## Four-wave mixing analysis of quantum dot semiconductor lasers for linewidth enhancement factor extraction |

Optics Express, Vol. 20, Issue 1, pp. 101-110 (2012)

http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.20.000101

Acrobat PDF (786 KB)

### Abstract

We apply a four-wave mixing analysis on a quantum dot laser to simultaneously obtain the linewidth enhancement factor *α* and other intrinsic laser parameters. By fitting the experimentally obtained regenerative signals and power spectra at different detuning frequencies with the respective curves analytically calculated from the rate equations, parameters including the linewidth enhancement factor, the carrier decay rate in the dots, the differential gain, and the photon decay rate can be determined all at once under the same operating conditions. In this paper, a theoretical model for the four-wave mixing analysis of the QD lasers is derived and verified. The sensitivity and accuracy of the parameter extraction using the four-wave mixing method are presented. Moreover, how each each parameters alter the shapes of the regenerative signals and the power spectra are also discussed.

© 2011 OSA

## 1. Introduction

1. F. Y. Lin, S. Y. Tu, C. C. Huang, and S. M. Chang, “Nonlinear dynamics of semiconductor lasers under repetitive optical pulse injection,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron . **15**, 604–611 (2009). [CrossRef]

5. Y. S. Juan and F. Y. Lin, “Microwave-frequency-comb generation utilizing a semiconductor laser subject to optical pulse injection from an optoelectronic feedback laser,” Opt. Lett. **34**, 1636–1638 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

*α*[6

6. S. K. Hwang and J. M. Liu, “Dynamical characteristics of an optically injected semiconductor laser,” Opt. Commun. **183**, 195–205 (2000). [CrossRef]

*α*below the threshold, it is usually measured with the amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) [7

7. T. C. Newell, D. J. Bossert, A. Stintz, B. Fuchs, K. J. Malloy, and L. F. Lester, “Gain and linewidth enhancement factor in InAs quantum-dot laser diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. **11**, 1527–1529 (1999). [CrossRef]

*α*above the threshold, techniques such as the FM/AM response ratio under small signal current modulation [8

8. S. Gerhard, C. Schilling, F. Gerschutz, M. Fischer, J. Koeth, I. Krestnikov, A. Kovsh, M. Kamp, S. Hofling, and A. Forchel, “Frequency-dependent linewidth enhancement factor of quantum-dot lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. **20**, 1736–1738 (2008). [CrossRef]

9. J. G. Provost and F. Grillot, “Measuring the chirp and the linewidth enhancement factor of optoelectronic devices with a Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” IEEE Photon. J. **3**, 476–488 (2011). [CrossRef]

10. T. Fordell and A. M. Lindberg, “Experiments on the linewidth-enhancement factor of a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. **43**, 6–15 (2007). [CrossRef]

10. T. Fordell and A. M. Lindberg, “Experiments on the linewidth-enhancement factor of a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. **43**, 6–15 (2007). [CrossRef]

13. I. Petitbon, P. Gallion, G. Debarge, and C. Chabran, “Locking bandwidth and relaxation oscillations of an injection-locked semiconductor laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. **24**, 148–154 (1988). [CrossRef]

11. K. Iiyama, K. Hayashi, and Y. Ida, “Simple method for measuring the linewidth enhancement factor of semiconductor lasers by optical injection locking,” Opt. Lett. **17**, 1128–1130 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12. R. Hui, A. Mecozzi, A. D’ottavi, and P. Spano, “Novel measurement technique of alpha factor in DFB semiconductor lasers by injection locking,” Electron. Lett. **26**, 997–998 (1990). [CrossRef]

*α*. However, the variations are typically small and the value of

*α*is difficult to be precisely determined. While the

*α*can also be measured from the slope ratio of the upper and the lower injection locking boundaries [13

13. I. Petitbon, P. Gallion, G. Debarge, and C. Chabran, “Locking bandwidth and relaxation oscillations of an injection-locked semiconductor laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. **24**, 148–154 (1988). [CrossRef]

14. J. M. Liu and T. B. Simpson, “Four-wave mixing and optical modulation in a semiconductor laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. **30**, 957–965 (1994). [CrossRef]

*α*of a QD laser. By fitting the experimentally obtained regenerative signals and the power spectra of the FWM states at different detuning frequencies to the respective theoretical curves, intrinsic laser parameters such as the linewidth enhancement factor

*α*, the relaxation resonance frequency

*ν*, the carrier decay rates in the quantum dots

_{r}*γ*, the differential gain

_{d}*g*

_{0}, the photon decay rate

*γ*, the interaction cross section of the carriers

_{s}*ς*, the gain saturation coefficient

*ɛ*, the capture rate from the quantum wells into the dots

*C*, and the carrier decay rates in the quantum wells

*γ*can all be extracted simultaneously. Moreover, unlike the injection locking technique, FWM states can be easily obtained with just weak injections. As the results,

_{N}*α*of the QD lasers at very high bias levels can still be measured.

