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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 19, Iss. 8 — Apr. 11, 2011
  • pp: 7633–7639
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Plasmonic filters and optical directional couplers based on wide metal-insulator-metal structure

Pixin Chen, Ruisheng Liang, Qiaodong Huang, Zhe Yu, and Xingkai Xu  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 19, Issue 8, pp. 7633-7639 (2011)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.19.007633


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Abstract

The wide Metal-Insulator-Metal (WMIM) structure is proposed and its characteristics are analyzed numerically using finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. Simulations show that power can be periodically transferred between its two Metal-Insulator (MI) interfaces while power is injected asymmetrically. Novel plasmonic filters and optical directional couplers (ODCs) based on WMIM structure are proposed, which work similarly as traditional dielectric devices. Due to the simple structures without thin metal gaps, our result may provide an alternative way to realize the fabrication of nanoscale optical devices.

© 2011 OSA

1. Introduction

Surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) are electromagnetic waves that are confined to the MI interface [1

1. A. V. Zayats, I. I. Smolyaninov, and A. A. Maradudin, “Nano-optics of surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rep. 408(3-4), 131–314 (2005). [CrossRef]

,2

2. W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Since E. N. Economou [3

3. E. N. Economou, “Surface plasmons in thin films,” Phys. Rev. 182(2), 539–554 (1969). [CrossRef]

] showed that MIM structure with an insulator region thickness of ~100 nm supports the fundamental waveguide mode, a lot of elements and devices based on MIM structure are proposed [4

4. M. Dragoman and D. Dragoman, “Plasmonics: applications to nanoscale terahertz and optical devices,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 32(1), 1–41 (2008). [CrossRef]

14

14. T. Holmgaard, Z. Chen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. V. Krasavin, and A. V. Zayats, “Bend- and splitting loss of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides,” Opt. Express 16(18), 13585–13592 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. However, the presented work only focuses on the MIM structure with insulator gap less than 100nm.

The field of SPPs decays exponentially perpendicular to the interface into the metal and dielectric [4

4. M. Dragoman and D. Dragoman, “Plasmonics: applications to nanoscale terahertz and optical devices,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 32(1), 1–41 (2008). [CrossRef]

]. Up to now, a class of evanescent-coupling-based devices such as ODCs [5

5. Z. Han, L. Liu, and E. Forsberg, “Ultra-compact directional couplers and Mach-Zehnder interferometers employing surface plasmon polaritons,” Opt. Commun. 259(2), 690–695 (2006). [CrossRef]

8

8. R. A. Wahsheh, Z. Lu, and A. G. Mustafa, “Nanoplasmonic directional couplers and Mach–Zehnder interferometers,” Opt. Commun. 282(23), 4622–4626 (2009). [CrossRef]

], ring/rectangular resonator filters [9

9. T. B. Wang, X. W. Wen, C. P. Yin, and H. Z. Wang, “The transmission characteristics of surface plasmon polaritons in ring resonator,” Opt. Express 17(26), 24096–24101 (2009). [CrossRef]

12

12. A. Noual, A. Akjouj, Y. Pennec, J.-N. Gillet, and B. Djafari-Rouhani, “Modeling of two-dimensional nanoscale Y-bent plasmonic waveguides with cavities for demultiplexing of the telecommunication wavelengths,” N. J. Phys. 11(10), 103020 (2009). [CrossRef]

], and Mach-Zehnder interferometers [5

5. Z. Han, L. Liu, and E. Forsberg, “Ultra-compact directional couplers and Mach-Zehnder interferometers employing surface plasmon polaritons,” Opt. Commun. 259(2), 690–695 (2006). [CrossRef]

] have been theoretically demonstrated. However, fabrication is the most serious hurdle that needs to be overcome. As we know that the field only penetrates into the metal some tens of nanometers (e.g. about 26nm for the air/silver structure [4

4. M. Dragoman and D. Dragoman, “Plasmonics: applications to nanoscale terahertz and optical devices,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 32(1), 1–41 (2008). [CrossRef]

]), a very thin metal gap (less than 20nm) is required to obtain noticeable coupling coefficient [5

5. Z. Han, L. Liu, and E. Forsberg, “Ultra-compact directional couplers and Mach-Zehnder interferometers employing surface plasmon polaritons,” Opt. Commun. 259(2), 690–695 (2006). [CrossRef]

