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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijin de Sterke
  • Vol. 19, Iss. 7 — Mar. 28, 2011
  • pp: 6699–6704
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Additional effective medium parameters for composite materials (excess surface currents)

A. P. Vinogradov, A. I. Ignatov, A. M. Merzlikin, S. A. Tretyakov, and C. R. Simovski  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 19, Issue 7, pp. 6699-6704 (2011)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.19.006699


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Abstract

Modified boundary conditions for composite material are suggested. The modified RT-retrieval procedure yields bulk values of effective impedance and refractive index, which are independent of system size and boundary realization, whereas the conductivities of the excess surface currents depend on the property of the interface. Simultaneous treatment of all the possible realizations of the system removes the dependence. The accuracy of the latter procedure is the same as the usage of static effective parameters, namely k e f f d .

© 2011 OSA

The possibility of designing structure and arrangement of the elements in electromagnetic artificial materials permits to achieve electromagnetic properties different from the properties of constituents [1

1. G. W. Milton, The Theory of Composites (Cambridge University Press, 2002).

]. Most fully this possibility realizes in metamaterials, in which the interaction of the electromagnetic fields with artificial structural elements is of resonant nature or at least the solenoidal part of the electromagnetic field plays a dominant role in this interaction. As a consequence, metamaterials exhibit advantageous and unusual electromagnetic properties (see e.g. in [2

2. W. Cai, and V. Shalaev, Optical Metamaterials (Springer, 2010).

,3

3. C. Caloz, and T. Itoh, Electromagnetic metamaterials: Transmission Line Theory and Microwave Applications (John Wiley & Sons Inc., 2007).

]). Nevertheless, it is still desirable to describe the metamaterials as homogeneous ones introducing effective constitutive parameters. Assignment of conventional effective parameters (permittivity, permeability, chirality parameter) to metamaterial samples often produces the values of the parameters whose properties differ from one of any physically possible homogeneous medium. Firstly, the retrieved parameters may depend on the sample size and surrounding environment (see e.g [4

4. A. P. Vinogradov and A. M. Merzlikin, “On the problem of homogenizing one-dimensional systems,” J. Exp. Theor. Phys. 94(3), 482–488 (2002). [CrossRef]

,5

5. A. P. Vinogradov and A. M. Merzlikin, “Electrodynamic properties of a finely layered medium,” Dokl. Phys. 46(12), 832–834 (2001). [CrossRef]

].). Secondly, this approach may result in the nonzero imaginary parts of ε and μ in the absence of real dissipation (see e.g [6

6. S. M. Rytov, “Electromagnetic properties of laminated medium,” Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 29, 605–616 (1955) [(Sov. Phys. - JETP. 2, 466–475 (1956)].

].). Thirdly, the sign of these imaginary parts may contradict to general passiveness of the system [7

7. S. O’Brien and J. B. Pendry, “Photonic band-gap effects and magnetic activity in dielectric composites,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 14(15), 4035–4044 (2002). [CrossRef]

9

9. J. Zhou, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Size dependence and convergence of the retrieval parameters of metamaterials,” Photon. Nanostructures 6(1), 96–101 (2008). [CrossRef]

] and fourthly, the frequency dispersion of material parameters may violate the causality principle [7

7. S. O’Brien and J. B. Pendry, “Photonic band-gap effects and magnetic activity in dielectric composites,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 14(15), 4035–4044 (2002). [CrossRef]

9

9. J. Zhou, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Size dependence and convergence of the retrieval parameters of metamaterials,” Photon. Nanostructures 6(1), 96–101 (2008). [CrossRef]

]. To fix the problems additional constitutive material parameters are often introduced. This enlargement may be determined by new physical phenomena (anisotropy, artificial permeability, chirality etc.) or by the peculiarities of the homogenization scheme [10

10. A. Ludwig and K. J. Webb, “Accuracy of effective medium parameter extraction procedures for optical metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 81(11), 113103 (2010). [CrossRef]

12

12. C. Fietz and G. Shvets, “Current-driven metamaterial homogenization,” Physica B 405(14), 2930–2934 (2010). [CrossRef]

]. In the latter case additional parameters not obviously have clear physical meaning.

