OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijin de Sterke
  • Vol. 19, Iss. 7 — Mar. 28, 2011
  • pp: 5735–5740
« Show journal navigation

Heterogeneous radio-over-fiber passive access network architecture to mitigate Rayleigh backscattering interferometric beat noise

C. H. Yeh and C. W. Chow  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 19, Issue 7, pp. 5735-5740 (2011)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.19.005735


View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (848 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

We propose and experimentally demonstrate a hybrid radio-over-fiber (ROF) wavelength division multiplexed and time division multiplexed passive optical network (WDM-TDM PON) architecture to mitigate Rayleigh backscattering (RB) interferometric beat noises. Here, only a single wavelength is needed at the central office (CO) to generate the downstream baseband data for optical wired application and optical millimeter-wave (mm-wave) signal for wireless application. The upstream signal is produced by remodulating the downstream signal. No optical filter is required at the optical network unit/remote antenna unit (ONU/RAU) to separate the optical wired and optical mm-wave signals. In the proposed network, 10 Gb/s differential phase shift keying (DPSK) signal is used for the downstream optical wired application and 2.5 Gb/s on-off keying (OOK) signal on 20 GHz carrier is used for the optical mm-wave signal. In each ONU, a reflective optical semiconductor amplifier (RSOA) is used to remodulate and produce a 2.5 Gb/s OOK format for upstream traffic. As the back-refection produced by the downstream DPSK signal and the upstream OOK signal is traveling in different fiber path, RB noise at the CO can be completely mitigated

© 2011 OSA

1. Introduction

Recently, time-division-multiplexed (TDM) and wavelength-division-multiplexed passive optical networks (WDM-PONs) have been extensively studied for fiber to the home (FTTH) access applications due to the advantages of high-speed, huge-capacity, and cost-effectiveness etc [1

1. “10Gb/s Ethernet Passive Optical Network,” IEEE 802.3av Standard, September 2009.

2

2. H. Erkan, G. Ellinas, A. Hadjiantonis, R. Dorsinville, and M. Ali, “Native Ethernet-based self-healing WDM-PON local access ring architecture: A new direction for supporting simple and efficient resilience capability,” in Proc. IEEE ICC, 2010.

]. Because of the high bandwidth demand (towards Exabyte (1018)) in the future [3

3. G. Gilder, “Plenary Paper: The rise of Exaflood optics”, in Proc. ECOC, 2009, Paper 1.0.1.

], the present TDM-PON could not support this requirement. To solve this issue, hybrid WDM-TDM PON will be clearly emerging technology for next-generation access [4

4. C. W. Chow, C. H. Yeh, C. H. Wang, F. Y. Shih, C. L. Pan, and S. Chi, “WDM extended reach passive optical networks using OFDM-QAM,” Opt. Express 16(16), 12096–12101 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. However, in such WDM-PONs, multi-wavelength sources are required in central office (CO) to produce the downstream data to different optical network unit (ONU). And, each ONU also requires a specific-wavelength to match with the corresponding wavelength at the CO. Thus, a wavelength-tunable laser is demanded in each ONU for generating upstream signal [5

5. C. H. Yeh, F. Y. Shih, C. H. Wang, C. W. Chow, and S. Chi, “Cost-effective wavelength-tunable fiber laser using self-seeding Fabry-Perot laser diode,” Opt. Express 16(1), 435–439 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Even though it is workable to employ a tunable laser source at each ONU, the laser source is still costly in WDM-PON access. It may also delay the development of WDM-PON. Hence, carrier-distribution PON access has been studied to overcome the high deployment cost in WDM-TDM PON [6

6. C. W. Chow, “Wavelength remodulation using DPSK down-and-upstream with high extinction ratio for 10-Gb/s DWDM-passive optical networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(1), 12–14 (2008). [CrossRef]

,7

7. C. Kazmierski, “Remote amplified modulations: Key components for 10 Gb/s WDM PON,” in Proc. OFC, 2010, Paper OWN6.

]. In that PON, the upstream signal of ONU is generated by the laser source of central office (CO) for centralizing management. So, the “colorless” component or reflective modulator (R-MOD) can be used in each ONU. The WDM lasers located at CO can provide the optical carrier to each R-MOD of ONU to reuse the downstream for upstream link. That is to say, each ONU do not require the expensive tunable laser source for data traffic [8