## 2. Model and method

*E*, the occupancy probability of the quantum dots

*ρ*, and the carrier density in the surrounding quantum wells

*N*[2

_{W}2. D. Goulding, S. P. Hegarty, O. Rasskazov, S. Melnik, M. Hartnett, G. Greene, J. G. McInerney, D. Rachinskii, and G. Huyet, “Excitability in a quantum dot semiconductor laser
with optical injection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. **98**, 153903 (2007). [CrossRef]

*γ*is the photon decay rate in the cavity,

_{s}*γ*and

_{N}*γ*are the carrier decay rates in the quantum wells and the quantum dots,

_{d}*C*is the capture rate from the wells into the dots,

*J*is the bias current per dot,

*ς*is the interaction cross section of the carriers in the dots,

*α*is the linewidth enhancement factor,

*υ*is the group velocity,

_{g}*g*

_{0}is the differential gain,

*ɛ*is the gain saturation coefficient, and

*E*and Δ are the effective complex amplitude and the detuning frequency of the injected field. For a single-mode DFB QD laser, rate equations without taking into account the excited states are used in this paper [2

_{i}2. D. Goulding, S. P. Hegarty, O. Rasskazov, S. Melnik, M. Hartnett, G. Greene, J. G. McInerney, D. Rachinskii, and G. Huyet, “Excitability in a quantum dot semiconductor laser
with optical injection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. **98**, 153903 (2007). [CrossRef]

15. D. O’Brien, S. P. Hegarty, G. Huyet, and A. V. Uskov, “Sensitivity of quantum-dot semiconductor lasers to optical feedback,” Opt. Lett. **29**, 1072–1074 (2004). [CrossRef]

16. T. Erneux, E. A. Viktorov, B. Kelleher, D. Goulding, S. P. Hegarty, and G. Huyet, “Optically injected quantum-dot lasers,” Opt. Lett. **35**, 937–939 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

17. M. Sugawara, N. Hatori, H. Ebe, M. Ishida, Y. Arakawa, T. Akiyama, K. Otsubo, and Y. Nakata, “Modeling room-temperature lasing spectra of 1.3-*μ*m self-assembled InAs/GaAs quantum-dot lasers: homogeneous broadening of optical gain under current injection,” J. Appl. Phys. **97**, 043523 (2005). [CrossRef]

18. M. Gioannini, A. Sevega, and I. Montrosset, “Simulations of differential gain and linewidth enhancement factor of quantum dot semiconductor lasers,” Opt. Quantum Electron. **38**, 381–394 (2006). [CrossRef]

2. D. Goulding, S. P. Hegarty, O. Rasskazov, S. Melnik, M. Hartnett, G. Greene, J. G. McInerney, D. Rachinskii, and G. Huyet, “Excitability in a quantum dot semiconductor laser
with optical injection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. **98**, 153903 (2007). [CrossRef]

*E*,

*ρ*, and

*N*, the steady-state solutions of the rate equations at the FWM states can be obtained. In the degenerate FWM states, the E-field of the QD laser is composed of the free-oscillating signal, the regenerated amplification signal, and the FWM signal. Therefore, the output field can be expressed as where

_{W}*E*

_{0}is the steady-state field amplitude at the oscillating frequency and

*E*and

_{r}*E*are the complex amplitudes of the regenerated amplification and FWM fields, respectively. The source of carrier pulsation is the optical modulation from the beating of the E-field. Thus, the occupancy probability of the quantum dots

_{f}*ρ*oscillates at the detuning frequency. To the first order, the occupancy probability can be described as where

*ρ*

_{0}is the steady-state occupancy probability of the quantum dots without perturbation and

*ρ*

_{1}is the amplitudes of the pulsation.