Below we show that the key moment of the problems is the boundary conditions. We believe that modification of the boundary conditions by introduction of additional (“excess”) surface currents returns the conventional permittivity and permeability of metamaterials their usual physical properties.

Introduction of effective parameters is called homogenization, because in this approach a heterogeneous structure is replaced by a homogeneous one (see [1

1. G. W. Milton, The Theory of Composites (Cambridge University Press, 2002).

]). Usually, homogenization procedure assumes that inside an inhomogeneous medium the homogenized fields are governed by the material Maxwell equations and that at any interface the Maxwell boundary conditions should be used. Most of the theories are of phenomenological type and differ in definition of homogenized fields and in the number of introduced effective parameters [13

13. D. R. Smith and J. B. Pendry, “Homogenization of metamaterials by field averaging,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23(3), 391–403 (2006). [CrossRef]

16

16. A. P. Vinogradov and A. V. Aivazyan, “Scaling theory for homogenization of the Maxwell equations,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 60(1), 987–993 (1999). [CrossRef]

]. In the experiment the procedure of homogenization is substituted for measuring of far fields (scattering matrix) instead of measuring microscopic picture of field distribution inside and around the body. In the simplest case when the sample is a parallel plate (this case is of prime importance for metamaterials) the scattering matrix reduces to the pair reflection coefficient r and transmission coefficient t. Minimizing the difference between these values and those for the slab made of hypothetic homogeneous material one retrieves the bulk parameters of the hypothetic material. Below this method is referred to as the rt-retrieval method [4

4. A. P. Vinogradov and A. M. Merzlikin, “On the problem of homogenizing one-dimensional systems,” J. Exp. Theor. Phys. 94(3), 482–488 (2002). [CrossRef]

,17

17. K. W. Whites, “Full-wave computation of constitutive parameters for lossless composite chiral materials,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 43(4), 376–384 (1995). [CrossRef]

21

21. W. B. Weir, “Automatic measurement of complex dielectric constant and permeability at microwave frequencies,” Proc. IEEE 62(1), 33–36 (1974). [CrossRef]

]. Really, in the rt-retrieval method the boundary conditions relate the measured far fields analytically extended to the interface with homogenized (smooth) fields ignoring both near fields obviously excited in the vicinity of boundaries and microstructure of the real fields inside the slab [22

22. L. A. Weinstein, Theory of Diffraction and Microwave Electronics (Radio i Sviaz, 1995), p.179 (in Russian).

24

24. N. A. Enkin, A. M. Merzlikin, and A. P. Vinogradov, “The difference of the refraction laws in composite materials from the Fresnel laws,” J. Commun. Technol. Electron. 55(5), 565–571 (2010). [CrossRef]

]. There is no reason to expect that homogenized fields inside the composite material and far fields outside should be connected by Maxwell’s boundary conditions. These mean fields may exhibit jumps of tangential components. How to take these jumps into account? It is worth emphasizing that the jumps are reflections of existence of real near fields. In [37

37. I. Tsukerman, “From Whitney Forms to Metamaterials: a Rigorous Homogenization Theory,” http://arxiv.org/PS_cache/arxiv/pdf/1010/1010.3632v1.pdf

] the jumps are considered as a consequence of the homogenization procedure, the excess currents are considered as nonphysical and to fix the problem the author changes the homogenization scheme.