12

12. A. Noual, A. Akjouj, Y. Pennec, J.-N. Gillet, and B. Djafari-Rouhani, “Modeling of two-dimensional nanoscale Y-bent plasmonic waveguides with cavities for demultiplexing of the telecommunication wavelengths,” N. J. Phys. 11(10), 103020 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. At present, it is difficult to fabricate such devices composed of thin metal gaps, especially for the ODCs composed of S-bends at the junction area. Until now, there is no experimental investigation on plasmonic ODCs. Though some experimental investigations on interferometers and ring resonators have been proposed [13

13. S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon sub-wavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,14

14. T. Holmgaard, Z. Chen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. V. Krasavin, and A. V. Zayats, “Bend- and splitting loss of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides,” Opt. Express 16(18), 13585–13592 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], they can’t provide a proper way to fabricate the thin metal gaps. For example, in Ref [13

13. S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon sub-wavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,14

14. T. Holmgaard, Z. Chen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. V. Krasavin, and A. V. Zayats, “Bend- and splitting loss of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides,” Opt. Express 16(18), 13585–13592 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], the coupling zone of the Mach-Zehnder interferometer is only composed of one straight waveguide, not two adjacent straight waveguides. Furthermore, fabricated Y-splitters exhibit a rounding in the junction area, with a resulting additional radiation loss as compared to an adiabatical split.

In this paper, we theoretically analyze the properties of WMIM structure (the WMIM structure here is defined to be the MIM structure with insulator gap wider than half of the penetration depth in dielectric). We also present numerical analysis of the WMIM structure while power is injected from plasmonic slot waveguide. Afterwards, novel filters and ODCs based on WMIM structure are proposed. Their properties and advantages are also discussed in detail.

2. Properties of WMIM structure

The penetration depths of the fields into dielectric,δd, and metal,δm, are given by [15

15. W. L. Barnes, “Surface plasmon–polariton length scales: a route to sub-wavelength optics,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8(4), S87–S93 (2006). [CrossRef]

]
δd=(1/k0)|(εm'+εd)/εd2|1/2
(1)
δm=(1/k0)|(εm'+εd)/εm'2|1/2
(2)
where εm' is the real part of the relative permittivity of metal and εd is the relative permittivity of dielectric, respectively. k0is the wave number in free space. δd changes a lot for different wavelength, whereasδmis almost independent of the wavelength. The penetration depth, considered as air/silver structure, is in the 450-2500nm range in air and is around 26nm in silver for a wavelength in the 500-1500 nm range [4

4. M. Dragoman and D. Dragoman, “Plasmonics: applications to nanoscale terahertz and optical devices,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 32(1), 1–41 (2008). [CrossRef]

].

Up to now, many articles focus on the MIM structure with an insulator region thickness of ~100 nm. From Eq. (1), we know that the thickness of insulator is much smaller than the penetration depth in dielectric. Thus the MIM structure must be treated as plasmonic slot waveguide. But for the WMIM structure, the thickness of insulator region is wider than half of the penetration depth in dielectric. If the light power is firstly coupled to one side interface of the WMIM structure, the light power will localize at the MI interface and propagate along the interface. Due to the field decays exponentially into the dielectric, the light power will couple to another side interface as it propagating. Furthermore, the coupling coefficient between the two MI interfaces is weak due to the wide thickness of insulator region. Thus the WMIM structure can be simply treated as two independent MI interfaces that approached each other. One can expect that the power can be periodically transferred between the two adjacent MI interfaces. According to the coupled mode theory, we can easily obtain the power of each side of MI interfaces [16

16. G. P. Agrawal, Application of Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic Press, 2001)

].
[E1(z)E2(z)]=[cos(κz)isin(κz)isin(κz)cos(κz)][E1(0)E2(0)]
(3)
where κ is the coupling coefficient between the two MI interfaces, which is simultaneously dependent on the thickness of insulator region, the input wavelength, and the relative permittivity of dielectric. E1and E2are the electro-magnetic field of the two MI interfaces, respectively.