8. C. H. Yeh, C. W. Chow, C. H. Wang, F. Y. Shih, H. C. Chien, and S. Chi, “A self-protected colorless WDM-PON with 2.5 Gb/s upstream signal based on RSOA,” Opt. Express 16(16), 12296–12301 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,9

9. W. Hung, C. K. Chan, L. K. Chen, and F. Tong, “An optical network unit for WDM access networks with downstream DPSK and upstream remodulated OOK data using injection-locked FP laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(10), 1476–1478 (2003). [CrossRef]

]. Due to the colorless ONU operation, it would lead to the Rayleigh backscattering (RB) interferometric beat noise, which is produced at the receiver at central office (CO). The RB beat noise could degrade the received signal to noise ratio (SNR) and reduce the received sensitivity [10

10. Z. Li, Y. Dong, Y. Wang, and C. Lu, “A novel PSK-Manchester modulation format in 10-Gb/s passive optical network system with high tolerance to beat interference noise,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(5), 1118–1120 (2005). [CrossRef]

]. To avoid and mitigate the RB noise in PONs, several technologies have been developed and reported, such as using phase and bias-current dithering, advanced modulation formats, and wavelength shifting [11

11. C. W. Chow, G. Talli, and P. D. Townsend, “Rayleigh noise reduction in 10-Gb/s DWDM-PONs by wavelength detuning and phase-modulation-induced spectral broadening,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(6), 423–425 (2007). [CrossRef]

14

14. A. Chowdhury, H. C. Chien, M. F. Huang, J. Yu, and G. K. Chang, “Rayleigh backscattering noise-eliminated 115-km long-reach bidirectional centralized WDM-PON with 10-Gb/s DPSK downstream and remodulated 2.5-Gb/s OCS-SCM upstream signal,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(24), 2081–2083 (2008). [CrossRef]

]. However, the above methods either needed the complicated modulations or employing the dithering to broaden the upstream wavelength, which would decrease the dispersion tolerance. Furthermore, to increase the capacity and mobility in access area, the integration of wireless and optical fiber networks would be the powerful solution [15

15. G. K. Chang, J. Yu, Z. Jia, and J. Yu, “Novel optical-wireless access network architecture for simultaneously providing broadband wireless and wired services,” in Proc. OFC, 2006, Paper OFM1.

]. Hence, radio-over-fiber (ROF) technology has been proposed to integrate wireless and wired network and provide the broadband service everywhere [16

16. T. Taniguchi, N. Sakurai, K. Kumozaki, and T. Imai, “Full-duplex 1 Gbps 60 GHz-band radio-over-fiber access based on loop-back optical heterodyne technique,” in Proc. OFC, 2006, Paper OWG5.

,17

17. J. Yu, Z. Jia, L. Yi, Y. Su, G. K. Chang, and T. Wang, “Optical millimeter-wave generation or up-conversion using external modulators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(1), 265–267 (2006). [CrossRef]

]. Furthermore, to provide full-duplex ROF access in single wavelength, an optical filter should be used to filter baseband channel or remodulated wavelength in the past studies [18

18. Z. Jia, J. Yu, and G. K. Chang, “A full-duplex radio-over-fiber system based on optical carrier suppression and reuse,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(16), 1726–1728 (2006). [CrossRef]

,19

19. C. T. Lin, C. F. Peng, P. C. Peng, J. Chen, W. R. Peng, B. S. Chiou, and S. Chi, “Simultaneous modulation and transmission of FTTH baseband and radio signals on a single wavelength,” in Proc. OFC, 2007, Paper OThM7.

]. Moreover, these proposed ROF networks were also without RB noise mitigation.