The jumps of the tangential component of macroscopic E and H fields at the composite material boundaries can be considered from the microscopic point of view by introduction of the transition layers [25

25. M. Born, Optics (Springer, 1933). [PubMed]

32

32. C. R. Simovski, “Bloch material parameters of magneto-dielectric metamaterials and the concept of Bloch lattices,” Metamaterials (Amst.) 1(2), 62–80 (2007). [CrossRef]

]. The transition layer may have different origin appearing due to averaging procedure when the volume of averaging includes the sample boundary [27

27. C. R. Simovski, “Material parameters of metamaterials,” Opt. Spectrosc. 107(5), 726–753 (2009). [CrossRef]

,29

29. C. R. Simovski and B. Sauviac, “On the bulk averaging approach for obtaining the effective parameters of thin magnetic granular films,” Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 17(1), 11–20 (2002). [CrossRef]

32

32. C. R. Simovski, “Bloch material parameters of magneto-dielectric metamaterials and the concept of Bloch lattices,” Metamaterials (Amst.) 1(2), 62–80 (2007). [CrossRef]

] or due to different response of inclusion on the boundary and inside the material [26

26. A. P. Vinogradov and I. I. Skidanov, “Generalization of Drude’s formulas for the transition layer to chiral media,” J. Commun. Technol. Electron. 47, 517–520 (2002).

] or even it can appear due to cloak of magnetization in the theory [33

33. V. M. Agranovich, and V. L. Ginzburg, Spatial Dispersion in Crystal Optics and the Theory of Excitons, Monographs and Texts in Physics and Astronomy, Vol. XIII (Interscience, 1966).

,34

34. A. P. Vinogradov, “On the form of constitutive equations in electrodynamics,” Physics-Uspekhi 45(3), 331–338 (2002). [CrossRef]

]. There is no unique recipe how to construct a transition layer. It is inconvenient for treatment of the experimental data as usually there is no information of the material internal structure. Nevertheless, if one properly guesses the structure of the transition layer [31

31. C. R. Simovski and S. A. Tretyakov, “Local constitutive parameters of metamaterials from an effective-medium perspective,” Phys. Rev. B 75(19), 195111 (2007). [CrossRef]

,32

32. C. R. Simovski, “Bloch material parameters of magneto-dielectric metamaterials and the concept of Bloch lattices,” Metamaterials (Amst.) 1(2), 62–80 (2007). [CrossRef]

] the results of retrieval procedure contradict neither causality nor passiveness principles.

The introduction of a transition layer can be reduced to introduction of excess surface currents [25

25. M. Born, Optics (Springer, 1933). [PubMed]

]. The introduction of the excess current has been used previously to describe mesoscopic systems like grids [22

22. L. A. Weinstein, Theory of Diffraction and Microwave Electronics (Radio i Sviaz, 1995), p.179 (in Russian).

,35

35. T. B. A. Senior, and J. L. Volakis, Approximate Boundary Conditions in Electrodynamics (The Institute of Electrical Engineers, 1995).

] or rough surface [36

36. D. Bedeaux, J. Vlieger, Optical Properties of Surfaces, 2 ed. (Imperial College Press, 2004).

]. Moreover, sometimes the introduction of additional bulk effective parameters can be replaced by the introduction of excess surface currents [12

12. C. Fietz and G. Shvets, “Current-driven metamaterial homogenization,” Physica B 405(14), 2930–2934 (2010). [CrossRef]

,34

34. A. P. Vinogradov, “On the form of constitutive equations in electrodynamics,” Physics-Uspekhi 45(3), 331–338 (2002). [CrossRef]

]. For example, the introduction of the magneto-electric coupling resulting from the phase shift of the wave per one asymmetric unit cell [12

12. C. Fietz and G. Shvets, “Current-driven metamaterial homogenization,” Physica B 405(14), 2930–2934 (2010). [CrossRef]

] can be replaced by choosing the symmetrical representation and adding excess surface currents in the boundary conditions. Thus the introduction of excess surface currents seems to be a universal (flexible and suitable) tool in solution the problem of the rt-retrieval method. Additional parameters can be retrieved from usual rt-measurements caring out measurements for samples of different thickness.

As illustration of the approach we consider a bounded 1D periodical inhomogeneous system with optically small period [4

4. A. P. Vinogradov and A. M. Merzlikin, “On the problem of homogenizing one-dimensional systems,” J. Exp. Theor. Phys. 94(3), 482–488 (2002). [CrossRef]

, 5

5. A. P. Vinogradov and A. M. Merzlikin, “Electrodynamic properties of a finely layered medium,” Dokl. Phys. 46(12), 832–834 (2001). [CrossRef]

]. Both the theory [6

6. S. M. Rytov, “Electromagnetic properties of laminated medium,” Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 29, 605–616 (1955) [(Sov. Phys. - JETP. 2, 466–475 (1956)].

