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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijin de Sterke
  • Vol. 19, Iss. 7 — Mar. 28, 2011
  • pp: 6541–6548
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Integrated plasmonic semi-circular launcher for dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguide

Xiaowei Li, Lingling Huang, Qiaofeng Tan, Benfeng Bai, and Guofan Jin  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 19, Issue 7, pp. 6541-6548 (2011)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.19.006541


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Abstract

A semi-circular plasmonic launcher integrated with dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polaritons waveguide (DLSPPW) is proposed and analyzed theoretically, which can focus and efficiently couple the excited surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) into the DLSPPW via the highly matched spatial field distribution with the waveguide mode in the focal plane. By tuning the incident angle or polarization of the illuminating beam, it is shown that the launcher may be conveniently used as a switch or a multiplexer that have potential applications in plasmonic circuitry. Furthermore, from an applicational point of view, it is analyzed how the coupling performance of the launcher can be further improved by employing multiple semi-circular slits.

© 2011 OSA

1. Introduction

Recently, various plasmonic lens structures have been proposed for exciting and focusing SPPs on metal-dielectric interface by use of the interference of SPPs [21

21. Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Focusing surface plasmons with a plasmonic lens,” Nano Lett. 5(9), 1726–1729 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

25

25. X. Li, Q. Tan, B. Bai, and G. Jin, “Plasmonic leak-free focusing lens under radially polarized illumination,” J. Opt. 12(8), 085001 (2010). [CrossRef]

]. It is shown that plasmonic lens consisting of ring slits perforated in metallic film can efficiently couple free-space propagating light into a sub-diffraction-limit focusing spot of SPPs. In this paper, we propose a semi-circular plasmonic lens functioning as an integrated SPP launcher for DLSPPW. The input facet of the DLSPPW is placed in the focal plane of the plasmonic lens so that the excited and focused SPPs can be efficiently coupled to the waveguide mode of the DLSPPW. The coupling performance is analyzed theoretically and numerically, which shows that high coupling efficiency can be achieved by matching the profile of the focused SPP field with the DLSPPW mode in this geometry. By adding multiple semi-circular slits, the output power can be further improved. Furthermore, the DLSPPW launcher is found dependent on the incident angle as well as the polarization of the illuminating light. Therefore, by proper design, the structures may function as SPP switches and multiplexers, which have potential applications in plasmonic circuitry. These properties will be investigated in detail in the following sections.

Note that, in the whole work, we assume backside illumination for the structure (i.e., the incident light is from the substrate side). This is to avoid the crosstalk between the incident field and the excited SPPs, so that the whole process of exciting, focusing, coupling, and waveguiding of the SPPs can be observed clearly. Otherwise, if the incident light is from the front side and the light spot is not small enough to be far away from the DLSPPW, the light would be a source of noise by exciting SPPs directly on the end of the DLSPPW via scattering [26

26. F. López-Tejeira, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, J. R. Krenn, I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. U. González, J. C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Efficient unidirectional nanoslit couplers for surface plasmons,” Nat. Phys. 3, 324 (2007). [CrossRef]

]. But, if the spot and the plasmonic lens are far from the DLSPPW, the propagating loss of the SPPs as well as the total device size would increase, so that the coupling efficiency of the SPPs into the DLSPPW mode would decrease, which is not expected. So, the backside illumination is preferred.

2. Geometry and principle of the device

The schematic geometry of the integrated plasmonic semi-circular launcher for DLSPPW is shown in Fig. 1(a)
Fig. 1 (a) Geometry of the proposed integrated plasmonic semi-circular launcher for DLSPPW. (b) Top view of the plasmonic lens with a single semi-circular slit. (c) Cross section of the DLSPPW waveguide.
. The working wavelength is chosen as λ 0 = 1.55 μm without loss of generality. One or several semi-circular slits with 300 nm width are perforated into a 200 nm thick silver film (with dielectric constant of ε Ag= −129.1+3.283i at λ 0 = 1.55 μm) deposited on a silica substrate (with n silica = 1.5) to function as the plasmonic focusing lens. A dielectric (e.g., polymer with n polymer = 1.5) stripe is fabricated directly on the silver surface to form the DLSPPW, whose input facet is in the focal plane (yz plane) of the semi-circular plasmonic lens. The geometric aspect ratio of the polymer stripe is chosen reasonable, with width of 500 nm and height of 600 nm [15

15. T. Holmgaard and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Theoretical analysis of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 75(24), 245405 (2007). [CrossRef]

], with which the DLSPPW has good mode confinement property at this wavelength and is achievable with standard nanofabrication techniques such as electron-beam lithography.