The coupling length Lπ/2corresponding to full power transfer from one interface to another is then defined as [17

17. A. Boltasseva and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Directional couplers using long-range surface plasmon polariton waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6)1233–1241 (2006). [CrossRef]

]

Lπ/2=π/(2κ)
(4)

The intrinsically two-dimensional nature of SPPs provides significant flexibility in engineering SPP-based all-optical integrated circuits [1

1. A. V. Zayats, I. I. Smolyaninov, and A. A. Maradudin, “Nano-optics of surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rep. 408(3-4), 131–314 (2005). [CrossRef]

]. In such structure the 2D picture is considered to be a good description of the 3D system, so calculations are performed by using 2D-FDTD method with perfectly matched layer (PML) absorbing boundary condition in this work. Figure 1(a)
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic of the WMIM structure connected with plasmonic slot waveguides; (b) The coupling coefficient κ corresponding to W2 under different λ and ε; (c), (d) and (e) The contour profiles of field Hy respectively for D = 0, 75, and150nm when W2 = 400nm; (f), (g) and (h) The contour profiles of field Hy respectively for W2 = 300, 400, and 500nm.
shows the basic schematic of the WMIM structure connected with plasmonic slot waveguide. The plasmonic slot waveguide is used to couple the power to the WMIM structure. D is the distance between the two axes. W1 and W2 are the widths of the plasmonic slot waveguides and the WMIM structure, respectively. In this section, we assume W1 to be 100 nm. The metal is silver and the dielectric is CdSe-doped PMMA (the refractive index is 2). The silver is described by the Drude model [18

18. E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, Boston, 1985).

] εm=εωp2/(ω2+iΓω) with ε=4.2×1016Hz, ωp=1.346×1016HzandΓ=9.617×1013Hz. In our calculations, the unit size of an FDTD cell is set to beΔx=2nmandΔz=4nm. The input light (λ=1550nm) is a TM polarized wave, with the magnetic field parallel to the interface of the metal and the insulator.

In Fig. 1(c), 1(d) and 1(e), we show the contour profiles of field Hy respectively for D = 0, 75, and 150nm when W2 = 400nm. From Eq. (1), we know that the penetration depth into CdSe-doped PMMA is about 650nm. From Fig. 1(e), one can observe that the light power firstly couples to the near side interface of the WMIM structure. ThereforeE1(0)is equal to the injected power and E2(0)is zero. And then the power will totally couple to the other side interface over some distance due to the coupling between the two interfaces. According to Eq. (3), as field propagating along the WMIM structure, the power is periodically transferred between the two MI interfaces. In our simulation, the coupling lengthLπ/2 is about 750nm in this case.

Furthermore, the power still can transfer effectively between the two MI interfaces when D = 75nm. This is due to most of the light power firstly couples to the near side interface. From Figs. 1(d) and 1(e), we can see that a large proportion of the light power still firstly couples to the near side interface thought D has changes a lot. Whereas the light power will symmetrically couple to the two sides of the WMIM structure interfaces when D = 0. In this case, E1(0)and E2(0)are the same. According to Eq. (3), the field will distribute symmetrically at the two MI interfaces when field is propagating along the WMIM structure.

In Fig. 1(b), we show the coupling coefficient κ corresponding to W2 under different λ and ε. In our simulations, when the coupling coefficient κis larger than 2.4μm−1, the phenomenon that the power transfer periodically between the two MI interfaces disappears. Similarly, the coupling phenomenon is unobvious when is less than 1.0μm−1. Thus the thickness of the dielectric W2 should be kept in a proper range for the given λ and ε. In contrast, we also show the contour profiles of field Hy respectively for W2 = 300, 400 and 500nm in Fig. 1(f), 1(g) and 1(h). The influence of the thickness of the dielectric W2 is clearly visible.

3. Filter based on WMIM structure

Figure 2(a)
Fig. 2 Schematic of the filter based on WMIM structure: (a) sharp corner, (b) filleted corner; (c) The transmission for different L underλ=1550nm. (d), (e) and (f)The contour profiles of field Hy relative to L = 0.7, 0.75μm for sharp corner and L = 1.375μm for filleted corner;
shows the schematic of the filter based on WMIM structure. The widths of the plasmonic slot waveguides W1 and the WMIM structure W2 are 100nm and 350nm, respectively. L is the length of the WMIM structure. The dielectric is assumed to be CdSe (the refractive index is 2.7).