] and direct application of the rt-retrieval method to the computer simulation data [4

4. A. P. Vinogradov and A. M. Merzlikin, “On the problem of homogenizing one-dimensional systems,” J. Exp. Theor. Phys. 94(3), 482–488 (2002). [CrossRef]

] produce unsatisfactory results.

S. M. Rytov [6

6. S. M. Rytov, “Electromagnetic properties of laminated medium,” Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 29, 605–616 (1955) [(Sov. Phys. - JETP. 2, 466–475 (1956)].

] theoretically considered an infinite periodic system with elementary cell made of two layers with thickness d1 and and derived an exact dispersion equation for the effective refractive index

cos(kRytdcell)=cos(k0ε1d1)cos(k0ε2d2)ε1+ε22ε1ε2sin(k0ε1d1)sin(k0ε2d2)
(1)

S.M. Rytov also defined the effective impedance as a ratio of the averaged E and H fields (over the period) ζeffRyt=E(z)/H(z).Knowing the effective refractive index neffRyt=kRyt/k0 and effective impedance ζeffRyt it is easy to retrieve effective permittivity εeffRyt=neffRyt/ζeffRyt and permeability μeffRyt=neffRytζeffRyt. At this point the theory gives rather strange result. Though the refractive index is real (we consider the frequencies far below the first band gap) both the effective permittivity and permeability have imaginary parts. Moreover the signs and values of the parts are different and depend on the cell presentation.

For bounded layered systems we still have troubles [4

4. A. P. Vinogradov and A. M. Merzlikin, “On the problem of homogenizing one-dimensional systems,” J. Exp. Theor. Phys. 94(3), 482–488 (2002). [CrossRef]

,5

5. A. P. Vinogradov and A. M. Merzlikin, “Electrodynamic properties of a finely layered medium,” Dokl. Phys. 46(12), 832–834 (2001). [CrossRef]

]. Below we consider a regular system whose elementary cell consists of two layers of the same thickness d and permittivity ε1=2 and ε2=3 respectively. The rt-retrieval method produces the effective impedance depending on the system thickness. This is the reflection of the fact that the input impedance of the elementary cell depends on the position of the sample surface planes.

It is a priory clear that an asymmetric system, which contains integer number N of elementary cells, cannot be adequately presented as a uniform layer (always symmetric) described by effective permittivity and permeability (or by neff and ζeff). The inadequacy of this homogenization results in the oscillation of the retrieved impedance versus L, though the refractive index tends to the Rytov value versus L (Fig. 1(a)
Fig. 1 Reζeffζstat (solid lines) and ReneffneffRyt (dashed lines) for asymmetric system (a) and symmetric system (b) as functions of system thickness L. The normalized frequency is k0d=0.05. In (a) and (b) the Reneff tends to the Rytov value given by Eq. (1): neffRyt1.58114.
). Moreover, the imaginary part of ζeff is not negligible.

For a symmetric system, which comprises N+1/2 elementary cells and has the same layer at both interfaces, the common retrieval procedure gives effective permittivity and permeability with poles in thickness dependence (see Fig. 1(b)). The poles’ positions are equal to the half-integer number of the effective wavelength L=(N+1/2)d=πl/kRyt, l=1,2,...

The T-matrix of a uniform layer with refractive index n, impedance ζ=1/n and thickness L is: T11ul=T22ul*=cosnk0L+i0.5(ζ+1/ζ)sinnk0L, T12ul=T21ul*=0.5i(1/ζζ)sinnk0L.The T-matrix Todd for a symmetric system is equal to the product Todd=T1TcellN, where Tcell is the T-matrix of the elementary cell and T1 is the T-matrix of the layer with permittivity ε1. It is implied that the system is sandwiched with the layers of the first type. Equating the entries of the Tul and Todd we can find out the expressions for constitutive parameters:

cos(nk0L)=cos(neffRytk0L)(ε1ε2)sin(neffRytk0L)4(ε1+ε2)/2k0d+O((k0d)2)
1/ζ2=0.5(ε1+ε2)+0.5(ε1ε2)k0d(ε1+ε2)/2ctg(neffRytk0L)+O((k0d)2)

We can see that the impedance ζ has a singularity at neffRytk0L=πm.