In this investigation, the proposed ROF WDM-TDM PON architecture not only can provide baseband data and broadcasting millimeter (mm)-wave signal simultaneously, but also can mitigate the RB beat noises. Here, only a single wavelength at CO is used to generate the 10 Gb/s DPSK baseband downstream and 2.5 Gb/s data on 20 GHz mm-wave for video broadcasting to each ONU/RAU in 20 km single mode fiber (SMF) transmission without using any optical filter on the CO and each ONU/RAU. Besides, the DPSK downstream can be also remodulated by reflective semiconductor optical amplifier (RSOA) in each ONU for upstream traffic at 2.5 Gb/s OOK format. As a result, we can observe that the colorless upstream signal is not affected by the RB noises since the proposed architecture allows the back-reflected RB noises and the upstream signal travel in different fiber paths.

2. Experiment and discussions

Figure 1
Fig. 1 Proposed hybrid ROF WDM-TDM PON system with RB noise mitigation.
shows the proposed heterogeneous ROF WDM-TDM PON with RB beat noise mitigation. At the CO, the 1550.1 nm continuous-wave (CW) lightwave was split into two paths via a 1×2 and 50:50 optical coupler (CP) to generate the baseband and mm-wave signals, as illustrated in Fig. 1. We employed a single-arm Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM) with modulation speed of 12 GHz to generate 20 GHz mm-wave signal by double side-band carrier suppression (DSB-CS) modulation for wireless video broadcasting. Here, the 2.5 Gb/s non-return-to-zero (NRZ) data, at pseudo random binary sequence (PRBS) of 231−1 pattern length, was up-converted via a RF mixer with an electrical sinusoidal signal at 10 GHz frequency. The polarization controller (PC) could be utilized to adjust the properly polarization state to keep the maximum and optimum output of the MZM. We drove the MZM to generate the DSB-CS signal by optimally adjusting the driving voltage. In Fig. 1, the erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) with 17 dBm saturated power and 5 dB noise figure was employed to compensate the losses of passive component and fiber transmission. Figure 2
Fig. 2 Output spectra of 20 GHz mm-wave signal and CW lightwave.
shows the output spectra of the CW lightwave and mm-wave signal, observed by an optical spectrum analyzer (OSA) with a 0.05 nm resolution. The dashed and solid lines are the CW lightwave of 1550.1 nm and DSB-CS signal when the RF is driven at 10 GHz, observed at the input and output of DP-MZM, respectively.

The DSB-CS signal was sent from the CO via the upper fiber path (F1) and propagated into ONU via optical circulator (OC) (port 3 → port 4) to the 40 GHz PIN receiver (Rx) for wireless broadcasting after 20 km SMF fiber propagation, as seen in Fig. 1. In the experiment, the 20 GHz mm-wave signal was down-converted to baseband for measuring the bit error rate (BER) performance in ROF-PON system. Figure 3
Fig. 3 BER performance of 20 GHz mm-wave signal. The insert are corresponding eye diagrams.
presents the BER curve of at the down-converted 2.5 Gb/s OOK signal at back-to-back (B2B) and 20 km fiber transmission. Thus, nearly 0.2 dB optical power penalty is obtained in Fig. 3. The inserts of Fig. 3 are the corresponding eye diagrams under B2B and 20 km fiber transmission. And, the measured eye is still wide and clear opening after 20 km fiber propagation. And, since the fiber length is only 20 km and the radio-over-fiber signal is only 20 GHz, the RF fading effect is negligible in this transmission length.

In baseband (downstream) traffic, the 1550.1 nm CW lightwave was modulated at 10 Gb/s DPSK format by a LiNbO3 phase modulator (PM), encoding with a differentially precoded NRZ data with 231−1 pattern length, and transmitted through the lower fiber path (F2) into the ONU, as illustrated in Fig. 1. And the DPSK downstream signal was launched into the RSOA via an OC (port 1→ port 2). Half of the optical power was received by an optically pre-amplified receiver, which constructed by a variable optical attenuator (VOA), EDFA, delay interferometer (DI) for DPSK demodulation, and 10 GHz PIN receiver. We then measured the 10 Gb/s DPSK downstream signal received at the ONU after 20 km fiber transmission. Figure 4
Fig. 4 BER performance of 10 GB/s DPSK downstream signal. The inserts are corresponding eye diagrams.
shows the measured BER performance of the downstream traffic at B2B and 20 km fiber transmission. The power penalty of 1 dB was measured at the BER of 10−9 after 20 km fiber link. And the measured eye diagrams, which are observed in the inserts of Fig. 4, are clear and wide opening at B2B and 20 km transmission. Moreover, as shown in Fig. 1, the output power sending from the CW source at the central office was 9 dBm. Then the power was split by a 3-dB fiber coupler and hence only 6 dBm were launched to produce the RF and the baseband signals respectively. Under this power level, we have not observed any nonlinear effects that will affect the phase modulation.