Firstly, we investigate the properties of the filter by calculating the transmission while changing the length L. The input wavelength is 1550nm. From Fig. 2(c), one can observe that the transmission changes periodically with length L. The power can pass through the filter effectively when L is around 1.0μm and 3.0μm. And the transmission can respectively reach 90% and 80%. But when L is around 2.0μm, the transmission is very low. Thus the coupling length Lπ/2 is about 1.0μm in this case.

Whereas, we note that at some length L, such as 0.75μm, the transmission suddenly turns to be very low. To investigate this phenomenon, we simulate the filleted corner structure shown in Fig. 2(b). r is the radius of the filleted corner and set to be 100nm. Other parameters are the same with Fig. 2(a). The transmission spectrum is also shown in Fig. 2(c). The sharp dips at the transmission curve for filleted corner are almost the same as that for sharp corner. Furthermore, the intervals between the sharp dips at both transmission curves are almost equal. Moreover, we simulate the contour profiles of field Hy corresponding to L = 0.7, 0.75μm for sharp corner and L = 1.375μm for filleted corner, which are shown in Fig. 3(d)
Fig. 3 (a) Transmission spectrum for L = 0.6μm. (b) and (c) The contour profiles of field Hy respectively forλ1=1550nmand λ2=1310nm when L = 0.6μm
, 3(e) and 3(f). One can observe that the corner have appreciable impact on the electromagnetic field distribution. For L = 0.75μm, there is a strong field localizing at the corner which cuts off the power coupling to the output waveguide. However, there is no field localizing at the corner when L = 0.8μm. These phenomena also can be found in the case of filleted corner. Consequently, the WMIM structure can behave as a standing-wave resonator. And the sharp dips mainly result from the resonance in the WMIM structure.

Furthermore, the filter based on WMIM structure can be used to select different wavelengths. Figure 3(a) shows the transmission spectrum for the wavelength range from 500 to 2000nm when L = 0.6μm. The transmission for the input wavelength λ1=1550nm can reach 80%. Whereas the transmission almost falls to zero for the wavelength λ2=1310nm. Figure 3(b) and 3(c) show the contour profiles of field Hy respectively forλ1=1550nmand λ2=1310nm. From Fig. 3(b) and 3(c), the filtering effect is clearly observed.

4. ODC based on WMIM structure

Recently, Z. Han [19

19. Z. Han, A. Y. Elezzabi, and V. Van, “Wideband Y-splitter and aperture-assisted coupler based on sub-diffraction confined plasmonic slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(13), 131106 (2010). [CrossRef]

] proposed an aperture-assisted coupler that a small aperture is placed between two adjacent plasmonic slot waveguides to assist the power transfers from one waveguide to the other, thus the coupling metal gap can be designed much wider. But the basic idea of this structure is to enhance the efficient coupling of the thin metal gap and the author only focused on narrow aperture. In this section, we investigate a novel four-port coupler based on WMIM structure, which is not composed of thin metal gap. The structure is showed in Fig. 4(a)
Fig. 4 (a) Schematic of the ODC based on WMIM structure. (b) The transmission at the ends of port B, C and D for different L whenλ=1550nm. (c) The transmission from port A to port C for different L when λ1=1550nm and λ2=1310nm. (d) The transmission from port A to port C respectively for W2 = 300, 320 and 340nm whenλ=1550nm.
. In this section, the width of the WMIM structure W2 is chosen as 320nm. The other parameters are the same as above for the filter.

Based on the properties of the WMIM structure, the power coupling ratio between two plasmonic slot waveguides can be adjusted. In Fig. 4(b), the black, red, and blue lines correspond to the transmission of port B, C and D when wavelength λ=1550nmis injected from port A. One can observe that the WMIM structure-based ODC works similarly as the traditional dielectric ODC. Total power transfer occurs when L is about 0.8μm and 2.3μm. The transmission can respectively reach 90% and 70%. But when L is around 1.5μm, there is no power transferred to port C. Therefore the coupling length Lπ/2 is about 750nm. Moreover, a 3-dB coupler (about 42% in each output ports) can be made when L is equal to 1.1μm or 1.85μm. However, the attenuation of the total output power as L increases is due to the intrinsic loss of the SPPs. Furthermore, about 5% of the power is reflected back to port D, which results in the different propagation constants of the WMIM structure and the plasmonic slot waveguide.