From these two examples we see that the mesoscopic behavior is an inherent property of the retrieved impedance of any layered structure (there is no such problem with the refractive index that always tends to the Rytov value Eq. (1) when the thickness L grows). Introduction of excess surface currents takes all these facts into account and modifies the Maxwell boundary conditions on the left and right sides of the sample as follows:

Ey(sample)Ey(vacuum)=sM(left)Hz(sample);         Hz(vacuum)Hz(sample)=sE(left)Ey(sample)
(2a)
Ey(vacuum)Ey(sample)=sM(right)Hz(sample);           Hz(sample)Hz(vacuum)=sE(right)Ey(sample)
(2b)

Employing the new boundary conditions Eq. (2) it is easy to get the new T-matrix Tulc for a uniform layer with surface currents:

T11ulc=T22ulc*==(1sEl)(1+sMr)+(1sEr)(1+sMl)2(1+sElsMl)cosnk0L+i(1sEl)(1sEr)ζ2+(1+sMl)(1+sMr)2ζ(1+sElsMl)sinnk0L
T12ulc=T21ulc*==sEl+sEr+sMl(1sEr)+sMr(1+sEl)2(1+sElsMl)cosnk0L+i(1sMl)(1+sMr)ζ2(1+sEl)(1sEr)2ζ(1+sElsMl)sinnk0L

We have exactly simulated r and t coefficients for different L and extract six unknown material parameters minimizing the discrepancy

δ=i{|r(Li)rexact(Li)|2+|t(Li)texact(Li)|2}
(3)

Below we characterize two symmetric and two asymmetric variants of the structure. In two symmetric variants the front and rear layers are of the same dielectric, either ε1 or ε2. Depending on this we refer to them as (1,1) or (2,2)-systems. Asymmetrical systems contain integer number of cells where the wave impinges either the layer ε1 or the layer ε2. Depending on this we refer to them as to either (1,2) or (2,1)-systems, correspondingly. Minimizing the discrepancy we have found six coefficientsneff, ζeff, sE(right), sE(left), sM(right), and , which are practically independent on L. The summation in Eq. (3) is made for sample lengths from i=20000 to 40000 periods (Nreal=2104). The discrepancy between the exact and model values of r and t is equal to δr,t=δ/(2Nreal). We have performed computer simulation of the aforementioned four systems and get at frequency k0d=0.05 the results tabulated in Table 1

Table 1. Material Parameters are Shown with Accuracy 107

table-icon
View This Table
.

Since for such thick systems the refractive index achieves the Rytov value we have always consider neff=neffRyt. The effective values of ζeff practically coincide with the static value. The surface susceptibilities strongly depend on the type of the sample but do not depend on the sample thickness. They are proportional to the difference εbε where εb is the permittivity of the layer located at the given sample boundary. Thus, we obtain sE(left)=sE(right),             sM(left)=sM(right) for the symmetric case that agree with the theoretical result coming from equating the entries of the Tulc and Todd. For k0d<<1 the theory yields 1ζeff=ε1+ε22+(ε1ε2)2(k0d)296(ε1+ε2)/2, sE=iε2ε14k0d, sM=0 with accuracy O((k0d)3).

For asymmetric cases we get sE(left)=sE(right),             sM(left)=sM(right). Averaging of the results for (1,1)-system with (2,2)-system as well as that of the (1,2)-system with (2,1)-system gives symmetric conductivities. The discrepancy between the exact and model values of and t significantly increases: δr,t102k0d. Introduction of the averaged values of surface susceptibilities weakly influences the values of effective impedance and refractive index. With accuracy of k0d the latter averaged retrieval procedure can be considered as that producing effective parameters independent not only on the system size but also on its type. Thus, introduction of the excess currents removes the mesoscopy of the retrieved impedance (as well as its imaginary part for asymmetric systems) by price of physically sound material parameters – electric and magnetic susceptibilities of the sample surfaces. These new parameters depend on the permittivity of surface layers and not on the structure thickness.