*N*is nearly constant (≃

_{W}*N*

_{0}) based on the simulation results with large capture rates, where

*N*

_{0}is the steady-state solution of

*N*without perturbation. Therefore, we can set Eq. (3) equals to zero to get the steady-state solution, which gives

_{W}*σ*) is much smaller than the steady-state field amplitude (

*E*

_{0}), which gives and

*C*) is generally much larger than the carrier decay rates in the quantum wells (

*γ*) while the occupancy probability of the quantum dots (

_{N}*ρ*) is not close to 1, Eq. (6) can be reduced to By solving the steady-state solutions and substituting Eqs. (4), (5), and (9) into the rate equations, the complex amplitudes of the regenerative field, the FWM field, and the amplitude modulation with different detuning frequencies can be obtained. where

*J*, which are adopted from those used in Ref. [19

_{th}19. S. Melnik, G. Huyet, and A. Uskov, “The linewidth enhancement factor *α* of quantum dot semiconductor lasers,” Opt. Express **14**, 2950–2955 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

## 3. Experimental setup

*J*= 8.7 mA is used as a sample for intrinsic laser parameter characterization, which has a wavelength of about 1296 nm and an output power of about 1.6 mW when biased at 20 mA. The QD laser is optically injected by a tunable laser (TL)(Yenista Tunics T100S-O) through a free space optical circulator formed by a polarizing beam splitter (PBS 2), a half-wave plate (HW 2), and a Faraday rotator (FR). The injected power is less than 1

_{th}*μ*W to prevent the QD laser from injection-locking or any instability. The power spectrum of the QD laser is detected by a photodiode with 12 GHz frequency response (NewFocus 1554-A) and resolved with a 26.5 GHz spectrum analyzer (Agilent E4407B). The regenerative signal of the QD laser is measured by heterodyning the QD laser output with the TL output at the photodiode (when beam block (B) is removed), where an acousto-optic modulator (IntraAction ACM-1002AA1) is used to shift the beat signal from the DC to about 100 MHz for a better signal to noise ratio.

## 4. Result and discussion

*J*, 1.75

_{th}*J*, 2

_{th}*J*, and 2.25

_{th}*J*, respectively. By the least squares curve fitting with the analytically derived curves from Eqs. (10)–(12) (blue curves), the intrinsic parameters including the linewidth enhancement factor

_{th}*α*, the carrier decay rates in the quantum dots

*γ*, the differential gain

_{d}*g*

_{0}, the photon decay rate

*γ*, the interaction cross section of the carriers

_{s}*ς*, the gain saturation coefficient

*ɛ*, the capture rate from the quantum wells into the dots

*C*, and the carrier decay rates in the quantum wells

*γ*of the QD laser are obtained and shown in Table 2. The parameters used in Ref. [19

_{N}19. S. Melnik, G. Huyet, and A. Uskov, “The linewidth enhancement factor *α* of quantum dot semiconductor lasers,” Opt. Express **14**, 2950–2955 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

*σ*) from the best-fitted parameter (that has a least standard deviation

*σ*

_{opt}) is calculated. As can be seen in Table 2, the FWM method is particularly sensitive in determining the linewidth enhancement factor

*α*where the error range is less than 5% (which means that changing the

*α*from its best-fitted value by 5% will result in an increase of the standard deviation by 10%). The increasing trend of

*α*as the bias current increases can be clearly determined [19

19. S. Melnik, G. Huyet, and A. Uskov, “The linewidth enhancement factor *α* of quantum dot semiconductor lasers,” Opt. Express **14**, 2950–2955 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

20. B. Dagens, A. Markus, J. X. Chen, J. G. Provost, D. Make, O. L. Gouezigou, J. Landreau, A. Fiore, and B. Thedrez, “Giant linewidth enhancement factor and purely frequency modulated emission from quantum dot laser,” Electron. Lett. **41**, 323–324 (2005). [CrossRef]

*α*of the very same QD laser is also measured with the injection locking method [13

13. I. Petitbon, P. Gallion, G. Debarge, and C. Chabran, “Locking bandwidth and relaxation oscillations of an injection-locked semiconductor laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. **24**, 148–154 (1988). [CrossRef]

*J*, 1.75

_{th}*J*, 2

_{th}*J*, and 2.25

_{th}*J*,

_{th}*α*of 0.98(0.11), 0.96(0.08), 0.97(0.04), and 0.98(0.02) are obtained respectively (The values in the parentheses are the standard deviations for various measurements under different injection levels). As can be seen, similar values of

*α*are obtained and confirmed the feasibility of the FWM method. Note that, a relatively strong injection is needed to locked the QD laser being examined in the injection locking method. At higher bias levels, locking the laser becomes more difficult and determining

*α*becomes not possible. On the contrary, only a weak injection is needed to generate the FWM state in the QD laser at any bias levels. Moreover, except

*α*, other intrinsic laser parameters can be extracted simultaneously under the same operating conditions.

