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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 20, Iss. 1 — Jan. 2, 2012
  • pp: 101–110
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Four-wave mixing analysis of quantum dot semiconductor lasers for linewidth enhancement factor extraction

Chih-Hao Lin, Hung-Hsin Lin, and Fan-Yi Lin  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 20, Issue 1, pp. 101-110 (2012)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.20.000101


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Abstract

We apply a four-wave mixing analysis on a quantum dot laser to simultaneously obtain the linewidth enhancement factor α and other intrinsic laser parameters. By fitting the experimentally obtained regenerative signals and power spectra at different detuning frequencies with the respective curves analytically calculated from the rate equations, parameters including the linewidth enhancement factor, the carrier decay rate in the dots, the differential gain, and the photon decay rate can be determined all at once under the same operating conditions. In this paper, a theoretical model for the four-wave mixing analysis of the QD lasers is derived and verified. The sensitivity and accuracy of the parameter extraction using the four-wave mixing method are presented. Moreover, how each each parameters alter the shapes of the regenerative signals and the power spectra are also discussed.

© 2011 OSA

1. Introduction

Nonlinear dynamics of semiconductor lasers and their applications [1

1. F. Y. Lin, S. Y. Tu, C. C. Huang, and S. M. Chang, “Nonlinear dynamics of semiconductor lasers under repetitive optical pulse injection,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron . 15, 604–611 (2009). [CrossRef]

5

5. Y. S. Juan and F. Y. Lin, “Microwave-frequency-comb generation utilizing a semiconductor laser subject to optical pulse injection from an optoelectronic feedback laser,” Opt. Lett. 34, 1636–1638 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] have been investigated extensively in recent years. For the quantum dot (QD) lasers, the dynamical behaviors and modulation characteristics are significantly influenced by the intrinsic laser parameters especially the linewidth enhancement factor α [6

6. S. K. Hwang and J. M. Liu, “Dynamical characteristics of an optically injected semiconductor laser,” Opt. Commun. 183, 195–205 (2000). [CrossRef]

]. The linewidth enhancement factor of QD lasers can be measured with several methods under different operation conditions. For the material α below the threshold, it is usually measured with the amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) [7

7. T. C. Newell, D. J. Bossert, A. Stintz, B. Fuchs, K. J. Malloy, and L. F. Lester, “Gain and linewidth enhancement factor in InAs quantum-dot laser diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1527–1529 (1999). [CrossRef]

]. For the device α above the threshold, techniques such as the FM/AM response ratio under small signal current modulation [8

8. S. Gerhard, C. Schilling, F. Gerschutz, M. Fischer, J. Koeth, I. Krestnikov, A. Kovsh, M. Kamp, S. Hofling, and A. Forchel, “Frequency-dependent linewidth enhancement factor of quantum-dot lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1736–1738 (2008). [CrossRef]

, 9

9. J. G. Provost and F. Grillot, “Measuring the chirp and the linewidth enhancement factor of optoelectronic devices with a Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” IEEE Photon. J. 3, 476–488 (2011). [CrossRef]

], the linewidth measurement [10

10. T. Fordell and A. M. Lindberg, “Experiments on the linewidth-enhancement factor of a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 6–15 (2007). [CrossRef]

], and the injection locking [10

10. T. Fordell and A. M. Lindberg, “Experiments on the linewidth-enhancement factor of a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 6–15 (2007). [CrossRef]

13

13. I. Petitbon, P. Gallion, G. Debarge, and C. Chabran, “Locking bandwidth and relaxation oscillations of an injection-locked semiconductor laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 148–154 (1988). [CrossRef]

] are commonly used.