Next, the rest of the DPSK downstream power was launched into the RSOA, which operated at 80 mA, to generate the upstream signal. The upstream signal of RSOA could be remodulated at 2.5 Gb/s OOK format with the NRZ PRBS data with pattern length of 231−1. However, the modulation rate is limited by the RSOA, higher data rate is possible in the proposed scheme. To investigate the relationship of downstream injected-power level and output performance of remodulated upstream signal first, different powers of DPSK downstream signal were injected into the RSOA for upstream remodulation. Figure 5
Fig. 5 BER performances versus different DPSK injection powers.
shows the measured BERs under different injected-power levels at 2.5 Gb/s OOK modulation, in 20 km fiber transmission. Figure 5 presents that the better BER performance depends on larger injection power. As a result, to achieve 2.5 Gb/s remodulation at the BER of 10−9, the downstream injection must be larger than −10 dBm.

3. Conclusion

We have proposed and experimentally demonstrated the hybrid ROF WDM-TDM PON architecture to mitigate RB noises. Here, only a single wavelength is needed at the CO to generate the downstream baseband data for optical wired application and optical mm-wave signal for wireless application. The upstream signal is produced by remodulating the downstream signal. No optical filter is required at the ONU/RAU to separate the optical wired and optical mm-wave signals. In the proposed network, 10 Gb/s differential phase shift keying (DPSK) signal is used for the downstream optical wired application with power penalty of 1 dB after 20 km SMF transmission; and 2.5 Gb/s on-off keying (OOK) signal on 20 GHz carrier is used for the optical mm-wave signal with negligible power penalty measured at the down-converted OOK signal. In each ONU, a reflective optical semiconductor amplifier (RSOA) is used to remodulate and produce a 2.5 Gb/s OOK format for upstream traffic with power penalty of 0.5 dB after 20 km SMF transmission. As the backrefection produced by the downstream DPSK signal and the upstream OOK signal is traveling in different fiber path, RB noise at the CO can be completely mitigated. As a result, the proposed WDM-TDM PON network presents the simple configuration and good transmission performance.

References and links

1.

“10Gb/s Ethernet Passive Optical Network,” IEEE 802.3av Standard, September 2009.

2.

H. Erkan, G. Ellinas, A. Hadjiantonis, R. Dorsinville, and M. Ali, “Native Ethernet-based self-healing WDM-PON local access ring architecture: A new direction for supporting simple and efficient resilience capability,” in Proc. IEEE ICC, 2010.

3.

G. Gilder, “Plenary Paper: The rise of Exaflood optics”, in Proc. ECOC, 2009, Paper 1.0.1.

4.

C. W. Chow, C. H. Yeh, C. H. Wang, F. Y. Shih, C. L. Pan, and S. Chi, “WDM extended reach passive optical networks using OFDM-QAM,” Opt. Express 16(16), 12096–12101 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

C. H. Yeh, F. Y. Shih, C. H. Wang, C. W. Chow, and S. Chi, “Cost-effective wavelength-tunable fiber laser using self-seeding Fabry-Perot laser diode,” Opt. Express 16(1), 435–439 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

C. W. Chow, “Wavelength remodulation using DPSK down-and-upstream with high extinction ratio for 10-Gb/s DWDM-passive optical networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(1), 12–14 (2008). [CrossRef]

7.

C. Kazmierski, “Remote amplified modulations: Key components for 10 Gb/s WDM PON,” in Proc. OFC, 2010, Paper OWN6.

8.

