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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 19, Iss. 9 — Apr. 25, 2011
  • pp: 8815–8820
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A periodically coupled plasmon nanostructure for refractive index sensing

Jayson L. Briscoe and Sang-Yeon Cho  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 19, Issue 9, pp. 8815-8820 (2011)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.19.008815


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Abstract

We present unique characteristics of subwavelength surface plasmon polaritons in a periodically coupled nanowell structure. The nanowell structure offers high quality internal surface plasmon resonance for sensing applications. Calculated FWHM of the transmission peak is 6 nm and the optical transmission is close to 100% at the resonant wavelength of 815.8 nm. The highly concentrated polaritons in the nanowell are sensitive to surface changes providing a sensitivity of 4800% RIU−1 for optical sensing applications.

© 2011 OSA

1. Introduction

Surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) in nanostructures have an important role in manipulating light propagation and the interaction of light with matter. It has been experimentally demonstrated that SPPs significantly enhance: optical nonlinear processes [1

1. A. Campion and R. Kambhampati, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 27(4), 241–250 (1998). [CrossRef]

, 2

2. G. A. Wurtz, R. Pollard, and A. V. Zayats, “Optical bistability in nonlinear surface-plasmon polaritonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(5), 057402 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], field confinement beyond the diffraction limit [3

3. A. Degiron, H. J. Lezec, N. Yamamoto, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Optical transmission properties of a single subwavelength aperture in a real metal,” Opt. Commun. 239(1-3), 61–66 (2004). [CrossRef]

, 4

4. T. Thio, K. M. Pellerin, R. A. Linke, H. J. Lezec, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Enhanced light transmission through a single subwavelength aperture,” Opt. Lett. 26(24), 1972–1974 (2001). [CrossRef]

], and sensitivity of an optical sensor [5

5. T. Okamoto, I. Yamaguchi, and T. Kobayashi, “Local plasmon sensor with gold colloid monolayers deposited upon glass substrates,” Opt. Lett. 25(6), 372–374 (2000). [CrossRef]

, 6

6. A. G. Brolo, R. Gordon, B. Leathem, and K. L. Kavanagh, “Surface plasmon sensor based on the enhanced light transmission through arrays of nanoholes in gold films,” Langmuir 20(12), 4813–4815 (2004). [CrossRef]

].

An SPP is a localized electromagnetic field at a metal-dielectric interface [7

7. H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer-Verlag, 1988),Chap. 8.

10

10. G. H. Chan, J. Zhao, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duayne, “Localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy of triangular aluminum nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. 112, 13958–13963 (2008).

]. The resultant surface wave is very sensitive to the surface condition of that interface. Because of its high sensitivity from the localized field, SPPs have been widely used for various sensing applications. Several SPP sensors have been developed including thin metal layers on glass substrates [11

11. S. Y. Wu, H. P. Ho, W. C. Law, C. Lin, and S. K. Kong, “Highly sensitive differential phase-sensitive surface plasmon resonance biosensor based on the Mach-Zehnder configuration,” Opt. Lett. 29(20), 2378–2380 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], nanohole arrays [12

12. K. A. Tetz, L. Pang, and Y. Fainman, “High-resolution surface plasmon resonance sensor based on linewidth-optimized nanohole array transmittance,” Opt. Lett. 31(10), 1528–1530 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], gratings [13

13. L. Pang, G. Hwang, B. Slutsky, and Y. Fainman, “Spectral sensitivity of two-dimensional nanohole array surface plasmon polariton resonance sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 123112 (2007). [CrossRef]

], nanoparticles [5

5. T. Okamoto, I. Yamaguchi, and T. Kobayashi, “Local plasmon sensor with gold colloid monolayers deposited upon glass substrates,” Opt. Lett. 25(6), 372–374 (2000). [CrossRef]

, 10

10. G. H. Chan, J. Zhao, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duayne, “Localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy of triangular aluminum nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. 112, 13958–13963 (2008).

], and nanostructures [14

14. F. Le, D. W. Brandt, Y. A. Urzhumov, H. Wang, J. Kundu, N. J. Halas, J. Aizpurua, and P. Nordlander, “Metallic nanoparticle arrays: a common substrate for both surface-enhanced Raman scattering and surface-enhanced infrared absorption,” ACS Nano 2(4), 707–718 (2008). [CrossRef]

,15

15. H.-S. Leong, J. Guo, R. G. Lindquist, and Q. H. Liu, “Surface plasmon resonance in nanostructured metal films under the Kretschmann configuration,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(12), 124314 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. It has been shown that the sensitivity of SPP sensors is determined by several parameters including the optical properties and the geometry of the sensor [14

14. F. Le, D. W. Brandt, Y. A. Urzhumov, H. Wang, J. Kundu, N. J. Halas, J. Aizpurua, and P. Nordlander, “Metallic nanoparticle arrays: a common substrate for both surface-enhanced Raman scattering and surface-enhanced infrared absorption,” ACS Nano 2(4), 707–718 (2008). [CrossRef]

, 16

16. J. Ye, L. Lagae, G. Maes, G. Borghs, and P. Van Dorpe, “Symmetry breaking induced optical properties of gold open shell nanostructures,” Opt. Express 17(26), 23765–23771 (2009). [CrossRef]

].

Traditionally, the use of SPPs in optical refractive index sensing requires a free-space coupling apparatus to couple incident light into SPPs [7

7. H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer-Verlag, 1988),Chap. 8.

]. The attenuated total reflection (ATR) setup uses Kretschmann geometry to launch an SPP along the metal-dielectric interface. Plane waves within the prism are coupled into SPP waves when an incident wave is synchronized with the SPP modes. As the optical properties of the metal surface changes, wave vectors of the incident wave must be altered to meet the phase matching condition. By monitoring the phase matching condition, SPPs can be used as a refractive index sensor. Drawbacks of these conventional SPP sensors include susceptibility to ambient vibrations and complicated free-space coupling setups. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensing has also been used by illuminating a thin metal film applied to an atomic force microscope (AFM) [17

17. Y. Zou, P. Steinvurzel, T. Yang, and K. B. Crozier, “Surface plasmon resonances of optical antenna atomic force microscope tips,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(17), 171107 (2009). [CrossRef]

] in order to increase sensitivity. This AFM method enhances near field intensity through localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR), but also suffers from complex mechanical reliance that creates sensor sensitivity but suffers from environmental noises. More recently, research on plasmonic sensing has demonstrated the presence of LSPR in several nanostructures [8

8. W. H. Weber and G. W. Ford, “Optical electric-field enhancement at a metal surface arising from surface-plasmon excitation,” Opt. Lett. 6(3), 122–124 (1981). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10

10. G. H. Chan, J. Zhao, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duayne, “Localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy of triangular aluminum nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. 112, 13958–13963 (2008).

, 13

13. L. Pang, G. Hwang, B. Slutsky, and Y. Fainman, “Spectral sensitivity of two-dimensional nanohole array surface plasmon polariton resonance sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 123112 (2007). [CrossRef]

15

15. H.-S. Leong, J. Guo, R. G. Lindquist, and Q. H. Liu, “Surface plasmon resonance in nanostructured metal films under the Kretschmann configuration,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(12), 124314 (2009). [CrossRef]

] as well.

2. Periodically coupled nanowells

The purpose of this work is to report on a novel metallic nanostructure for refractive index sensing applications. In this paper, a periodic nanowell structure is designed and optimized for sensing and spectral filtering applications. The nanowell is a periodically coupled metallic nanostructure supporting high quality (Q) internal plasmon resonant modes from its engineered unit cell structure. The nanowell structure focuses incoming light into deep subwavelength spots on the metal-air interface through photon-plasmon conversion without using free-space coupling systems. In addition, the transmission spectrum of the nanowell is extremely narrow due to high Q resonance of the subwavelength plasmon polaritons. Motivated by the unique characteristics of the subwavelength plasmon mode in the nanowell, we optimize the spectral characteristics of the nanowell for refractive index sensing applications.

2.1 Structure

Figure 1(a)
Fig. 1 (a) Cross-sectional view of the periodically coupled nanowells on glass, (b) Field distribution at the resonant wavelength.
shows a cross-sectional view of the periodically coupled nanowells on a glass substrate. The periodic openings between the nanowells provide enhanced optical transmission when subwavelength SPP waves are excited. To excite the subwavelength plasmon polaritons in the nanowell structure the following conditions must be satisfied: kincsinα±mkNW=kspp where kinc is the wave vector of incoming light, α is the angle of incidence, kNW is the grating vector of the periodically coupled nanowell array, m is an integer, and kspp is the wave vector of the SPP wave. Figure 1(b) shows the normalized magnetic field distribution (Hz) of the plasmon polaritons in the nanowell. The highly concentrated field between the unit cell structures provides an enhanced overlap between the polaritons and the surrounding medium.

2.2 Simulation

For simulation, the modified Lorentz-Drude model [18

18. A. D. Rakić, A. B. Djurišić, J. M. Elazar, and M. L. Majewski, “Optical properties of metallic films for vertical-cavity optoelectronic devices,” Appl. Opt. 37(22), 5271–5283 (1998). [CrossRef]

] is used to include the dispersion characteristics of gold. The Sellmeier equation [19

19. G. Ghosh, “Sellmeier coefficients and dispersion of thermo-optic coefficients for some optical glasses,” Appl. Opt. 36(7), 1540–1546 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 20

20. C. V. I. Melles Griot Catalog, (CVIMG, New Mexico 2009).

] of BK-7 is used for glass. Briefly, the Lorentz-Drude model combines both intraband and interband contributions to the dielectric function. We begin with a complex dielectric function: ε^r(ω)=ε^r(f)(ω)+ε^r(b)(ω) where ε^r(f)(ω)=ε^r(f)(ω)=1Ωp2/ω(ωiΓ0) is due to intraband contributions and ε^r(b)(ω)=j=1k(fjωp2/(ωj2ω2)+iωΓj) is due to interband contributions. The former is the free-electron Drude model and the latter resembles the simple semi quantum Lorentz result for insulators. The above equations use ωp to represent plasma frequency, k for the number of oscillators with frequency ωj, strength fj, and lifetime 1/Γj, and Ωp=foωp which models the plasma frequency of intraband transitions with oscillator strength fo and damping constant Γ0.

2.3 High Q transmission spectrum of the coupled nanowells

The spectral characteristics of the nanowell structure are mainly determined by diffraction of the periodic structure and Fabry-Pérot (FP) resonance of the plasmon polaritons in the openings. FP resonance in the nanowell is induced by internal reflections inside the periodic openings caused by effective refractive index discontinuities of the plasmon wave. The periodic openings, therefore, serve as coupled nanocavities. To investigate their contribution, we compared the transmission spectra of two periodically coupled nanostructures: a nanowell structure and an equivalent planar rectangular array. The following variables were assumed for the nanowell and the planar structure respectively: (1) h = 150 nm, l = 400 nm, i = 300 nm, w = 50 nm, e = 100 nm and (2) h = 150 nm, l = 400 nm, w = 0 nm, e = 100 nm. A TM-polarized plane wave normally incident on the metal-air interface is used as an optical excitation. Figure 2
Fig. 2 Transmission spectra of the nanowell and rectangular array.
shows the transmission spectra of the nanowell and the rectangular array structure. Both structures have a period of l+e = 500nm. Unlike the rectangular array, the nanowell exhibits an extremely narrow transmission peak in the output spectrum. This unique spectral response is due to resonant diffraction of the subwavelength SPPs in the nanowell. High Q resonance of the subwavelength plasmon polaritons in the periodic openings significantly improves the enhanced optical transmission through the nanowell. The full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the transmission peak of the nanowell is 6 nm.

2.4 Spectral behavior

In order to understand the unique transmission characteristics of the nanowell, the spectral behavior of the SPPs in various nanowell configurations was studied. First, the width, e, of the openings was varied.

Figure 3(a)
Fig. 3 (a) Transmission spectra of the nanowell for different periodicities, (b) Transmission spectra of the nanowell for different heights.
shows transmission spectra of the nanowell for different widths of the openings. By increasing the value of e, the transmission peaks in the output spectrum are red-shifted. This is mainly due to a reduced grating vector of the nanowell, kNW. By varying the height, h, the effective refractive index of the nanowell is altered while maintaining the periodicity. Figure 3(b) shows the redshift of the transmission spectra due to an increasing effective refractive index.

According to our simulations there is a rapid reduction in transmitted power as e and h are varied with optimal values of 100 nm and 150 nm, respectively. These geometric values produce a gap polariton mode that provides high Q resonance with extraordinary optical transmission. By changing the values of e and h, the effective refractive index of the gap polariton and resonance characteristics are changed. Note that the nanowell offers enhanced optical transmission of close to 100% at a wavelength of 815.8 nm.

2.5. Practical considerations

To investigate the effects from fabrication variation of the nanowell on its spectral characteristics the transmission spectra was calculated for non ideal structures. The nanowell can be fabricated by a two-step lithography process such as electron beam lithography. For fabrication, the unit cell shown in Fig. 1(a) is divided into two layers: a l×(h-w) rectangle and two (l-hw squares. A common source of fabrication variation is a misalignment between the lithography processes of the two layers. When misalignment occurs, the second layer shifts to the right or to the left. Figure 4
Fig. 4 Transmission spectra of the nanowell for different overlay error values.
shows the calculated transmission spectra of the nanowell for three cases. Numerical simulations show that misalignment has minimal impact on the performance of the nanowell. Transmitted power has decreased intensity for values above 20 nm to a maximum reduction of 20% at 25 nm overlay error. To include impact on the transmission spectra of the nanowell from the variation of the nanowell thickness, well depth, w, was also varied within ± 4 nm. A reduction in transmitted power of 10% was observed.

2.6. Applications

Because of its narrow spectral response, the nanowell structure is especially attractive for spectral domain applications. The nanowell can be used as an optical refractive index sensor by monitoring the resonance condition of the high Q resonant peak. In this configuration, the nanowell will be illuminated with a monochromatic optical source at one of the resonant wavelengths and the output power will be monitored by a calibrated photodetector. As seen in Fig. 1(b) the gap polaritons in the openings, excited by the incident wave, interact with an analyte. A change in refractive index alters the resonance conditions of the gap polaritons resulting in a shift of the resonant peak in the transmission spectrum. This setup offers many benefits when compared to traditional SPR sensors including simple excitation by eliminating the need of an angular interrogation setup, enhanced transmission due to resonant diffraction, and highly localized 2D SPP waves at the sensor surface. Additionally, because of its static nature, the intensity interrogation approach is highly accurate for real-time sensing. The nanowell can be used for biosensing application by depositing a bio-transducer layer such as a layer of immobilized antibodies on the surface. A number of fabrication techniques have been demonstrated for positioning antibodies on complicated nanostructures [21

21. A. Bruckbauer, D. Zhou, D.-J. Kang, Y. E. Korchev, C. Abell, and D. Klenerman, “An addressable antibody nanoarray produced on a nanostructured surface,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126(21), 6508–6509 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. These same techniques can be used for depositing a bio-transducer layer on the nanowell.

Figure 5
Fig. 5 Calculated intensity variation of the transmitted wave as a function of refractive index changes.
shows the intensity variation of the transmitted wave, ΔP, of a nanowell sensor as a function of refractive index changes, Δn. The inset of Fig. 5 is a schematic view of the nanowell sensor using the intensity interrogation method with a monochromatic light source. The sensitivity of the nanowell sensor is defined by S=ΔP/Δn. Calculated sensitivity of the nanowell is approximately 4800% per refractive index unit (RIU). However, when considering real world applications the effect from noise must be considered. There are a number of potential noise sources in sensing applications such as mechanical vibration, optical power fluctuations, and undesired chemical/biological reactions. In this study, we consider intensity fluctuations from an optical source for sensing applications. Estimated uncertainty in sensitivity is within ± 2.4% RIU−1 with a typical optical intensity variation of 0.05% from an optical source (Newport Corp., 69931). Published sensitivity of intensity-interrogation SPR sensors ranges from 2500% to 4000% RIU−1 [22

22. C.-T. Li, T.-J. Yen, and H.-F. Chen, “A generalized model of maximizing the sensitivity in intensity-interrogation surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” Opt. Express 17(23), 20771–20776 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

24

24. A. Parisi, A. C. Cino, A. C. Busacca, M. Cherchi, and S. Riva-Sanseverino, “Integrated Optic Surface Plasmon Resonance Measurements in a Borosilicate Glass Substrate,” Sensors 8(11), 7113–7124 (2008). [CrossRef]

]. Sensitivity improvement of the nanowell sensor is due to highly localized field in the openings and high Q resonance of the plasmon mode.

3. Conclusion

In summary, we designed and optimized a novel nanostructure for refractive index sensing applications. The nanowell structure provides an intense localized field at the subwavelength periodic gaps and, compared to a planar rectangular array nanostructure, the spectral response of the nanowell is extremely narrow. Calculated FWHM of the transmission peak of the nanowell is 6 nm and the optical transmission is close to 100%. Because of the narrow spectral response, the nanowell structure has a great deal of potential as a nanoscale sensor.

Acknowledgements

This research is funded by a grant from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation through the Grand Challenges Exploration Initiative.

References and links

1.

A. Campion and R. Kambhampati, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 27(4), 241–250 (1998). [CrossRef]

2.

G. A. Wurtz, R. Pollard, and A. V. Zayats, “Optical bistability in nonlinear surface-plasmon polaritonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(5), 057402 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3.

A. Degiron, H. J. Lezec, N. Yamamoto, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Optical transmission properties of a single subwavelength aperture in a real metal,” Opt. Commun. 239(1-3), 61–66 (2004). [CrossRef]

4.

T. Thio, K. M. Pellerin, R. A. Linke, H. J. Lezec, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Enhanced light transmission through a single subwavelength aperture,” Opt. Lett. 26(24), 1972–1974 (2001). [CrossRef]

5.

T. Okamoto, I. Yamaguchi, and T. Kobayashi, “Local plasmon sensor with gold colloid monolayers deposited upon glass substrates,” Opt. Lett. 25(6), 372–374 (2000). [CrossRef]

6.

A. G. Brolo, R. Gordon, B. Leathem, and K. L. Kavanagh, “Surface plasmon sensor based on the enhanced light transmission through arrays of nanoholes in gold films,” Langmuir 20(12), 4813–4815 (2004). [CrossRef]

7.

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer-Verlag, 1988),Chap. 8.

8.

W. H. Weber and G. W. Ford, “Optical electric-field enhancement at a metal surface arising from surface-plasmon excitation,” Opt. Lett. 6(3), 122–124 (1981). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

E. Cubukcu, N. Yu, E. Smythe, L. Diehl, K. Crozier, and F. Capasso, “Plasmonic laser antennas and related devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. Electron. 14(6), 1448–1461 (2008). [CrossRef]

10.

G. H. Chan, J. Zhao, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duayne, “Localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy of triangular aluminum nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. 112, 13958–13963 (2008).

11.

S. Y. Wu, H. P. Ho, W. C. Law, C. Lin, and S. K. Kong, “Highly sensitive differential phase-sensitive surface plasmon resonance biosensor based on the Mach-Zehnder configuration,” Opt. Lett. 29(20), 2378–2380 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

K. A. Tetz, L. Pang, and Y. Fainman, “High-resolution surface plasmon resonance sensor based on linewidth-optimized nanohole array transmittance,” Opt. Lett. 31(10), 1528–1530 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

L. Pang, G. Hwang, B. Slutsky, and Y. Fainman, “Spectral sensitivity of two-dimensional nanohole array surface plasmon polariton resonance sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 123112 (2007). [CrossRef]

14.

F. Le, D. W. Brandt, Y. A. Urzhumov, H. Wang, J. Kundu, N. J. Halas, J. Aizpurua, and P. Nordlander, “Metallic nanoparticle arrays: a common substrate for both surface-enhanced Raman scattering and surface-enhanced infrared absorption,” ACS Nano 2(4), 707–718 (2008). [CrossRef]

15.

H.-S. Leong, J. Guo, R. G. Lindquist, and Q. H. Liu, “Surface plasmon resonance in nanostructured metal films under the Kretschmann configuration,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(12), 124314 (2009). [CrossRef]

16.

J. Ye, L. Lagae, G. Maes, G. Borghs, and P. Van Dorpe, “Symmetry breaking induced optical properties of gold open shell nanostructures,” Opt. Express 17(26), 23765–23771 (2009). [CrossRef]

17.

Y. Zou, P. Steinvurzel, T. Yang, and K. B. Crozier, “Surface plasmon resonances of optical antenna atomic force microscope tips,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(17), 171107 (2009). [CrossRef]

18.

A. D. Rakić, A. B. Djurišić, J. M. Elazar, and M. L. Majewski, “Optical properties of metallic films for vertical-cavity optoelectronic devices,” Appl. Opt. 37(22), 5271–5283 (1998). [CrossRef]

19.

G. Ghosh, “Sellmeier coefficients and dispersion of thermo-optic coefficients for some optical glasses,” Appl. Opt. 36(7), 1540–1546 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

20.

C. V. I. Melles Griot Catalog, (CVIMG, New Mexico 2009).

21.

A. Bruckbauer, D. Zhou, D.-J. Kang, Y. E. Korchev, C. Abell, and D. Klenerman, “An addressable antibody nanoarray produced on a nanostructured surface,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126(21), 6508–6509 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

22.

C.-T. Li, T.-J. Yen, and H.-F. Chen, “A generalized model of maximizing the sensitivity in intensity-interrogation surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” Opt. Express 17(23), 20771–20776 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

23.

B. Ran and S. G. Lipson, “Comparison between sensitivities of phase and intensity detection in surface plasmon resonance,” Opt. Express 14(12), 5641–5650 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

24.

A. Parisi, A. C. Cino, A. C. Busacca, M. Cherchi, and S. Riva-Sanseverino, “Integrated Optic Surface Plasmon Resonance Measurements in a Borosilicate Glass Substrate,” Sensors 8(11), 7113–7124 (2008). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(240.6680) Optics at surfaces : Surface plasmons
(310.6860) Thin films : Thin films, optical properties

ToC Category:
Optics at Surfaces

History
Original Manuscript: January 24, 2011
Revised Manuscript: March 4, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: March 24, 2011
Published: April 21, 2011

Citation
Jayson L. Briscoe and Sang-Yeon Cho, "A periodically coupled plasmon nanostructure for refractive index sensing," Opt. Express 19, 8815-8820 (2011)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-9-8815


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References

  1. A. Campion and R. Kambhampati, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 27(4), 241–250 (1998). [CrossRef]
  2. G. A. Wurtz, R. Pollard, and A. V. Zayats, “Optical bistability in nonlinear surface-plasmon polaritonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(5), 057402 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. A. Degiron, H. J. Lezec, N. Yamamoto, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Optical transmission properties of a single subwavelength aperture in a real metal,” Opt. Commun. 239(1-3), 61–66 (2004). [CrossRef]
  4. T. Thio, K. M. Pellerin, R. A. Linke, H. J. Lezec, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Enhanced light transmission through a single subwavelength aperture,” Opt. Lett. 26(24), 1972–1974 (2001). [CrossRef]
  5. T. Okamoto, I. Yamaguchi, and T. Kobayashi, “Local plasmon sensor with gold colloid monolayers deposited upon glass substrates,” Opt. Lett. 25(6), 372–374 (2000). [CrossRef]
  6. A. G. Brolo, R. Gordon, B. Leathem, and K. L. Kavanagh, “Surface plasmon sensor based on the enhanced light transmission through arrays of nanoholes in gold films,” Langmuir 20(12), 4813–4815 (2004). [CrossRef]
  7. H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer-Verlag, 1988),Chap. 8.
  8. W. H. Weber and G. W. Ford, “Optical electric-field enhancement at a metal surface arising from surface-plasmon excitation,” Opt. Lett. 6(3), 122–124 (1981). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. E. Cubukcu, N. Yu, E. Smythe, L. Diehl, K. Crozier, and F. Capasso, “Plasmonic laser antennas and related devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. Electron. 14(6), 1448–1461 (2008). [CrossRef]
  10. G. H. Chan, J. Zhao, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duayne, “Localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy of triangular aluminum nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. 112, 13958–13963 (2008).
  11. S. Y. Wu, H. P. Ho, W. C. Law, C. Lin, and S. K. Kong, “Highly sensitive differential phase-sensitive surface plasmon resonance biosensor based on the Mach-Zehnder configuration,” Opt. Lett. 29(20), 2378–2380 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. K. A. Tetz, L. Pang, and Y. Fainman, “High-resolution surface plasmon resonance sensor based on linewidth-optimized nanohole array transmittance,” Opt. Lett. 31(10), 1528–1530 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. L. Pang, G. Hwang, B. Slutsky, and Y. Fainman, “Spectral sensitivity of two-dimensional nanohole array surface plasmon polariton resonance sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 123112 (2007). [CrossRef]
  14. F. Le, D. W. Brandt, Y. A. Urzhumov, H. Wang, J. Kundu, N. J. Halas, J. Aizpurua, and P. Nordlander, “Metallic nanoparticle arrays: a common substrate for both surface-enhanced Raman scattering and surface-enhanced infrared absorption,” ACS Nano 2(4), 707–718 (2008). [CrossRef]
  15. H.-S. Leong, J. Guo, R. G. Lindquist, and Q. H. Liu, “Surface plasmon resonance in nanostructured metal films under the Kretschmann configuration,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(12), 124314 (2009). [CrossRef]
  16. J. Ye, L. Lagae, G. Maes, G. Borghs, and P. Van Dorpe, “Symmetry breaking induced optical properties of gold open shell nanostructures,” Opt. Express 17(26), 23765–23771 (2009). [CrossRef]
  17. Y. Zou, P. Steinvurzel, T. Yang, and K. B. Crozier, “Surface plasmon resonances of optical antenna atomic force microscope tips,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(17), 171107 (2009). [CrossRef]
  18. A. D. Rakić, A. B. Djurišić, J. M. Elazar, and M. L. Majewski, “Optical properties of metallic films for vertical-cavity optoelectronic devices,” Appl. Opt. 37(22), 5271–5283 (1998). [CrossRef]
  19. G. Ghosh, “Sellmeier coefficients and dispersion of thermo-optic coefficients for some optical glasses,” Appl. Opt. 36(7), 1540–1546 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. C. V. I. Melles Griot Catalog, (CVIMG, New Mexico 2009).
  21. A. Bruckbauer, D. Zhou, D.-J. Kang, Y. E. Korchev, C. Abell, and D. Klenerman, “An addressable antibody nanoarray produced on a nanostructured surface,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126(21), 6508–6509 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. C.-T. Li, T.-J. Yen, and H.-F. Chen, “A generalized model of maximizing the sensitivity in intensity-interrogation surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” Opt. Express 17(23), 20771–20776 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. B. Ran and S. G. Lipson, “Comparison between sensitivities of phase and intensity detection in surface plasmon resonance,” Opt. Express 14(12), 5641–5650 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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