In these techniques, however, the FM/AM method is limited by the electric parasitic effects where careful calibrations of the laser and the photodetector responses are required. In the injection locking technique, one can either measure the variations of the output power [11

11. K. Iiyama, K. Hayashi, and Y. Ida, “Simple method for measuring the linewidth enhancement factor of semiconductor lasers by optical injection locking,” Opt. Lett. 17, 1128–1130 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] or the junction voltage [12

12. R. Hui, A. Mecozzi, A. D’ottavi, and P. Spano, “Novel measurement technique of alpha factor in DFB semiconductor lasers by injection locking,” Electron. Lett. 26, 997–998 (1990). [CrossRef]

] under different detunings to extract the value of α. However, the variations are typically small and the value of α is difficult to be precisely determined. While the α can also be measured from the slope ratio of the upper and the lower injection locking boundaries [13

13. I. Petitbon, P. Gallion, G. Debarge, and C. Chabran, “Locking bandwidth and relaxation oscillations of an injection-locked semiconductor laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 148–154 (1988). [CrossRef]

], strong injections are needed to obtain the accurate locking bandwidths. When the laser under test is biased at a higher bias level, injection locking of the laser becomes difficult to achieve.

In this paper, we study the four-wave mixing (FWM) analysis [14

14. J. M. Liu and T. B. Simpson, “Four-wave mixing and optical modulation in a semiconductor laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 957–965 (1994). [CrossRef]

] to measure the α of a QD laser. By fitting the experimentally obtained regenerative signals and the power spectra of the FWM states at different detuning frequencies to the respective theoretical curves, intrinsic laser parameters such as the linewidth enhancement factor α, the relaxation resonance frequency νr, the carrier decay rates in the quantum dots γd, the differential gain g0, the photon decay rate γs, the interaction cross section of the carriers ς, the gain saturation coefficient ɛ, the capture rate from the quantum wells into the dots C, and the carrier decay rates in the quantum wells γN can all be extracted simultaneously. Moreover, unlike the injection locking technique, FWM states can be easily obtained with just weak injections. As the results, α of the QD lasers at very high bias levels can still be measured.

2. Model and method

The dynamics of QD lasers with optical injection can be described by the rate equations for the complex amplitude of electric field E, the occupancy probability of the quantum dots ρ, and the carrier density in the surrounding quantum wells NW [2

2. D. Goulding, S. P. Hegarty, O. Rasskazov, S. Melnik, M. Hartnett, G. Greene, J. G. McInerney, D. Rachinskii, and G. Huyet, “Excitability in a quantum dot semiconductor laser with optical injection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 153903 (2007). [CrossRef]

]
dEdt=12υgg0(2ρ11+ɛ|E|2γsυgg0)(1iα)E+γsEieiΔt
(1)
dρdt=γdρ+CNW(1ρ)υgς(2ρ11+ɛ|E|2)|E|2
(2)
dNWdt=γNNW+Jq2CNW(1ρ),
(3)
where γs is the photon decay rate in the cavity, γN and γd are the carrier decay rates in the quantum wells and the quantum dots, C is the capture rate from the wells into the dots, J is the bias current per dot, ς is the interaction cross section of the carriers in the dots, α is the linewidth enhancement factor, υg is the group velocity, g0 is the differential gain, ɛ is the gain saturation coefficient, and Ei and Δ are the effective complex amplitude and the detuning frequency of the injected field. For a single-mode DFB QD laser, rate equations without taking into account the excited states are used in this paper [2

2. D. Goulding, S. P. Hegarty, O. Rasskazov, S. Melnik, M. Hartnett, G. Greene, J. G. McInerney, D. Rachinskii, and G. Huyet, “Excitability in a quantum dot semiconductor laser with optical injection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 153903 (2007). [CrossRef]

, 15

15. D. O’Brien, S. P. Hegarty, G. Huyet, and A. V. Uskov, “Sensitivity of quantum-dot semiconductor lasers to optical feedback,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1072–1074 (2004). [CrossRef]

, 16

16. T. Erneux, E. A. Viktorov, B. Kelleher, D. Goulding, S. P. Hegarty, and G. Huyet, “Optically injected quantum-dot lasers,” Opt. Lett. 35, 937–939 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. These rate equations are simplified [17