C. H. Yeh, C. W. Chow, C. H. Wang, F. Y. Shih, H. C. Chien, and S. Chi, “A self-protected colorless WDM-PON with 2.5 Gb/s upstream signal based on RSOA,” Opt. Express 16(16), 12296–12301 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

W. Hung, C. K. Chan, L. K. Chen, and F. Tong, “An optical network unit for WDM access networks with downstream DPSK and upstream remodulated OOK data using injection-locked FP laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(10), 1476–1478 (2003). [CrossRef]

10.

Z. Li, Y. Dong, Y. Wang, and C. Lu, “A novel PSK-Manchester modulation format in 10-Gb/s passive optical network system with high tolerance to beat interference noise,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(5), 1118–1120 (2005). [CrossRef]

11.

C. W. Chow, G. Talli, and P. D. Townsend, “Rayleigh noise reduction in 10-Gb/s DWDM-PONs by wavelength detuning and phase-modulation-induced spectral broadening,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(6), 423–425 (2007). [CrossRef]

12.

P. J. Urban, A. M. J. Koonen, G. D. Khoe, and H. de Waardt, “Rayleigh backscattering-suppression in a WDM access network employing a reflective semiconductor optical amplifier,” Proc. Symposium IEEE/LEOS Benelux Chapter, pp. 147–150, 2007.

13.

C. H. Wang, C. W. Chow, C. H. Yeh, C. L. Wu, S. Chi, and C. Lin, “Rayleigh noise mitigation using single sideband modulation generated by a dual-parallel MZM for carrier distributed PON,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(11), 820–822 (2010). [CrossRef]

14.

A. Chowdhury, H. C. Chien, M. F. Huang, J. Yu, and G. K. Chang, “Rayleigh backscattering noise-eliminated 115-km long-reach bidirectional centralized WDM-PON with 10-Gb/s DPSK downstream and remodulated 2.5-Gb/s OCS-SCM upstream signal,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(24), 2081–2083 (2008). [CrossRef]

15.

G. K. Chang, J. Yu, Z. Jia, and J. Yu, “Novel optical-wireless access network architecture for simultaneously providing broadband wireless and wired services,” in Proc. OFC, 2006, Paper OFM1.

16.

T. Taniguchi, N. Sakurai, K. Kumozaki, and T. Imai, “Full-duplex 1 Gbps 60 GHz-band radio-over-fiber access based on loop-back optical heterodyne technique,” in Proc. OFC, 2006, Paper OWG5.

17.

J. Yu, Z. Jia, L. Yi, Y. Su, G. K. Chang, and T. Wang, “Optical millimeter-wave generation or up-conversion using external modulators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(1), 265–267 (2006). [CrossRef]

18.

Z. Jia, J. Yu, and G. K. Chang, “A full-duplex radio-over-fiber system based on optical carrier suppression and reuse,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(16), 1726–1728 (2006). [CrossRef]

19.

C. T. Lin, C. F. Peng, P. C. Peng, J. Chen, W. R. Peng, B. S. Chiou, and S. Chi, “Simultaneous modulation and transmission of FTTH baseband and radio signals on a single wavelength,” in Proc. OFC, 2007, Paper OThM7.

OCIS Codes
(060.2330) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics communications
(290.5870) Scattering : Scattering, Rayleigh

ToC Category:
Fiber Optics and Optical Communications

History
Original Manuscript: December 20, 2010
Revised Manuscript: February 21, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: February 23, 2011
Published: March 14, 2011

Citation
C. H. Yeh and C. W. Chow, "Heterogeneous radio-over-fiber passive access network architecture to mitigate Rayleigh backscattering interferometric beat noise," Opt. Express 19, 5735-5740 (2011)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-7-5735