When this paper has been in preparation there appeared a preprint [38

38. S. Kim, E. F. Kuester, C. L. Holloway, A. D. Scher, and J. Baker-Jarvis, “Boundary effects on the determination of metamaterial parameters from normal incidence reflection and transmission measurements,” http://arxiv.org/abs/1009.5927

] in the arxiv web-site where the authors consider introduction of the excess surface currents for a 3D metamaterial made of Mie-resonant magneto-dielectric spheres.

Acknowledgement

Authors are grateful to A. N. Lagarkov for useful discussion. This work was partly supported by the RFBR grants and by the European Community’s 7-th Framework Program FP7/2007-2013 under grant Agreement No. 228762, project METACHEM.

References and links

1.

G. W. Milton, The Theory of Composites (Cambridge University Press, 2002).

2.

W. Cai, and V. Shalaev, Optical Metamaterials (Springer, 2010).

3.

C. Caloz, and T. Itoh, Electromagnetic metamaterials: Transmission Line Theory and Microwave Applications (John Wiley & Sons Inc., 2007).

4.

A. P. Vinogradov and A. M. Merzlikin, “On the problem of homogenizing one-dimensional systems,” J. Exp. Theor. Phys. 94(3), 482–488 (2002). [CrossRef]

5.

A. P. Vinogradov and A. M. Merzlikin, “Electrodynamic properties of a finely layered medium,” Dokl. Phys. 46(12), 832–834 (2001). [CrossRef]

6.

S. M. Rytov, “Electromagnetic properties of laminated medium,” Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 29, 605–616 (1955) [(Sov. Phys. - JETP. 2, 466–475 (1956)].

7.

S. O’Brien and J. B. Pendry, “Photonic band-gap effects and magnetic activity in dielectric composites,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 14(15), 4035–4044 (2002). [CrossRef]

8.

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients,” Phys. Rev. B 65(19), 195104 (2002). [CrossRef]

9.

J. Zhou, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Size dependence and convergence of the retrieval parameters of metamaterials,” Photon. Nanostructures 6(1), 96–101 (2008). [CrossRef]

10.

A. Ludwig and K. J. Webb, “Accuracy of effective medium parameter extraction procedures for optical metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 81(11), 113103 (2010). [CrossRef]

11.

A. K. Sarychev, D. J. Bergman, and Y. Yagil, “Theory of the optical and microwave properties of metal-dielectric films,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 51(8), 5366–5385 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

C. Fietz and G. Shvets, “Current-driven metamaterial homogenization,” Physica B 405(14), 2930–2934 (2010). [CrossRef]

13.

D. R. Smith and J. B. Pendry, “Homogenization of metamaterials by field averaging,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23(3), 391–403 (2006). [CrossRef]

14.

O. Acher, J. M. Lerat, and N. Malléjac, “Evaluation and illustration of the properties of metamaterials using field summation,” Opt. Express 15(3), 1096–1106 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

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S. Datta, C. T. Chan, K. M. Ho, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Effective dielectric constant of periodic composite structures,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 48(20), 14936–14943 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

16.

A. P. Vinogradov and A. V. Aivazyan, “Scaling theory for homogenization of the Maxwell equations,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 60(1), 987–993 (1999). [CrossRef]

17.

K. W. Whites, “Full-wave computation of constitutive parameters for lossless composite chiral materials,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 43(4), 376–384 (1995). [CrossRef]

18.

G. Franceschetti, “A complete analysis of the reflection and transmission methods for measuring the complex permeability and permittivity of materials at microwave frequencies,” 36,757–764 (1967).

19.

X. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B.-I. Wu, J. Pacheco Jr, and J. A. Kong, “Robust method to retrieve the constitutive effective parameters of metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 70(1), 016608 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

20.