The principle of the DLSPPW launcher is described below. Since the silver film thickness is much larger than skin depth, the incident light cannot penetrate through the film except in the region where the slits are perforated. Therefore, when light illuminates the structure from the back side, SPPs can be excited on the air-silver interface via scattering of the incident light on the slits. With proper arrangement of the slit spacing, the SPPs excited by adjacent slits may get constructive interference when propagating on the air-silver interface, which leads to an intense focal spot at the center of the input facet of the DLSPPW [25

25. X. Li, Q. Tan, B. Bai, and G. Jin, “Plasmonic leak-free focusing lens under radially polarized illumination,” J. Opt. 12(8), 085001 (2010). [CrossRef]

]. If the spatial field distribution of the focal spot could closely match the DLSPPW mode, then high coupling efficiency of the SPPs into the waveguide mode could be achieved [27

27. G. I. Stegeman, R. F. Wallis, and A. A. Maradudin, “Excitation of surface polaritons by end-fire coupling,” Opt. Lett. 8(7), 386–388 (1983). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

For the convenience of our analysis below, we define three planes as shown by the dashed rectangles in Fig. 1(a): an input plane (in xy plane) covering the plasmonic lens area, a focal plane (in yz plane) at the focusing center of the plasmonic lens and containing the input facet of the DLSPPW, and an output plane (in yz plane) containing the output facet of the DLSPPW. Then by calculating and comparing the fields and power flows in the three planes, we can evaluate the coupling performance of the SPP launcher.

3. Coupling performance of the SPP launcher

First we consider a simple plasmonic lens consisting of only one semi-circular slit, as shown in Fig. 1(b), where r in = 2 μm and r out = 2.3 μm are the inner radius and outer radius of the slit, respectively. To begin with, we analyze the focusing property of the plasmonic semi-circular lens and the fundamental mode in the DLSPPW separately, by considering each element alone. The simulation was performed with commercial three-dimensional finite-element method software COMSOL MULTIPHYSICS. Figure 2(a)
Fig. 2 Simulated field distribution of time-averaged power flow in the considered structures. (a) Field distributions in both the input plane and focal plane (the inset) for a stand-alone semi-circular plasmonic lens. The arrow indicates the x-polarized incident light. (b) Field distribution of the fundamental mode in a stand-alone DLSPPW. The inset shows the field distribution in the focal plane. (c) Field distribution in the whole structure including both the SPP launcher and the DLSPPW. (d) Top view (in xy plane) of the field distribution in (c).
shows the calculated time-averaged power flow distributions in both the input plane and the focal plane under linearly polarized light (with electric field vector parallel with x axis) at backside normal incidence. Since only TM-polarized light component can excite SPPs, it is reasonable to see that the strongest (weakest) excitation of SPPs takes place at the center (ends) of the semi-circular arc where the slit is perpendicular (parallel) to the x axis. Figure 2(b) shows the time-averaged power flow distribution of the fundamental mode in the DLSPPW. The two fields in Figs. 2(a) and (b) resemble each other by viewing their profiles in the focal plane, especially the confinement on the silver-air surface in the vertical direction and the maximum intensity at the center. This implies that efficient coupling of the focused SPPs into the DLSPPW mode may be achieved. The coupling efficiency can be estimated by the overlapping integral below [28

28. G. T. Reed, and A. P. Knights, Silicon Photonics: An Introduction (John Wiley, West Sussex, 2004).

],
Γ=(Pfocus(y,z)PDLSPPW(y,z))dydzPfocus(y,z)dydzPDLSPPW(y,z)dydz,
(1)
where P focus(y,z) and P DLSPPW(y,z) denote the power flow in the focal plane with respect to the focused SPP field of the plasmonic lens and the fundamental mode of the DLSPPW, respectively. With our simulation, the coupling efficiency Γ is calculated to be 67.7%. The current technique has high coupling efficiency, thanks to the nice matching of the field profiles between the focused SPP spot and the DLSPPW mode.