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. “10Gb/s Ethernet Passive Optical Network,” IEEE 802.3av Standard, September 2009.
  2. H. Erkan, G. Ellinas, A. Hadjiantonis, R. Dorsinville, and M. Ali, “Native Ethernet-based self-healing WDM-PON local access ring architecture: A new direction for supporting simple and efficient resilience capability,” in Proc. IEEE ICC, 2010.
  3. G. Gilder, “Plenary Paper: The rise of Exaflood optics”, in Proc. ECOC, 2009, Paper 1.0.1.
  4. C. W. Chow, C. H. Yeh, C. H. Wang, F. Y. Shih, C. L. Pan, and S. Chi, “WDM extended reach passive optical networks using OFDM-QAM,” Opt. Express 16(16), 12096–12101 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. C. H. Yeh, F. Y. Shih, C. H. Wang, C. W. Chow, and S. Chi, “Cost-effective wavelength-tunable fiber laser using self-seeding Fabry-Perot laser diode,” Opt. Express 16(1), 435–439 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. C. W. Chow, “Wavelength remodulation using DPSK down-and-upstream with high extinction ratio for 10-Gb/s DWDM-passive optical networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(1), 12–14 (2008). [CrossRef]
  7. C. Kazmierski, “Remote amplified modulations: Key components for 10 Gb/s WDM PON,” in Proc. OFC, 2010, Paper OWN6.
  8. C. H. Yeh, C. W. Chow, C. H. Wang, F. Y. Shih, H. C. Chien, and S. Chi, “A self-protected colorless WDM-PON with 2.5 Gb/s upstream signal based on RSOA,” Opt. Express 16(16), 12296–12301 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. W. Hung, C. K. Chan, L. K. Chen, and F. Tong, “An optical network unit for WDM access networks with downstream DPSK and upstream remodulated OOK data using injection-locked FP laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(10), 1476–1478 (2003). [CrossRef]
  10. Z. Li, Y. Dong, Y. Wang, and C. Lu, “A novel PSK-Manchester modulation format in 10-Gb/s passive optical network system with high tolerance to beat interference noise,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(5), 1118–1120 (2005). [CrossRef]
  11. C. W. Chow, G. Talli, and P. D. Townsend, “Rayleigh noise reduction in 10-Gb/s DWDM-PONs by wavelength detuning and phase-modulation-induced spectral broadening,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(6), 423–425 (2007). [CrossRef]
  12. P. J. Urban, A. M. J. Koonen, G. D. Khoe, and H. de Waardt, “Rayleigh backscattering-suppression in a WDM access network employing a reflective semiconductor optical amplifier,” Proc. Symposium IEEE/LEOS Benelux Chapter, pp. 147–150, 2007.
  13. C. H. Wang, C. W. Chow, C. H. Yeh, C. L. Wu, S. Chi, and C. Lin, “Rayleigh noise mitigation using single sideband modulation generated by a dual-parallel MZM for carrier distributed PON,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(11), 820–822 (2010). [CrossRef]
  14. A. Chowdhury, H. C. Chien, M. F. Huang, J. Yu, and G. K. Chang, “Rayleigh backscattering noise-eliminated 115-km long-reach bidirectional centralized WDM-PON with 10-Gb/s DPSK downstream and remodulated 2.5-Gb/s OCS-SCM upstream signal,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(24), 2081–2083 (2008). [CrossRef]
  15. G. K. Chang, J. Yu, Z. Jia, and J. Yu, “Novel optical-wireless access network architecture for simultaneously providing broadband wireless and wired services,” in Proc. OFC, 2006, Paper OFM1.
  16. T. Taniguchi, N. Sakurai, K. Kumozaki, and T. Imai, “Full-duplex 1 Gbps 60 GHz-band radio-over-fiber access based on loop-back optical heterodyne technique,” in Proc. OFC, 2006, Paper OWG5.
  17. J. Yu, Z. Jia, L. Yi, Y. Su, G. K. Chang, and T. Wang, “Optical millimeter-wave generation or up-conversion using external modulators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(1), 265–267 (2006). [CrossRef]
  18. Z. Jia, J. Yu, and G. K. Chang, “A full-duplex radio-over-fiber system based on optical carrier suppression and reuse,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(16), 1726–1728 (2006). [CrossRef]
  19. C. T. Lin, C. F. Peng, P. C. Peng, J. Chen, W. R. Peng, B. S. Chiou, and S. Chi, “Simultaneous modulation and transmission of FTTH baseband and radio signals on a single wavelength,” in Proc. OFC, 2007, Paper OThM7.

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited