultrashort-laser-pulse damage threshold of transparent materials and the role of incubation,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 69(7), S373–S376 (1999). [CrossRef]

,12

12. M. Mero, B. Clapp, J. C. Jasapara, W. Rudolph, D. Ristau, K. Starke, J. Krüger, S. Martin, and W. Kautek, “On the damage behavior of dielectric films when illuminated with multiple femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Eng. 44(5), 051107 (2005). [CrossRef]

,16

16. L. A. Emmert, M. Mero, and W. Rudolph, “Modeling the effect of native and laser-induced states on the dielectric breakdown of wide band gap optical materials by multiple subpicosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(4), 043523 (2010). [CrossRef]

]. Values of F m for transparent materials are commonly 50-80% of the single-pulse value [11

11. A. Rosenfeld, M. Lorenz, R. Stoian, and D. Ashkenasi, “Ultrashort-laser-pulse damage threshold of transparent materials and the role of incubation,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 69(7), S373–S376 (1999). [CrossRef]

,12

12. M. Mero, B. Clapp, J. C. Jasapara, W. Rudolph, D. Ristau, K. Starke, J. Krüger, S. Martin, and W. Kautek, “On the damage behavior of dielectric films when illuminated with multiple femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Eng. 44(5), 051107 (2005). [CrossRef]

,17

17. D. N. Nguyen, L. A. Emmert, W. Rudolph, D. Patel, E. Krous, C. S. Menoni, and M. Shinn, “Studies of femtosecond laser induced damage of HfO2 thin film in atmospheric and vacuum environment,” Proc. SPIE 7504, 750403, 750403-8 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. At 3x10−7 Torr, the measured values of F(S) are the same as for 630 Torr for S < 300, but drop off dramatically for larger number of pulses. The minimum threshold, F m, recorded was 10% of the single-pulse value, which indicates the presence of additional processes that affect the damage at low pressure.

The low pressure data in Fig. 2 were taken after reaching base pressure. This pressure was achieved after 18 hours of pumping, during which time F m dropped asymptotically to the observed value. The chamber was not heated, so the background gas was primarily water vapor (see Fig. 1b) that slowly desorbs from the interior walls of the vacuum chamber. The influence of individual gases on F m was determined by re-introducing them after reaching base pressure. The results are shown in Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Multiple pulse damage fluence of hafnia films as a function of various gas pressures. The fluences are normalized to F(1)
. Nitrogen and toluene do not affect the breakdown threshold F m. The outcome with toluene is very different from the observation with ns pulses, where organic compounds formed graphitic deposits that accelerated failure [6

6. S. Becker, A. Pereira, P. Bouchut, F. Geffraye, and C. Anglade, “Laser-induced contamination of silica coatings in vacuum,” Proc. SPIE 6403, 64030J, 64030J-12 (2006). [CrossRef]

,7

7. R. R. Kunz, V. Liberman, and D. K. Downs, “Experimentation and modeling of organic photocontamination on lithographic optics,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18(3), 1306–1313 (2000). [CrossRef]

,18

18. C. T. Scurlock, “A phenomenological study of the effect of trace contamination on lifetime reduction and laser-induced damage for optics,” Proc. SPIE 5647, 86–94 (2005). [CrossRef]

].

Figure 3 shows that F m is sensitive to both the pressure of water vapor and gaseous oxygen. The increase in F m when these gases are introduced occurs within 5 minutes (the time required to make a measurement). No further changes in F m were observed up to 5 hours (data not shown). When water vapor is added, F m is constant until at a partial pressure of about ~3x10−6 Torr there is a step-like increase. Above this pressure, the damage threshold recovers continuously and reaches its atmospheric-pressure value at a few Torr. For comparison, a typical partial pressure of water vapor in our lab is about 4 Torr (20% humidity at 300 K [19

19. D. R. Lide, “CRC: Handbook of chemistry and physics,” CRC Press, Inc. 73th ed., pp. 6–11 (1992).

]). Finally, the oxygen pressure also affects F m, but the damage fluence does not reach its atmospheric value even at 2 atm of pure oxygen. Roughly speaking, the damage fluences at different pressures of air exhibit the combined effect of oxygen and water vapor.

Figure 4
Fig. 4 Multiple pulse damage fluence as a function of water vapor pressure for three different materials: HfO2 films, SiO2 films and bulk fused silica. The fluences are normalized to F(1) of the respective material. The horizontal F m lines represent breakdown fluences under atmospheric conditions for hafnia films (solid line), silica films (dotted line) and fused silica surfaces (dashed line).
compares measured F m values as a function of water vapor pressure of hafnia and silica films, prepared by DIBS, as well as fused silica (surface). The breakdown fluence of fused silica surfaces does not depend on ambient pressure. While F m of silica films also drops with the water vapor pressure, the step-like change at low pressure observed for hafnia is absent and most of the changes occur at higher pressures compared to hafnia films. It should be noted that the damage fluence as a function of pressure effects observed with DIBS hafnia films were also observed with hafnia films prepared by atomic layer deposition (ALD).

4. Discussion

The single fs pulse damage fluences of high-quality films and dielectric materials in general are determined by fundamental material parameters, such as multi-photon and impact ionization coefficients [20

20. B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, “Nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 53(4), 1749–1761 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,21

21. M. Mero, J. Zeller, and W. Rudolph, “Ultrafast processes in highly excited wide-gap dielectric thin films.” In: P. Hannaford (Ed.), in Femtosecond Laser Spectroscopy, (Springer, New York 2005).

]. As a result, the thresholds are very deterministic and controlled by the local pulse fluence. The critical (1-on-1) fluence was found to scale as F(1) ≈(a + bEgκp with band gap Eg and pulse duration τp for dielectric oxide films [22

22. M. Mero, J. Liu, W. Rudolph, D. Ristau, and K. Starke, “Scaling laws of femtosecond laser pulse induced breakdown in oxide films,” Phys. Rev. B 71(11), 115109 (2005). [CrossRef]

]. Since the material parameters are not likely to be affected by the gases used in our experiments, the damage fluence is independent of gas type and pressure. In contrast, multiple pulse damage thresholds are controlled by native and laser induced defects. Our results suggest that additional absorption sites develop at reduced water vapor and oxygen pressure under laser irradiation. Oxygen and water vapor diffusing out of the film at lower pressure without laser irradiation can also change the effective multi-photon and impact ionization coefficient. However, such changes were too small to be detected with our experimental uncertainty of 3% for F(1) measurements.

If the ambient (air) pressure is decreased oxygen can diffuse out of the film producing defects of certain concentration Nox based on oxygen deficiency. One possible example is a vacancy defect that is known to exist in hafnia [23

23. A. S. Foster, F. Lopez Gejo, A. L. Shluger, and R. M. Nieminen, “Vacancy and interstitial defects in hafnia,” Phys. Rev. B 65(17), 174117 (2002). [CrossRef]

,24

24. H. Takeuchi, D. Ha, and T. J. King, “Observation of Bulk HfO2 defects by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 22(4), 1337–1341 (2004). [CrossRef]

]. The steady state density of these defects reached at a certain pressure depends on the oxygen partial pressure p o and the partial pressure of water vapor pw. The dependence of Nox on p o is obvious if oxygen diffusion is driven by a concentration gradient. Water in the film and at the surface can act as a barrier for the oxygen diffusion and moreover can replenish oxygen in the film when chemisorbed. These processes are mediated by laser radiation (a pulse train of 1 kHz repetition rate). The resulting increase of N ox with decreasing pressure leads to a decrease in the multiple pulse damage threshold according to our model of laser-induced dielectric breakdown [16

16. L. A. Emmert, M. Mero, and W. Rudolph, “Modeling the effect of native and laser-induced states on the dielectric breakdown of wide band gap optical materials by multiple subpicosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(4), 043523 (2010). [CrossRef]

]. Damage is still deterministic with respect to the input fluence, that is, it starts at the beam center. The damage morphology is illustrated in Fig. 5 (top row).