*γ*,

_{d}*g*

_{0}, and

*γ*that have the error ranges within about 15%. Nonetheless, other parameters such as

_{s}*ς*,

*ɛ*,

*C*, and

*γ*are insensitive to the regenerative signals and the power spectra where the values of these parameters are not able to extract accurately through the FWM method (The capture rate from the quantum wells into the dots (

_{N}*C*) and the carrier decay rates in the quantum wells (

*γ*) barely affect the fitting results and thus are set with the same values used in Ref. [19

_{N}*α* of quantum dot semiconductor lasers,” Opt. Express **14**, 2950–2955 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

*γ*of the QD laser evaluated.

_{s}*α*,

*γ*,

_{d}*g*

_{0}, and

*γ*, respectively. Using the curves from the best-fitted values as the references (blue solid curves), curves calculated with larger (red dashed curves) and smaller (red dotted curves) parameters are presented for comparisons. The values of the parameters are arbitrary chosen to exaggerate the effect. Except the parameters that are being discussed, other parameters are fixed at those parameters shown in Table 2 with 2

_{s}*J*. As can be seen in Fig. 4(a), the

_{th}*α*alters the depth of the dip on the positive detuning significantly, while making almost no change on the negative detuning side. As has been discussed in Table 2, only 5% change in the

*α*will increase the standard deviation in the fitting to 110% from its minimum

*σ*

_{opt}. Compared with other reported methods [21], the FWM method is relatively sensitive and precise in determining the

*α*. As can be seen in Eq. (12), the power spectrum is independent of

*α*. Therefore, no change in the power spectra is shown in Fig. 4(b) as expected. When increasing the carrier decay rate in the dots

*γ*, as shown in Fig. 4(c), the dips in the regenerative signal become shallower and shifts toward larger detuning. The shoulder on the negative detuning becomes more smooth and almost disappears for

_{d}*γ*greater than 0.2 ns

_{d}^{−1}. As expected, the resonance peaks in the power spectra shown in Fig. 4(d) also shifts toward the larger detuning and becomes lower as

*γ*increases. Similar results are obtained and shown in Figs. 4(e) and 4(f) when the differential gain

_{d}*g*

_{0}is varied. As the result, from the position and the depth of the dip in the regenerative signal and the position and the height of the resonance peaks, the

*γ*and

_{d}*g*

_{0}can be successfully determined. Another sensitive parameter is the photon decay rate

*γ*. Compared to the previous parameters,

_{s}*γ*seems to only alter the regenerative signal close to the dip but not those away from the dip as shown in Fig. 4(g). From the power spectrum in Fig. 4(h), the magnitudes of the spectra at lower detuning frequencies vary significantly when varying the

_{s}*γ*compared to the other parameters. With each parameter has its distinct features in the regenerative signal and the power spectrum, the laser parameters

_{s}*α*,

*γ*,

_{d}*g*

_{0}, and

*γ*can be effectively extracted.

_{s}## 5. Conclusion

*J*, 1.75

_{th}*J*, 2

_{th}*J*, and 2.25

_{th}*J*are obtained with the error ranges of less than 5%, where similar values are obtained with the injection locking method using the very same QD laser. Other parameters such as

_{th}*γ*,

_{d}*g*

_{0}, and

*γ*are also effectively measured, which have the error ranges of about 15%. Unlike the injection locking technique, the parameters at higher bias levels can still be extracted with the FWM method where only weak injections are needed to generate the FWM states. While different models have to be derived for semiconductor lasers with different structures, the advantages of the FWM method shown here are generally applicable to any types of semiconductor lasers.

_{s}*α*, and the phonon bottleneck may reduce the discrepancies, which will be investigated in the future.