A. M. Nicolson and G. F. Ross, “Measurement of the intrinsic properties of materials by time domain techniques,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 17, 395–402 (1968). [CrossRef]

21.

W. B. Weir, “Automatic measurement of complex dielectric constant and permeability at microwave frequencies,” Proc. IEEE 62(1), 33–36 (1974). [CrossRef]

22.

L. A. Weinstein, Theory of Diffraction and Microwave Electronics (Radio i Sviaz, 1995), p.179 (in Russian).

23.

W. Śmigaj and B. Gralak, “Validity of the effective-medium approximation of photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 77(23), 235445 (2008). [CrossRef]

24.

N. A. Enkin, A. M. Merzlikin, and A. P. Vinogradov, “The difference of the refraction laws in composite materials from the Fresnel laws,” J. Commun. Technol. Electron. 55(5), 565–571 (2010). [CrossRef]

25.

M. Born, Optics (Springer, 1933). [PubMed]

26.

A. P. Vinogradov and I. I. Skidanov, “Generalization of Drude’s formulas for the transition layer to chiral media,” J. Commun. Technol. Electron. 47, 517–520 (2002).

27.

C. R. Simovski, “Material parameters of metamaterials,” Opt. Spectrosc. 107(5), 726–753 (2009). [CrossRef]

28.

A. P. Vinogradov, K. N. Rosanov, and D. P. Makhnovsky, “Effective boundary layer in composite material,” J. Commun. Technol. Electron. 44, 317–322 (1999).

29.

C. R. Simovski and B. Sauviac, “On the bulk averaging approach for obtaining the effective parameters of thin magnetic granular films,” Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 17(1), 11–20 (2002). [CrossRef]

30.

C. R. Simovski, “Application of the Fresnel formulas for reflection and transmission of electromagnetic waves beyond the quasi-static approximation,” J. Commun. Technol. Electron. 52(9), 953–971 (2007). [CrossRef]

31.

C. R. Simovski and S. A. Tretyakov, “Local constitutive parameters of metamaterials from an effective-medium perspective,” Phys. Rev. B 75(19), 195111 (2007). [CrossRef]

32.

C. R. Simovski, “Bloch material parameters of magneto-dielectric metamaterials and the concept of Bloch lattices,” Metamaterials (Amst.) 1(2), 62–80 (2007). [CrossRef]

33.

V. M. Agranovich, and V. L. Ginzburg, Spatial Dispersion in Crystal Optics and the Theory of Excitons, Monographs and Texts in Physics and Astronomy, Vol. XIII (Interscience, 1966).

34.

A. P. Vinogradov, “On the form of constitutive equations in electrodynamics,” Physics-Uspekhi 45(3), 331–338 (2002). [CrossRef]

35.

T. B. A. Senior, and J. L. Volakis, Approximate Boundary Conditions in Electrodynamics (The Institute of Electrical Engineers, 1995).

36.

D. Bedeaux, J. Vlieger, Optical Properties of Surfaces, 2 ed. (Imperial College Press, 2004).

37.

I. Tsukerman, “From Whitney Forms to Metamaterials: a Rigorous Homogenization Theory,” http://arxiv.org/PS_cache/arxiv/pdf/1010/1010.3632v1.pdf

38.

S. Kim, E. F. Kuester, C. L. Holloway, A. D. Scher, and J. Baker-Jarvis, “Boundary effects on the determination of metamaterial parameters from normal incidence reflection and transmission measurements,” http://arxiv.org/abs/1009.5927

OCIS Codes
(260.2065) Physical optics : Effective medium theory
(160.5298) Materials : Photonic crystals

ToC Category:
Metamaterials

History
Original Manuscript: December 10, 2010
Revised Manuscript: January 26, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: January 31, 2011
Published: March 24, 2011

Citation
A. P. Vinogradov, A. I. Ignatov, A. M. Merzlikin, S. A. Tretyakov, and C. R. Simovski, "Additional effective medium parameters for composite materials (excess surface currents)," Opt. Express 19, 6699-6704 (2011)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-7-6699


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