These deterministic processes of laser-driven defect accumulation can explain the observed continuous drop of F m in HfO2 with decreasing pressure only down to the critical water vapor pressure, pw = pc ~3x10−6 Torr, where a step-like drop in F m was observed, cf. Figure 3. At this critical pressure, the damage morphology changes, and the initiation sites occur randomly within the beam area, as was observed, cf. Figure 5 (bottom row). Several processes can happen. Under laser radiation (1 kHz) water may not be able to form an epilayer on the surface and the surface can become charged locally. Charging of dielectric surfaces under nanosecond pulses irradiation [26

26. D. Ugolini, R. McKinney, and G. M. Harry, “Developing an optical chopper-modulated capacitive probe for measuring surface charge,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78(4), 046102 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

28

28. S. R. George, J. A. Leraas, S. C. Langford, and J. T. Dickinson, “Interaction of vacuum ultraviolet excimer laser radiation with fused silica, I. Positive ion emission,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(3), 033107 (2010). [CrossRef]

] was reported previously. The local charges (maybe together with defects from oxygen deficiencies) can produce absorbing surface states that act as damage initiation sites. This must happen preferentially at randomly distributed sample sites. These predisposed sites could for example be boundaries between different material phases (crystalline and amorphous) or between micro-crystallites. On the other hand, it is known that silica is less prone to developing partially crystalline domains compared to hafnia, which may explain why the damage morphology in silica did not change to a random pattern at low water vapor pressure.

5. Summary

The single fs pulse (1-on-1) damage fluence F(1) of dielectric oxide films (hafnia and silica) is not affected by the ambient gas pressure. The multiple pulse threshold fluence F m for hafnia (silica films) decreases relative to F(1) with decreasing atmospheric pressure to about 10% of F(1) at 10−7 Torr compared to ~65% (~50%) at 630 Torr (atmospheric pressure). The decrease of F m with decreasing air pressure correlates with the water vapor and oxygen content of the ambient gas with the former having the larger effect. The decrease in F m is likely associated with an accumulation of defects derived from oxygen deficiency, for example vacancies. From atmospheric air pressure to pressures of ~3x10−6 Torr, the damage “crater” starts deterministically at the center of the beam and grows in diameter as the fluence increases. At pressure below 3x10−6 Torr, damage is initiated at random “sites” within the exposed area in hafnia films, while the damage morphology remains deterministic in silica films. These sites are likely created at predisposed sample locations (for example boundaries between different material phases) as a result of charging the film’s surface under laser radiation. This produces absorbing states distributed randomly across the film. The change in damage morphology was not observed with silica films, which are known to exhibit a greater degree of amorphicity than hafnia films. The gas and pressure effects are not observed with bulk fused silica surfaces. The laser induced damage threshold of hafnia films in air does not depend on the repetition rate if it is ≤ 1 kHz [12

12. M. Mero, B. Clapp, J. C. Jasapara, W. Rudolph, D. Ristau, K. Starke, J. Krüger, S. Martin, and W. Kautek, “On the damage behavior of dielectric films when illuminated with multiple femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Eng. 44(5), 051107 (2005). [CrossRef]

]. It remains open and a subject of further study if and how the damage fluences under vacuum conditions change with the pulse period.

In applications where multiple pulse damage thresholds of dielectric coatings under low pressure are a concern adding a small amount of water vapor (~10−3 Torr) if permitted by the experimental conditions can increase the damage threshold by a factor about 3.

Acknowledgments

The authors gratefully acknowledge funding by ONR, award No. N00014-06-1-0664 and No. N00014-07-1-1068, and NSF, award No. PHYS-0722622. We are grateful to Dr. Detlev Ristau (Laser Zentrum Hannover) for providing us with comparison hafnia (IBS) samples and to Dr. Joseph J. Talghader (University of Minnesota) for hafnia (ALD) samples. We thank Dr. Mark Mero for many helpful discussions.

References and links

1.

A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, O. Le Rille, D. Lajas, and A. G. Straume, “Particle backscatter and extinction profiling with the spaceborne high-spectral-resolution Doppler lidar ALADIN: methodology and simulations,” Appl. Opt. 46(26), 6606–6622 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2.

M. D. Perry and G. Mourou, “Terawatt to petawatt subpicosecond lasers,” Science 264(5161), 917–924 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3.

J. C. Livas and B. C. Moore, “LIGO vacuum system study,” J. Environ. Sci. (China) 32(6), 28–32 (1989).

4.

G. M. Harry, M. R. Abernathy, A. E. Becerra-Toledo, H. Armandula, E. Black, K. Dooley, M. Eichenfield, C. Nwabugwu, A. Villar, D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, C. R. How, I. MacLaren, P. Murray, S. Reid, S. Rowan, P. H. Sneddon, M. M. Fejer, R. Route, S. D. Penn, P. Ganau, J.-M. Mackowski, C. Michel, L. Pinard, and A. Remillieux, “Titania-doped tantala/silica coatings for gravitational-wave detection,” Class. Quantum Gravity 24(2), 405–415 (2007). [CrossRef]

5.

K. Yamada, T. Yamazaki, N. Sei, T. Shimizu, R. Suzuki, T. Ohdaira, M. Kawai, M. Yokoyama, S. Hamada, K. Saeki, E. Nishimura, T. Mikado, T. Noguchi, S. Sugiyama, M. Chiwaki, H. Ohgaki, and T. Tomimasu, “Degradation and restoration of dielectric-coated cavity mirrors in the NIJI-IV FEL,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 358(1-3), 392–395 (1995). [CrossRef]

6.

S. Becker, A. Pereira, P. Bouchut, F. Geffraye, and C. Anglade, “Laser-induced contamination of silica coatings in vacuum,” Proc. SPIE 6403, 64030J, 64030J-12 (2006). [CrossRef]

7.

R. R. Kunz, V. Liberman, and D. K. Downs, “Experimentation and modeling of organic photocontamination on lithographic optics,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18(3), 1306–1313 (2000). [CrossRef]

8.

L. Jensen, M. Jupe, H. Madebach, H. Ehlers, K. Starke, D. Ristau, W. Riede, P. Allenspacher, and H. Schroeder, “Damage threshold investigations of high power laser optics under atmospheric and vacuum conditions,” Proc. SPIE 6403, 64030U, 64030U-10 (2006). [CrossRef]

9.

F. E. Hovis, B. Shepherd, C. Radcliffe, and H. Maliborski, “Mechanisms of contamination induced optical damage in lasers,” Proc. SPIE 2428, 72–83 (1994). [CrossRef]

10.

W. Riede, P. Allenspacher, H. Schroeder, D. Wernham, and Y. Lien, “Laser-induced hydrocarbon contamination in vacuum,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 59910H, 59910H-13 (2005). [CrossRef]

11.

A. Rosenfeld, M. Lorenz, R. Stoian, and D. Ashkenasi, “Ultrashort-laser-pulse damage threshold of transparent materials and the role of incubation,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 69(7), S373–S376 (1999). [CrossRef]

12.

M. Mero, B. Clapp, J. C. Jasapara, W. Rudolph, D. Ristau, K. Starke, J. Krüger, S. Martin, and W. Kautek, “On the damage behavior of dielectric films when illuminated with multiple femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Eng. 44(5), 051107 (2005). [CrossRef]

13.

A. P. Joglekar, H. Liu, G. J. Spooner, E. Meyhofer, G. Mourou, and A. J. Hunt, “A study of deterministic character of optical damage by femtosecond laser pulses and applications to nanomachining,” Appl. Phys. B 77, 25–30 (2003). [CrossRef]

14.

K. Starke and D. Ristau, “S., Martin, A. Hertwig, J. Krueger, P. Allenspacher, W. Riede, S. Meister, C. Theiss, A. J. Sabbah, W. Rudolph, V. Raab, R. Grigonis, T. Rikickas, V. Sirutkaitis, “Results of a round-robin experiment in multiple-pulse LIDT measurement with ultrashort pulses,” Proc. SPIE 5273, 388–395 (1994). [CrossRef]

15.

B. Langdon, D. Patel, E. Krous, J. J. Rocca, C. S. Menoni, F. Tomasel, S. Kholi, P. R. McCurdy, P. Langston, and A. Ogloza, “Influence of process conditions on the optical properties HfO2/SiO2 thin films for high power laser coatings,” Proc. SPIE 6720, 67200X, 67200X-8 (2007). [CrossRef]

16.

L. A. Emmert, M. Mero, and W. Rudolph, “Modeling the effect of native and laser-induced states on the dielectric breakdown of wide band gap optical materials by multiple subpicosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(4), 043523 (2010). [CrossRef]

17.

D. N. Nguyen, L. A. Emmert, W. Rudolph, D. Patel, E. Krous, C. S. Menoni, and M. Shinn, “Studies of femtosecond laser induced damage of HfO2 thin film in atmospheric and vacuum environment,” Proc. SPIE 7504, 750403, 750403-8 (2009). [CrossRef]

18.

C. T. Scurlock, “A phenomenological study of the effect of trace contamination on lifetime reduction and laser-induced damage for optics,” Proc. SPIE 5647, 86–94 (2005). [CrossRef]

19.

D. R. Lide, “CRC: Handbook of chemistry and physics,” CRC Press, Inc. 73th ed., pp. 6–11 (1992).

20.

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, “Nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 53(4), 1749–1761 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

21.

M. Mero, J. Zeller, and W. Rudolph, “Ultrafast processes in highly excited wide-gap dielectric thin films.” In: P. Hannaford (Ed.), in Femtosecond Laser Spectroscopy, (Springer, New York 2005).

22.

M. Mero, J. Liu, W. Rudolph, D. Ristau, and K. Starke, “Scaling laws of femtosecond laser pulse induced breakdown in oxide films,” Phys. Rev. B 71(11), 115109 (2005). [CrossRef]

23.

A. S. Foster, F. Lopez Gejo, A. L. Shluger, and R. M. Nieminen, “Vacancy and interstitial defects in hafnia,” Phys. Rev. B 65(17), 174117 (2002). [CrossRef]

24.

H. Takeuchi, D. Ha, and T. J. King, “Observation of Bulk HfO2 defects by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 22(4), 1337–1341 (2004). [CrossRef]

25.

M.D. Shinn, “Irradiation of hafnia/silica multilayer coatings with a high average power FEL”, JLAB-TN-11–001.

26.

D. Ugolini, R. McKinney, and G. M. Harry, “Developing an optical chopper-modulated capacitive probe for measuring surface charge,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78(4), 046102 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

27.

F. E. Domann, M. F. Becker, A. H. Guenther, and A. F. Stewart, “Charged particle emission related to laser damage,” Appl. Opt. 25(9), 1371–1373 (1986). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

28.

S. R. George, J. A. Leraas, S. C. Langford, and J. T. Dickinson, “Interaction of vacuum ultraviolet excimer laser radiation with fused silica, I. Positive ion emission,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(3), 033107 (2010). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(140.3330) Lasers and laser optics : Laser damage
(140.7090) Lasers and laser optics : Ultrafast lasers
(310.6870) Thin films : Thin films, other properties

ToC Category:
Lasers and Laser Optics

History
Original Manuscript: February 9, 2011
Revised Manuscript: March 2, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: March 3, 2011
Published: March 11, 2011

Citation
Duy N. Nguyen, Luke A. Emmert, Paul Schwoebel, Dinesh Patel, Carmen S. Menoni, Michelle Shinn, and Wolfgang Rudolph, "Femtosecond pulse damage thresholds of dielectric coatings in vacuum," Opt. Express 19, 5690-5697 (2011)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-6-5690


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References

  1. A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, O. Le Rille, D. Lajas, and A. G. Straume, “Particle backscatter and extinction profiling with the spaceborne high-spectral-resolution Doppler lidar ALADIN: methodology and simulations,” Appl. Opt. 46(26), 6606–6622 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. D. Perry and G. Mourou, “Terawatt to petawatt subpicosecond lasers,” Science 264(5161), 917–924 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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