Figure 4(c) shows the transmission from port A to port C under the input wavelengths λ1=1550nm andλ2=1310nm. As we know that the coupling coefficient κ increases with the wavelength, longer wavelength will lead to a shorter coupling length. For L is equal to 0.8μm, both of the power at 1550nm and 1310nm are coupled to port C. When L is equal to 2.2μm, almost all the power at 1550nm goes to port C whereas almost all the energy at 1310nm goes to port B. Thus this structure can be used as a switch or coupler.

We then investigate the coupling length Lπ/2 for different W2 under the input wavelength 1550nm. Figure 4(d) shows the transmission from port A to port C. The black, red, and blue lines correspond to W2 = 300, 320, and 340nm, respectively. As expected, the coupling length Lπ/2increases as W2 increases. Thus the power coupled from one port to another can also be varied through the different widths of WMIM structure.

Consequently, as shown in Fig. 4(a), the thickness of the metal layer between the two straight plasmonic slot waveguides can reach 120nm or more, thus there is no need to fabricate S-bends at the junction area. Furthermore, the structure is not composed of thin metal gap at the coupling zone. Therefore, this kind of ODC is more amenable to fabrication.

5. Conclusion

In a summary, we have demonstrated the designs of novel plasmonic filter and ODC based on WMIM structure. FDTD method is utilized to simulate and analyze the optical properties. There is an interesting phenomenon that the power is periodically transferred between the two MI interfaces of the WMIM structure while power is asymmetrically injected from plasmonic slot waveguide. Due to this unique characteristic, we can design novel sub-wavelength filters and ODCs which have the advantages of small size, simple structure, and easy fabrication. Our result can provide an alternative way to solve the problem that evanescent-coupling-based devices are difficult to fabrication.

Acknowledgments

This work is supported by the National Basic Research Program of China under Grant No. 2007CB307002.

References and links

1.

A. V. Zayats, I. I. Smolyaninov, and A. A. Maradudin, “Nano-optics of surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rep. 408(3-4), 131–314 (2005). [CrossRef]

2.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3.

E. N. Economou, “Surface plasmons in thin films,” Phys. Rev. 182(2), 539–554 (1969). [CrossRef]

4.

M. Dragoman and D. Dragoman, “Plasmonics: applications to nanoscale terahertz and optical devices,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 32(1), 1–41 (2008). [CrossRef]

5.

Z. Han, L. Liu, and E. Forsberg, “Ultra-compact directional couplers and Mach-Zehnder interferometers employing surface plasmon polaritons,” Opt. Commun. 259(2), 690–695 (2006). [CrossRef]

6.

H. Zhao, X. Guang, and J. Huang, “Novel optical directional coupler based on surface plasmon polaritons,” Phy. E. 40(10), 3025–3029 (2008). [CrossRef]

7.

Z. Kang and G. P. Wang, “Coupled metal gap waveguides as plasmonic wavelength sorters,” Opt. Express 16(11), 7680–7685 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

R. A. Wahsheh, Z. Lu, and A. G. Mustafa, “Nanoplasmonic directional couplers and Mach–Zehnder interferometers,” Opt. Commun. 282(23), 4622–4626 (2009). [CrossRef]

9.

T. B. Wang, X. W. Wen, C. P. Yin, and H. Z. Wang, “The transmission characteristics of surface plasmon polaritons in ring resonator,” Opt. Express 17(26), 24096–24101 (2009). [CrossRef]

10.

S. Xiao, L. Liu, and M. Qiu, “Resonator channel drop filters in a plasmon polaritons metal,” Opt. Express 14(7), 2932 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

Q. Zhang, X.-G. Huang, X.-S. Lin, J. Tao, and X.-P. Jin, “A subwavelength coupler-type MIM optical filter,” Opt. Express 17(9), 7549–7555 (2009). [CrossRef]

12.

A. Noual, A. Akjouj, Y. Pennec, J.-N. Gillet, and B. Djafari-Rouhani, “Modeling of two-dimensional nanoscale Y-bent plasmonic waveguides with cavities for demultiplexing of the telecommunication wavelengths,” N. J. Phys. 11(10), 103020 (2009). [CrossRef]

13.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon sub-wavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

T. Holmgaard, Z. Chen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. V. Krasavin, and A. V. Zayats, “Bend- and splitting loss of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides,” Opt. Express 16(18), 13585–13592 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15.