17. M. Sugawara, N. Hatori, H. Ebe, M. Ishida, Y. Arakawa, T. Akiyama, K. Otsubo, and Y. Nakata, “Modeling room-temperature lasing spectra of 1.3-μm self-assembled InAs/GaAs quantum-dot lasers: homogeneous broadening of optical gain under current injection,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 043523 (2005). [CrossRef]

, 18

18. M. Gioannini, A. Sevega, and I. Montrosset, “Simulations of differential gain and linewidth enhancement factor of quantum dot semiconductor lasers,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 38, 381–394 (2006). [CrossRef]

] while have good agreement with the experimental results [2

2. D. Goulding, S. P. Hegarty, O. Rasskazov, S. Melnik, M. Hartnett, G. Greene, J. G. McInerney, D. Rachinskii, and G. Huyet, “Excitability in a quantum dot semiconductor laser with optical injection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 153903 (2007). [CrossRef]

].

By deriving the equations of E, ρ, and NW, the steady-state solutions of the rate equations at the FWM states can be obtained. In the degenerate FWM states, the E-field of the QD laser is composed of the free-oscillating signal, the regenerated amplification signal, and the FWM signal. Therefore, the output field can be expressed as
E(t)=E0+EreiΔt+EfeiΔt,
(4)
where E0 is the steady-state field amplitude at the oscillating frequency and Er and Ef are the complex amplitudes of the regenerated amplification and FWM fields, respectively. The source of carrier pulsation is the optical modulation from the beating of the E-field. Thus, the occupancy probability of the quantum dots ρ oscillates at the detuning frequency. To the first order, the occupancy probability can be described as
ρ(t)=ρ0+ρ1eiΔt+ρ1*eiΔt,
(5)
where ρ0 is the steady-state occupancy probability of the quantum dots without perturbation and ρ1 is the amplitudes of the pulsation.

NW is nearly constant (≃ N0) based on the simulation results with large capture rates, where N0 is the steady-state solution of NW without perturbation. Therefore, we can set Eq. (3) equals to zero to get the steady-state solution, which gives
NW=J/qγN+2C(1ρ)
(6)

To simplify the calculation, some approximations are made based on the simulation results. First, the complex amplitude of the amplitude modulation (σ) is much smaller than the steady-state field amplitude (E0), which gives
|E|2|E0|2(1+σeiΔt+σ*eiΔt)
(7)
and
11+ɛ|E|211+ɛ|E0|2
(8)

Since the capture rate from the quantum wells into the dots (C) is generally much larger than the carrier decay rates in the quantum wells (γN) while the occupancy probability of the quantum dots (ρ) is not close to 1, Eq. (6) can be reduced to
NW=J/q2C(1ρ)
(9)
By solving the steady-state solutions and substituting Eqs. (4), (5), and (9) into the rate equations, the complex amplitudes of the regenerative field, the FWM field, and the amplitude modulation with different detuning frequencies can be obtained.
ErE0=iρ1G(1iα)ΔK
(10)
EfE0=iρ1*G(1iα)Δ
(11)
σ=ρ1Z,
(12)
where
ρ1=KZ+W,G=υgg01+ɛ|E0|2,K=iγsΔEiE0,W=i2GΔ
(13)
Z=[2υgς|E0|21+ɛ|E0|2iΔ+γd]/[υgς|E0|2(2ρ01)1+ɛ|E0|2]
(14)

To validate this analytically derived model, the regenerative signals, the FWM signals, and the power spectra obtained from Eqs. (10)(12) are plotted in Figs. 1(a)1(c) and compared with the numerical simulation results obtained from the original rate equations Eqs. (1)(3). The parameters used are listed in Table 1 with 2Jth, which are adopted from those used in Ref. [19

19. S. Melnik, G. Huyet, and A. Uskov, “The linewidth enhancement factor α of quantum dot semiconductor lasers,” Opt. Express 14, 2950–2955 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. As shown in Figs. 1, except some minor discrepancies around the dips in the regenerative and FWM signals, the curves derived from the analytical model (blue curves) match well with the simulation results (green dots). Thus, by fitting the experimentally obtained regenerative signals, FWM signals, and power spectra with the respective derived curves using the analytically model shown in Eqs. (10)(12), the intrinsic laser parameters can be extracted. In fact, since the regenerative signal and the power spectrum contain all the information of the FWM signal as can be seen in Eqs. (10)(12), only the regenerative signals and the power spectra are needed in determining the parameters.

Fig. 1 (a) Regenerated signals, (b) four-wave mixing signals, and (c) power spectra from the numerical simulation (green dots) and the analytical solutions based on the simplified model (blue curves), respectively.

Table 1. Parameters of the Quantum Dot Laser used in Fig. 1

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3. Experimental setup

Figure 2 shows the schematic setup of the FWM analysis. A commercial QD laser diode (LD)(QDLaser QLD 1334) with a threshold current Jth = 8.7 mA is used as a sample for intrinsic laser parameter characterization, which has a wavelength of about 1296 nm and an output power of about 1.6 mW when biased at 20 mA. The QD laser is optically injected by a tunable laser (TL)(Yenista Tunics T100S-O) through a free space optical circulator formed by a polarizing beam splitter (PBS 2), a half-wave plate (HW 2), and a Faraday rotator (FR). The injected power is less than 1 μW to prevent the QD laser from injection-locking or any instability. The power spectrum of the QD laser is detected by a photodiode with 12 GHz frequency response (NewFocus 1554-A) and resolved with a 26.5 GHz spectrum analyzer (Agilent E4407B). The regenerative signal of the QD laser is measured by heterodyning the QD laser output with the TL output at the photodiode (when beam block (B) is removed), where an acousto-optic modulator (IntraAction ACM-1002AA1) is used to shift the beat signal from the DC to about 100 MHz for a better signal to noise ratio.

Fig. 2 Schematic setup of the four-wave mixing analysis. TL: tunable laser; LD: QD laser diode; FR: Faraday rotator; HW: half-wave plate; PBS: polarizing beamsplitter; PD: photodiode; SA: spectrum analyzer; VA: variable attenuator; AOM: acousto-optic modulator; B: beam block; FC: 50/50 fiber coupler.

4. Result and discussion

Figures 3(a)3(d) and 3(e)3(h) show the magnitudes of the regenerative signals and the power spectra of the QD laser (red dots) with different detuning frequencies between the TL and the QD laser at bias currents of 1.5Jth, 1.75Jth, 2Jth, and 2.25Jth, respectively. By the least squares curve fitting with the analytically derived curves from Eqs. (10)(12) (blue curves), the intrinsic parameters including the linewidth enhancement factor α, the carrier decay rates in the quantum dots γd, the differential gain g0, the photon decay rate γs, the interaction cross section of the carriers ς, the gain saturation coefficient ɛ, the capture rate from the quantum wells into the dots C, and the carrier decay rates in the quantum wells γN of the QD laser are obtained and shown in Table 2. The parameters used in Ref. [19

19. S. Melnik, G. Huyet, and A. Uskov, “The linewidth enhancement factor α of quantum dot semiconductor lasers,” Opt. Express 14, 2950–2955 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] are also listed for reference.

Fig. 3 Experimentally obtained (a)–(d) regenerated signals and (e)–(h) power spectra of the QD laser under the FWM states at different bias currents (red dots). Blue curves are the least square fitting calculated from the analytical model.

Table 2. The Extracted Intrinsic Parameters of the QD Laser and Their Error Ranges

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To show the sensitivity and accuracy of the extracted parameters with FWM, a normalized error range (listed in the parentheses of Table 2) measuring a 10% increase in the standard deviation (σ) from the best-fitted parameter (that has a least standard deviation σopt) is calculated. As can be seen in Table 2, the FWM method is particularly sensitive in determining the linewidth enhancement factor α where the error range is less than 5% (which means that changing the α from its best-fitted value by 5% will result in an increase of the standard deviation by 10%). The increasing trend of α as the bias current increases can be clearly determined [19

19. S. Melnik, G. Huyet, and A. Uskov, “The linewidth enhancement factor α of quantum dot semiconductor lasers,” Opt. Express 14, 2950–2955 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,20

20. B. Dagens, A. Markus, J. X. Chen, J. G. Provost, D. Make, O. L. Gouezigou, J. Landreau, A. Fiore, and B. Thedrez, “Giant linewidth enhancement factor and purely frequency modulated emission from quantum dot laser,” Electron. Lett. 41, 323–324 (2005). [CrossRef]

]. The linewidth enhancement factor α of the very same QD laser is also measured with the injection locking method [13

13. I. Petitbon, P. Gallion, G. Debarge, and C. Chabran, “Locking bandwidth and relaxation oscillations of an injection-locked semiconductor laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 148–154 (1988). [CrossRef]

] to verify the FWM result. At the same bias currents of 1.5Jth, 1.75Jth, 2Jth, and 2.25Jth, α of 0.98(0.11), 0.96(0.08), 0.97(0.04), and 0.98(0.02) are obtained respectively (The values in the parentheses are the standard deviations for various measurements under different injection levels). As can be seen, similar values of α are obtained and confirmed the feasibility of the FWM method. Note that, a relatively strong injection is needed to locked the QD laser being examined in the injection locking method. At higher bias levels, locking the laser becomes more difficult and determining α becomes not possible. On the contrary, only a weak injection is needed to generate the FWM state in the QD laser at any bias levels. Moreover, except α, other intrinsic laser parameters can be extracted simultaneously under the same operating conditions.

As can be seen from Table 2, the FWM method is also good in extracting the γd, g0, and γs that have the error ranges within about 15%. Nonetheless, other parameters such as ς, ɛ, C, and γN are insensitive to the regenerative signals and the power spectra where the values of these parameters are not able to extract accurately through the FWM method (The capture rate from the quantum wells into the dots (C) and the carrier decay rates in the quantum wells (γN) barely affect the fitting results and thus are set with the same values used in Ref. [19

19. S. Melnik, G. Huyet, and A. Uskov, “The linewidth enhancement factor α of quantum dot semiconductor lasers,” Opt. Express 14, 2950–2955 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]). Note that, the shapes of the regenerative signals shown in Figs. 3(a)3(d) fitted with the experimental data are very different from the one shown in Fig. 1(a). As can be seen in Table 2, this is mainly due to the relatively small γs of the QD laser evaluated.

Fig. 4 Calculated regenerative signals (left column) and power spectra (right column) of the QD laser with different values of (a)(b) α, (c)(d) γd, (e)(f) g0, and (g)(h) γs, respectively.

5. Conclusion

In conclusion, we apply the FWM analysis to a QD laser for simultaneously extracting the linewidth enhancement factor and other intrinsic parameters. A model for the FWM analysis of the QD lasers is derived and validated. The linewidth enhancement factors of 0.93, 0.94, 0.95, and 1.03 at bias currents of 1.5Jth, 1.75Jth, 2Jth, and 2.25Jth are obtained with the error ranges of less than 5%, where similar values are obtained with the injection locking method using the very same QD laser. Other parameters such as γd, g0, and γs are also effectively measured, which have the error ranges of about 15%. Unlike the injection locking technique, the parameters at higher bias levels can still be extracted with the FWM method where only weak injections are needed to generate the FWM states. While different models have to be derived for semiconductor lasers with different structures, the advantages of the FWM method shown here are generally applicable to any types of semiconductor lasers.

While the FWM method is shown to successfully extract the intrinsic parameters of the QD laser, minor discrepancies are still observed between the experimentally measured regenerative signals and power spectra from the respective fitting curves calculated with the derived model. A more complete and complex model including the effects of the carrier dynamics in the excited states, the nonlinear effects of the α, and the phonon bottleneck may reduce the discrepancies, which will be investigated in the future.

Acknowledgments

This work is supported by the National Science Council of Taiwan under contract NSC 97-2112-M-007-017-MY3 and NSC 100-2112-M-007-012-MY3 and by the National Tsing Hua University under grant 100N2081E1.

References and links

1.

F. Y. Lin, S. Y. Tu, C. C. Huang, and S. M. Chang, “Nonlinear dynamics of semiconductor lasers under repetitive optical pulse injection,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron . 15, 604–611 (2009). [CrossRef]

2.

D. Goulding, S. P. Hegarty, O. Rasskazov, S. Melnik, M. Hartnett, G. Greene, J. G. McInerney, D. Rachinskii, and G. Huyet, “Excitability in a quantum dot semiconductor laser with optical injection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 153903 (2007). [CrossRef]

3.

Y. S. Juan and F. Y. Lin, “Photonic generation of broadly tunable microwave signals utilizing a dual-beam optically injected semiconductor laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 3, 644–650 (2011). [CrossRef]

4.

Y. S. Juan and F. Y. Lin, “Demonstration of ultra-wideband (UWB) over fiber based on optical pulse-injected semiconductor laser,” Opt. Express 18, 9664–9670 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

Y. S. Juan and F. Y. Lin, “Microwave-frequency-comb generation utilizing a semiconductor laser subject to optical pulse injection from an optoelectronic feedback laser,” Opt. Lett. 34, 1636–1638 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

S. K. Hwang and J. M. Liu, “Dynamical characteristics of an optically injected semiconductor laser,” Opt. Commun. 183, 195–205 (2000). [CrossRef]

7.

T. C. Newell, D. J. Bossert, A. Stintz, B. Fuchs, K. J. Malloy, and L. F. Lester, “Gain and linewidth enhancement factor in InAs quantum-dot laser diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1527–1529 (1999). [CrossRef]

8.

S. Gerhard, C. Schilling, F. Gerschutz, M. Fischer, J. Koeth, I. Krestnikov, A. Kovsh, M. Kamp, S. Hofling, and A. Forchel, “Frequency-dependent linewidth enhancement factor of quantum-dot lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1736–1738 (2008). [CrossRef]

9.

J. G. Provost and F. Grillot, “Measuring the chirp and the linewidth enhancement factor of optoelectronic devices with a Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” IEEE Photon. J. 3, 476–488 (2011). [CrossRef]

10.

T. Fordell and A. M. Lindberg, “Experiments on the linewidth-enhancement factor of a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 6–15 (2007). [CrossRef]

11.

K. Iiyama, K. Hayashi, and Y. Ida, “Simple method for measuring the linewidth enhancement factor of semiconductor lasers by optical injection locking,” Opt. Lett. 17, 1128–1130 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

R. Hui, A. Mecozzi, A. D’ottavi, and P. Spano, “Novel measurement technique of alpha factor in DFB semiconductor lasers by injection locking,” Electron. Lett. 26, 997–998 (1990). [CrossRef]

13.

I. Petitbon, P. Gallion, G. Debarge, and C. Chabran, “Locking bandwidth and relaxation oscillations of an injection-locked semiconductor laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 148–154 (1988). [CrossRef]

14.

J. M. Liu and T. B. Simpson, “Four-wave mixing and optical modulation in a semiconductor laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 957–965 (1994). [CrossRef]

15.

D. O’Brien, S. P. Hegarty, G. Huyet, and A. V. Uskov, “Sensitivity of quantum-dot semiconductor lasers to optical feedback,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1072–1074 (2004). [CrossRef]

16.

T. Erneux, E. A. Viktorov, B. Kelleher, D. Goulding, S. P. Hegarty, and G. Huyet, “Optically injected quantum-dot lasers,” Opt. Lett. 35, 937–939 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

17.

M. Sugawara, N. Hatori, H. Ebe, M. Ishida, Y. Arakawa, T. Akiyama, K. Otsubo, and Y. Nakata, “Modeling room-temperature lasing spectra of 1.3-μm self-assembled InAs/GaAs quantum-dot lasers: homogeneous broadening of optical gain under current injection,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 043523 (2005). [CrossRef]

18.

M. Gioannini, A. Sevega, and I. Montrosset, “Simulations of differential gain and linewidth enhancement factor of quantum dot semiconductor lasers,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 38, 381–394 (2006). [CrossRef]

19.

S. Melnik, G. Huyet, and A. Uskov, “The linewidth enhancement factor α of quantum dot semiconductor lasers,” Opt. Express 14, 2950–2955 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

20.

B. Dagens, A. Markus, J. X. Chen, J. G. Provost, D. Make, O. L. Gouezigou, J. Landreau, A. Fiore, and B. Thedrez, “Giant linewidth enhancement factor and purely frequency modulated emission from quantum dot laser,” Electron. Lett. 41, 323–324 (2005). [CrossRef]

21.

G. Giuliani, “The linewidth enhancement factor of semiconductor lasers: usefulness, limitations, and measurements,” in “23rd Annual Meeting of the IEEE Photonics Society, 2010,” 423–424 (2010).

OCIS Codes
(140.5960) Lasers and laser optics : Semiconductor lasers
(190.4380) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics, four-wave mixing
(230.5590) Optical devices : Quantum-well, -wire and -dot devices
(290.3700) Scattering : Linewidth

ToC Category:
Nonlinear Optics

History
Original Manuscript: October 24, 2011
Revised Manuscript: November 23, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: November 23, 2011
Published: December 19, 2011

Citation
Chih-Hao Lin, Hung-Hsin Lin, and Fan-Yi Lin, "Four-wave mixing analysis of quantum dot semiconductor lasers for linewidth enhancement factor extraction," Opt. Express 20, 101-110 (2012)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-20-1-101


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References

  1. F. Y. Lin, S. Y. Tu, C. C. Huang, and S. M. Chang, “Nonlinear dynamics of semiconductor lasers under repetitive optical pulse injection,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 604–611 (2009). [CrossRef]
  2. D. Goulding, S. P. Hegarty, O. Rasskazov, S. Melnik, M. Hartnett, G. Greene, J. G. McInerney, D. Rachinskii, and G. Huyet, “Excitability in a quantum dot semiconductor laser with optical injection,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98, 153903 (2007). [CrossRef]
  3. Y. S. Juan and F. Y. Lin, “Photonic generation of broadly tunable microwave signals utilizing a dual-beam optically injected semiconductor laser,” IEEE Photon. J.3, 644–650 (2011). [CrossRef]
  4. Y. S. Juan and F. Y. Lin, “Demonstration of ultra-wideband (UWB) over fiber based on optical pulse-injected semiconductor laser,” Opt. Express18, 9664–9670 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. Y. S. Juan and F. Y. Lin, “Microwave-frequency-comb generation utilizing a semiconductor laser subject to optical pulse injection from an optoelectronic feedback laser,” Opt. Lett.34, 1636–1638 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. S. K. Hwang and J. M. Liu, “Dynamical characteristics of an optically injected semiconductor laser,” Opt. Commun.183, 195–205 (2000). [CrossRef]
  7. T. C. Newell, D. J. Bossert, A. Stintz, B. Fuchs, K. J. Malloy, and L. F. Lester, “Gain and linewidth enhancement factor in InAs quantum-dot laser diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.11, 1527–1529 (1999). [CrossRef]
  8. S. Gerhard, C. Schilling, F. Gerschutz, M. Fischer, J. Koeth, I. Krestnikov, A. Kovsh, M. Kamp, S. Hofling, and A. Forchel, “Frequency-dependent linewidth enhancement factor of quantum-dot lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20, 1736–1738 (2008). [CrossRef]
  9. J. G. Provost and F. Grillot, “Measuring the chirp and the linewidth enhancement factor of optoelectronic devices with a Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” IEEE Photon. J.3, 476–488 (2011). [CrossRef]
  10. T. Fordell and A. M. Lindberg, “Experiments on the linewidth-enhancement factor of a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.43, 6–15 (2007). [CrossRef]
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