Then we performed simulation for the whole structure containing both the SPP launcher and the DLSPPW. Note that in numerical modeling we terminate the output plane with absorption boundary condition to approximate the semi-infinitely long DLSPPW. Figures 2(c) and (d) present the field distribution in the structure. As can be seen, highly confined field (in both vertical and lateral directions) appears in the focal plane of the plasmonic lens and then propagates in the DLSPPW, meaning that most of the energy of SPPs excited in the input plane can be focused and coupled into the waveguide. Therefore, the plasmonic lens serves as an efficient SPP launcher that transfers energy from far-field light source to localized SPP mode in the DLSPPW.

In order to study the coupling efficiency more quantitatively, we need to calculate the integrated power flow in the three defined planes, i.e., P inc in the input plane over an area of 2r out×r out,P focus in the focal plane over an area of 1.5×1μm2, and P out in the output plane over an area of 1.5×1μm2 after the coupled SPPs propagate 7μm away in the DLSPPW. Then the conversion efficiency of incident light to SPPs can be characterized by η spp=P focus/P inc=1.36%, which is relatively low, meaning that only a small portion of the incident energy is transferred to the focused SPPs on the air-silver interface. This is reasonable because the scattering excitation of SPPs via a slit or a defect is very weak [29

29. S. A. Maier, Plasmonics: Fundamentals and Applications (Springer, New York, 2007).

] and the backside illumination further decreases the excitation efficiency. However, if we consider the coupling efficiency of the focused SPPs to the DLSPPW mode, we can obtain η′ mode=P out/P focus=61.3%. Note that the calculated coupling efficiency includes the intrinsic SPP propagation loss in the DLSPPW. If we take into account the propagation loss by exp(2k 0 n″L), where L=7μm is the propagation distance between the focal plane and output plane and n″ is the imaginary part of the calculated effective refractive index of the fundamental DLSPPW mode (which is solved as n eff=n′+in″=1.248+0.002733i), then the corrected coupling efficiency η mode=71.59%, which agree with our theoretical prediction by Eq. (1). It shows that the plasmonic semi-circular lens can indeed act as an efficient SPP launcher for DLSPPW. Moreover, if we consider visible wavelength and neglect the contribution of creeping wave [30

30. P. Lalanne and J. P. Hugonin, “Interaction between optical nano-objects at metallo-dielectric interfaces,” Nat. Phys. 2(8), 551–556 (2006). [CrossRef]

] at this wavelength, even higher coupling efficiency can be obtained.

So far, we have considered only a single semi-circular slit and, hence, from a practical point of view, it is natural to think about improving the output power flow by increasing the number of slits to have constructive interference of SPPs between them [24

24. W. Chen, D. C. Abeysinghe, R. L. Nelson, and Q. Zhan, “Plasmonic lens made of multiple concentric metallic rings under radially polarized illumination,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4320–4325 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,25

25. X. Li, Q. Tan, B. Bai, and G. Jin, “Plasmonic leak-free focusing lens under radially polarized illumination,” J. Opt. 12(8), 085001 (2010). [CrossRef]

]. In principle, if the radial distance between the slits is chosen properly to match the parallel (in xy plane) wavevector component of the incident light so that the constructive interference condition is satisfied, the output power can be readily increased by adding additional semi-circular slits and until the radius of the outermost semi-circular slit is greater than the propagation length of the SPPs [31

31. J. M. Steele, Z. Liu, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “Resonant and non-resonant generation and focusing of surface plasmons with circular gratings,” Opt. Express 14(12), 5664–5670 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The semi-circular slits are arranged concentric as shown in Fig. 1 (a), with the radial distance between the adjacent slits as λ spp (λ spp is the wavelength of SPPs on the air-silver interface, which is calculated as λspp=λ0(εAg+εair)/εAgεair=1.544μmin this case). In Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Normalized time-averaged power flow integrated at the output plane P out and the DLSPPW mode coupling efficiency η mode with respect to the number of semi-circle slits. The inset shows the power flow distribution for an SPP launcher with four semi-circular slits.
, we calculated the time-averaged power flow integrated in the output plane P out and the DLSPPW coupling efficiency η mode with respect to the number of semi-circular slits; the inset shows the power flow distribution for a SPP launcher with four semi-circular slits. It is seen that the integrated power flow in the output plane already increases by one order of magnitude when the number of slits increases to four, while the coupling efficiency of the focused SPPs to the DLSPPW mode remains the same (i.e., η mode=71.59%). This means that higher power flow can be coupled into the DLSPPW just by increasing the number of slits.

4. Tunable SPP coupling by modulating the incident angle and polarization

Having seen that the plasmonic semi-circular lens can be used as an efficient integrated SPP launcher for DLSPPW under linearly polarized light at normal incidence, in the following, we proceed to analyze how the coupling performance can be tuned by changing the incident angle and polarization, which introduces a phase shift to the excited SPPs emitted from the semi-circular slits.

We first incline the x-polarized incident light in the yz plane by an angle θ with respect to the z axis as shown in Fig. 4(a)
Fig. 4 (a) Geometry of an incident-angle-switching SPP launcher for multiple DLSPPWs. (b)-(d) Simulated time-averaged power flow distribution on the air-silver surface of the device under x-polarized light with incident angle θ = +20°, θ = 0°, and θ = −20°, respectively.
. A phase delay of the incident wavefront arriving at the circumference of the semi-circular slit arises due to the presence of the in-plane wavevector component k inc,y=k 0 sinθ, where k 0 is the wavenumber in free space. Since SPPs are excited only in the radial direction (i.e., perpendicular to the tangent of the slit), the phase delay of the incident wave also affects its radial component, which leads to a phase shift of the excited SPPs on the circumference of the slits. Consequently, the interference of the phase-shifted SPPs propagating from different parts of the semi-circular slit towards the circle center would produce a shift of the focal spot along the y axis. Simulation results show that the focal spot can be moved upward or downward by 1.13μm along the y axis on the air-silver interface if θ is changed, for example, to +20 or −20 degrees, respectively. This property may be utilized to achieve active switching between different DLSPPWs. For example, if we place three DLSPPWs with their input facets spaced by 1.13μm in the focal plane, then the SPPs could be launched into different DLSPPWs simply by changing the incident angle, as shown in Figs. 4(b)-(d), with coupling efficiency of 60.79%, 71.58% and 60.79% respectively. Note that although we have inclined the upper and lower DLSPPWs by 15 degrees with respect to the central one to minimize their cross-coupling, there is still some slight coupling into the neighbor waveguides. Nevertheless, the switching function is demonstrated unambiguously.

Furthermore, we would like to check the dependence on polarization. As is known, left- (LCP) or right-circularly polarized (RCP) light can naturally introduce phase change in its wavefront [32

32. Y. Gorodetski, A. Niv, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Observation of the spin-based plasmonic effect in nanoscale structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(4), 043903 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Thus, if the illumination is LCP or RCP wave, the focusing spot in the focal plane of the semi-circular launcher may also shift, even under normal incidence. By simulation, we found a shift of the focal spot by about 600nm in y direction upward or downward, depending on the RCP or LCP illuminations, respectively, as shown in Fig. 5(b)
Fig. 5 (a) Geometry of a polarization-switching SPP launcher for multiple DLSPPWs. (b) Simulated power flow distribution in the focal plane on the silver surface for LCP (dotted line) and RCP (solid line) illuminations. The insets show the power flow distribution in the xy plane on the silver surface for the two cases without including the DLSPPWs. (c) and (d) are the simulated time-averaged power flow distribution in xy plane on the silver surface for LCP and RCP illuminations, respectively, by including the DLSPPWs.
. Therefore, we can also utilize this property to achieve switchable SPP launching for different DLSPPWs (but under normal incidence in this case), as shown in Fig. 5(a). Two DLSPPWs are symmetrically placed with respect to the x axis with their input facets in the focal plane and spaced by a distance of 600nm. The two DLSPPWs are also rotated by 15 degree to reduce the cross-coupling. The calculated time-averaged power flow distributions on the air-silver surface are shown in Figs. 5(c) and (d) with coupling efficiency of 56.43%. Again, the principle of switchable launching is verified, although there is still little cross-coupling noise between the DLSPPWs.

5. Conclusion

We have proposed and analyzed the integrated SPP launchers for DLSPPW based on the plasmonic semi-circular lens, which can convert far field light to SPPs and then focus and couple the SPPs efficiently into the DLSPPW. Numerical simulations show that high coupling efficiency can be achieved via the highly matched spatial field distribution of the SPP focal spot with the DLSPPW mode in the focal plane. The coupled power flow into the DLSPPW can be further improved by adding multiple semi-circular slits. Furthermore, it is found that selective/switchable launching of SPPs into different DLSPPWs can be realized by simply changing either the incident angle or polarization. These properties can be utilized to realize integrated SPP switches or multiplexers, which may have potential applications in plasmonic circuitry and biosensing.

Acknowledgement

We acknowledge the support by the National Basic Research Program of China (Project No. 2007CB935303), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Project No. 11004119), and the Academy of Finland (Project No. 128420).

References and links

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H. Raether, Surface plasmons on smooth and rough surfaces and on gratings, (Springer-Verlag Berlin, 1988).

2.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

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E. Ozbay, “Plasmonics: merging photonics and electronics at nanoscale dimensions,” Science 311(5758), 189–193 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

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T. W. Ebbesen, C. Genet, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Surface-plasmon circuitry,” Phys. Today 61(5), 44–50 (2008). [CrossRef]

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S. I. Bozhevolnyi, Plasmonic Nanoguides and Circuits (Pan Stanford Publishing, Singapore, 2008).

6.

R. Zia, M. D. Selker, and M. L. Brongersma, “Leaky and bound modes of surface plasmon waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 71(16), 165431 (2005). [CrossRef]

7.

W. Nomura, M. Ohtsu, and T. Yatsui, “Nanodot coupler with a surface plasmon polariton condenser for optical far/near-field conversion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(18), 181108 (2005). [CrossRef]

8.

J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, C. Girard, J. R. Krenn, and J.-P. Goudonnet, “Plasmon polaritons of metallic nanowires for controlling submicron propagation of light,” Phys. Rev. B 60(12), 9061–9068 (1999). [CrossRef]

9.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon-polariton guiding by subwavelength metal grooves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(4), 046802 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

D. F. P. Pile, T. Ogawa, D. K. Gramotnev, T. Okamoto, M. Haraguchi, M. Fukui, and S. Matsuo, “Theoretical and experimental investigation of strongly localized plasmons on triangular metal wedges for subwavelength waveguiding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(6), 061106 (2005). [CrossRef]

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G. Veronis and S. Fan, “Guided subwavelength plasmonic mode supported by a slot in a thin metal film,” Opt. Lett. 30(24), 3359–3361 (2005). [CrossRef]

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B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, A. L. Stepanov, A. Drezet, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “Dielectric stripes on gold as surface plasmon waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(9), 094104 (2006). [CrossRef]

13.

J. Grandidier, S. Massenot, G. Colas des Francs, A. Bouhelier, J.-C. Weeber, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides: Figures of merit and mode characterization by image and Fourier plane leakage microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 78(24), 245419 (2008). [CrossRef]

14.

T. Holmgaard, Z. Chen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. V. Krasavin, and A. V. Zayats, “Wavelength selection by dielectric-loaded plasmonic components,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(5), 051111 (2009). [CrossRef]

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T. Holmgaard and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Theoretical analysis of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 75(24), 245405 (2007). [CrossRef]

16.

T. Holmgaard, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. Krasavin, P. Bolger, and A. Zayats, “Efficient excitation of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguide modes at telecommunication wavelengths,” Phys. Rev. B 78(16), 165431 (2008). [CrossRef]

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J. Gosciniak, V. S. Volkov, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, S. Massenot, and A. Dereux, “Fiber-coupled dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(5), 5314–5319 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

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J. Grandidier, G. C. des Francs, S. Massenot, A. Bouhelier, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, C. Finot, and A. Dereux, “Gain-assisted propagation in a plasmonic waveguide at telecom wavelength,” Nano Lett. 9(8), 2935–2939 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

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C. Reinhardt, A. Seidel, A. B. Evlyukhin, W. Cheng, and B. N. Chichkov, “Mode-selective excitation of laser-written dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26(12), B55–B60 (2009). [CrossRef]

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D. G. Zhang, X.-C. Yuan, A. Bouhelier, P. Wang, and H. Ming, “Excitation of surface plasmon polaritons guided mode by Rhodamine B molecules doped in a PMMA stripe,” Opt. Lett. 35(3), 408–410 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

21.

Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Focusing surface plasmons with a plasmonic lens,” Nano Lett. 5(9), 1726–1729 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

22.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, “Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons,” Nano Lett. 5(7), 1399–1402 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

23.

G. M. Lerman, A. Yanai, and U. Levy, “Demonstration of nanofocusing by the use of plasmonic lens illuminated with radially polarized light,” Nano Lett. 9(5), 2139–2143 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

24.

W. Chen, D. C. Abeysinghe, R. L. Nelson, and Q. Zhan, “Plasmonic lens made of multiple concentric metallic rings under radially polarized illumination,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4320–4325 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

25.

X. Li, Q. Tan, B. Bai, and G. Jin, “Plasmonic leak-free focusing lens under radially polarized illumination,” J. Opt. 12(8), 085001 (2010). [CrossRef]

26.

F. López-Tejeira, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, J. R. Krenn, I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. U. González, J. C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Efficient unidirectional nanoslit couplers for surface plasmons,” Nat. Phys. 3, 324 (2007). [CrossRef]

27.

G. I. Stegeman, R. F. Wallis, and A. A. Maradudin, “Excitation of surface polaritons by end-fire coupling,” Opt. Lett. 8(7), 386–388 (1983). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

28.

G. T. Reed, and A. P. Knights, Silicon Photonics: An Introduction (John Wiley, West Sussex, 2004).

29.

S. A. Maier, Plasmonics: Fundamentals and Applications (Springer, New York, 2007).

30.

P. Lalanne and J. P. Hugonin, “Interaction between optical nano-objects at metallo-dielectric interfaces,” Nat. Phys. 2(8), 551–556 (2006). [CrossRef]

31.

J. M. Steele, Z. Liu, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “Resonant and non-resonant generation and focusing of surface plasmons with circular gratings,” Opt. Express 14(12), 5664–5670 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

32.

Y. Gorodetski, A. Niv, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Observation of the spin-based plasmonic effect in nanoscale structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(4), 043903 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

OCIS Codes
(230.0230) Optical devices : Optical devices
(240.0240) Optics at surfaces : Optics at surfaces
(240.6680) Optics at surfaces : Surface plasmons

ToC Category:
Optics at Surfaces

History
Original Manuscript: February 24, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: March 14, 2011
Published: March 22, 2011

Citation
Xiaowei Li, Lingling Huang, Qiaofeng Tan, Benfeng Bai, and Guofan Jin, "Integrated plasmonic semi-circular launcher for dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguide," Opt. Express 19, 6541-6548 (2011)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-7-6541


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References

  1. H. Raether, Surface plasmons on smooth and rough surfaces and on gratings, (Springer-Verlag Berlin, 1988).
  2. W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. E. Ozbay, “Plasmonics: merging photonics and electronics at nanoscale dimensions,” Science 311(5758), 189–193 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. T. W. Ebbesen, C. Genet, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Surface-plasmon circuitry,” Phys. Today 61(5), 44–50 (2008). [CrossRef]
  5. S. I. Bozhevolnyi, Plasmonic Nanoguides and Circuits (Pan Stanford Publishing, Singapore, 2008).
  6. R. Zia, M. D. Selker, and M. L. Brongersma, “Leaky and bound modes of surface plasmon waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 71(16), 165431 (2005). [CrossRef]
  7. W. Nomura, M. Ohtsu, and T. Yatsui, “Nanodot coupler with a surface plasmon polariton condenser for optical far/near-field conversion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(18), 181108 (2005). [CrossRef]
  8. J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, C. Girard, J. R. Krenn, and J.-P. Goudonnet, “Plasmon polaritons of metallic nanowires for controlling submicron propagation of light,” Phys. Rev. B 60(12), 9061–9068 (1999). [CrossRef]
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