W. L. Barnes, “Surface plasmon–polariton length scales: a route to sub-wavelength optics,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8(4), S87–S93 (2006). [CrossRef]

16.

G. P. Agrawal, Application of Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic Press, 2001)

17.

A. Boltasseva and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Directional couplers using long-range surface plasmon polariton waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6)1233–1241 (2006). [CrossRef]

18.

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, Boston, 1985).

19.

Z. Han, A. Y. Elezzabi, and V. Van, “Wideband Y-splitter and aperture-assisted coupler based on sub-diffraction confined plasmonic slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(13), 131106 (2010). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(060.1810) Fiber optics and optical communications : Buffers, couplers, routers, switches, and multiplexers
(240.6680) Optics at surfaces : Surface plasmons
(350.2460) Other areas of optics : Filters, interference

ToC Category:
Optics at Surfaces

History
Original Manuscript: January 20, 2011
Revised Manuscript: March 25, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: March 28, 2011
Published: April 6, 2011

Citation
Pixin Chen, Ruisheng Liang, Qiaodong Huang, Zhe Yu, and Xingkai Xu, "Plasmonic filters and optical directional couplers based on wide metal-insulator-metal structure," Opt. Express 19, 7633-7639 (2011)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-8-7633


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References

  1. A. V. Zayats, I. I. Smolyaninov, and A. A. Maradudin, “Nano-optics of surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rep. 408(3-4), 131–314 (2005). [CrossRef]
  2. W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. E. N. Economou, “Surface plasmons in thin films,” Phys. Rev. 182(2), 539–554 (1969). [CrossRef]
  4. M. Dragoman and D. Dragoman, “Plasmonics: applications to nanoscale terahertz and optical devices,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 32(1), 1–41 (2008). [CrossRef]
  5. Z. Han, L. Liu, and E. Forsberg, “Ultra-compact directional couplers and Mach-Zehnder interferometers employing surface plasmon polaritons,” Opt. Commun. 259(2), 690–695 (2006). [CrossRef]
  6. H. Zhao, X. Guang, and J. Huang, “Novel optical directional coupler based on surface plasmon polaritons,” Phy. E. 40(10), 3025–3029 (2008). [CrossRef]
  7. Z. Kang and G. P. Wang, “Coupled metal gap waveguides as plasmonic wavelength sorters,” Opt. Express 16(11), 7680–7685 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. R. A. Wahsheh, Z. Lu, and A. G. Mustafa, “Nanoplasmonic directional couplers and Mach–Zehnder interferometers,” Opt. Commun. 282(23), 4622–4626 (2009). [CrossRef]
  9. T. B. Wang, X. W. Wen, C. P. Yin, and H. Z. Wang, “The transmission characteristics of surface plasmon polaritons in ring resonator,” Opt. Express 17(26), 24096–24101 (2009). [CrossRef]
  10. S. Xiao, L. Liu, and M. Qiu, “Resonator channel drop filters in a plasmon polaritons metal,” Opt. Express 14(7), 2932 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. Q. Zhang, X.-G. Huang, X.-S. Lin, J. Tao, and X.-P. Jin, “A subwavelength coupler-type MIM optical filter,” Opt. Express 17(9), 7549–7555 (2009). [CrossRef]
  12. A. Noual, A. Akjouj, Y. Pennec, J.-N. Gillet, and B. Djafari-Rouhani, “Modeling of two-dimensional nanoscale Y-bent plasmonic waveguides with cavities for demultiplexing of the telecommunication wavelengths,” N. J. Phys. 11(10), 103020 (2009). [CrossRef]
  13. S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon sub-wavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. T. Holmgaard, Z. Chen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. V. Krasavin, and A. V. Zayats, “Bend- and splitting loss of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides,” Opt. Express 16(18), 13585–13592 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. W. L. Barnes, “Surface plasmon–polariton length scales: a route to sub-wavelength optics,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8(4), S87–S93 (2006). [CrossRef]
  16. G. P. Agrawal, Application of Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic Press, 2001)
  17. A. Boltasseva and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Directional couplers using long-range surface plasmon polariton waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6)1233–1241 (2006). [CrossRef]
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