## Acknowledgments

## References and links

1. | F. Y. Lin, S. Y. Tu, C. C. Huang, and S. M. Chang, “Nonlinear dynamics of semiconductor lasers under repetitive optical pulse injection,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron . |

2. | D. Goulding, S. P. Hegarty, O. Rasskazov, S. Melnik, M. Hartnett, G. Greene, J. G. McInerney, D. Rachinskii, and G. Huyet, “Excitability in a quantum dot semiconductor laser
with optical injection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. |

3. | Y. S. Juan and F. Y. Lin, “Photonic generation of broadly tunable microwave signals utilizing a dual-beam optically injected semiconductor laser,” IEEE Photon. J. |

4. | Y. S. Juan and F. Y. Lin, “Demonstration of ultra-wideband (UWB) over fiber based on optical pulse-injected semiconductor laser,” Opt. Express |

5. | Y. S. Juan and F. Y. Lin, “Microwave-frequency-comb generation utilizing a semiconductor laser subject to optical pulse injection from an optoelectronic feedback laser,” Opt. Lett. |

6. | S. K. Hwang and J. M. Liu, “Dynamical characteristics of an optically injected semiconductor laser,” Opt. Commun. |

7. | T. C. Newell, D. J. Bossert, A. Stintz, B. Fuchs, K. J. Malloy, and L. F. Lester, “Gain and linewidth enhancement factor in InAs quantum-dot laser diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. |

8. | S. Gerhard, C. Schilling, F. Gerschutz, M. Fischer, J. Koeth, I. Krestnikov, A. Kovsh, M. Kamp, S. Hofling, and A. Forchel, “Frequency-dependent linewidth enhancement factor of quantum-dot lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. |

9. | J. G. Provost and F. Grillot, “Measuring the chirp and the linewidth enhancement factor of optoelectronic devices with a Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” IEEE Photon. J. |

10. | T. Fordell and A. M. Lindberg, “Experiments on the linewidth-enhancement factor of a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. |

11. | K. Iiyama, K. Hayashi, and Y. Ida, “Simple method for measuring the linewidth enhancement factor of semiconductor lasers by optical injection locking,” Opt. Lett. |

12. | R. Hui, A. Mecozzi, A. D’ottavi, and P. Spano, “Novel measurement technique of alpha factor in DFB semiconductor lasers by injection locking,” Electron. Lett. |

13. | I. Petitbon, P. Gallion, G. Debarge, and C. Chabran, “Locking bandwidth and relaxation oscillations of an injection-locked semiconductor laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. |

14. | J. M. Liu and T. B. Simpson, “Four-wave mixing and optical modulation in a semiconductor laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. |

15. | D. O’Brien, S. P. Hegarty, G. Huyet, and A. V. Uskov, “Sensitivity of quantum-dot semiconductor lasers to optical feedback,” Opt. Lett. |

16. | T. Erneux, E. A. Viktorov, B. Kelleher, D. Goulding, S. P. Hegarty, and G. Huyet, “Optically injected quantum-dot lasers,” Opt. Lett. |

17. | M. Sugawara, N. Hatori, H. Ebe, M. Ishida, Y. Arakawa, T. Akiyama, K. Otsubo, and Y. Nakata, “Modeling room-temperature lasing spectra of 1.3- |

18. | M. Gioannini, A. Sevega, and I. Montrosset, “Simulations of differential gain and linewidth enhancement factor of quantum dot semiconductor lasers,” Opt. Quantum Electron. |

19. | S. Melnik, G. Huyet, and A. Uskov, “The linewidth enhancement factor |

20. | B. Dagens, A. Markus, J. X. Chen, J. G. Provost, D. Make, O. L. Gouezigou, J. Landreau, A. Fiore, and B. Thedrez, “Giant linewidth enhancement factor and purely frequency modulated emission from quantum dot laser,” Electron. Lett. |

21. | G. Giuliani, “The linewidth enhancement factor of semiconductor lasers: usefulness, limitations, and measurements,” in “23rd Annual Meeting of the IEEE Photonics Society, 2010,” 423–424 (2010). |

**OCIS Codes**

(140.5960) Lasers and laser optics : Semiconductor lasers

(190.4380) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics, four-wave mixing

(230.5590) Optical devices : Quantum-well, -wire and -dot devices

(290.3700) Scattering : Linewidth

**ToC Category:**

Nonlinear Optics

**History**

Original Manuscript: October 24, 2011

Revised Manuscript: November 23, 2011

Manuscript Accepted: November 23, 2011

Published: December 19, 2011

**Citation**

Chih-Hao Lin, Hung-Hsin Lin, and Fan-Yi Lin, "Four-wave mixing analysis of quantum dot semiconductor lasers for linewidth enhancement factor extraction," Opt. Express **20**, 101-110 (2012)

http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-20-1-101

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### References

- F. Y. Lin, S. Y. Tu, C. C. Huang, and S. M. Chang, “Nonlinear dynamics of semiconductor lasers under repetitive optical pulse injection,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 604–611 (2009). [CrossRef]
- D. Goulding, S. P. Hegarty, O. Rasskazov, S. Melnik, M. Hartnett, G. Greene, J. G. McInerney, D. Rachinskii, and G. Huyet, “Excitability in a quantum dot semiconductor laser with optical injection,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98, 153903 (2007). [CrossRef]
- Y. S. Juan and F. Y. Lin, “Photonic generation of broadly tunable microwave signals utilizing a dual-beam optically injected semiconductor laser,” IEEE Photon. J.3, 644–650 (2011). [CrossRef]
- Y. S. Juan and F. Y. Lin, “Demonstration of ultra-wideband (UWB) over fiber based on optical pulse-injected semiconductor laser,” Opt. Express18, 9664–9670 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Y. S. Juan and F. Y. Lin, “Microwave-frequency-comb generation utilizing a semiconductor laser subject to optical pulse injection from an optoelectronic feedback laser,” Opt. Lett.34, 1636–1638 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- S. K. Hwang and J. M. Liu, “Dynamical characteristics of an optically injected semiconductor laser,” Opt. Commun.183, 195–205 (2000). [CrossRef]
- T. C. Newell, D. J. Bossert, A. Stintz, B. Fuchs, K. J. Malloy, and L. F. Lester, “Gain and linewidth enhancement factor in InAs quantum-dot laser diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.11, 1527–1529 (1999). [CrossRef]
- S. Gerhard, C. Schilling, F. Gerschutz, M. Fischer, J. Koeth, I. Krestnikov, A. Kovsh, M. Kamp, S. Hofling, and A. Forchel, “Frequency-dependent linewidth enhancement factor of quantum-dot lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20, 1736–1738 (2008). [CrossRef]
- J. G. Provost and F. Grillot, “Measuring the chirp and the linewidth enhancement factor of optoelectronic devices with a Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” IEEE Photon. J.3, 476–488 (2011). [CrossRef]
- T. Fordell and A. M. Lindberg, “Experiments on the linewidth-enhancement factor of a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.43, 6–15 (2007). [CrossRef]
- K. Iiyama, K. Hayashi, and Y. Ida, “Simple method for measuring the linewidth enhancement factor of semiconductor lasers by optical injection locking,” Opt. Lett.17, 1128–1130 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- R. Hui, A. Mecozzi, A. D’ottavi, and P. Spano, “Novel measurement technique of alpha factor in DFB semiconductor lasers by injection locking,” Electron. Lett.26, 997–998 (1990). [CrossRef]
- I. Petitbon, P. Gallion, G. Debarge, and C. Chabran, “Locking bandwidth and relaxation oscillations of an injection-locked semiconductor laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.24, 148–154 (1988). [CrossRef]
- J. M. Liu and T. B. Simpson, “Four-wave mixing and optical modulation in a semiconductor laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.30, 957–965 (1994). [CrossRef]
- D. O’Brien, S. P. Hegarty, G. Huyet, and A. V. Uskov, “Sensitivity of quantum-dot semiconductor lasers to optical feedback,” Opt. Lett.29, 1072–1074 (2004). [CrossRef]
- T. Erneux, E. A. Viktorov, B. Kelleher, D. Goulding, S. P. Hegarty, and G. Huyet, “Optically injected quantum-dot lasers,” Opt. Lett.35, 937–939 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- M. Sugawara, N. Hatori, H. Ebe, M. Ishida, Y. Arakawa, T. Akiyama, K. Otsubo, and Y. Nakata, “Modeling room-temperature lasing spectra of 1.3-μm self-assembled InAs/GaAs quantum-dot lasers: homogeneous broadening of optical gain under current injection,” J. Appl. Phys.97, 043523 (2005). [CrossRef]
- M. Gioannini, A. Sevega, and I. Montrosset, “Simulations of differential gain and linewidth enhancement factor of quantum dot semiconductor lasers,” Opt. Quantum Electron.38, 381–394 (2006). [CrossRef]
- S. Melnik, G. Huyet, and A. Uskov, “The linewidth enhancement factor α of quantum dot semiconductor lasers,” Opt. Express14, 2950–2955 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- B. Dagens, A. Markus, J. X. Chen, J. G. Provost, D. Make, O. L. Gouezigou, J. Landreau, A. Fiore, and B. Thedrez, “Giant linewidth enhancement factor and purely frequency modulated emission from quantum dot laser,” Electron. Lett.41, 323–324 (2005). [CrossRef]
- G. Giuliani, “The linewidth enhancement factor of semiconductor lasers: usefulness, limitations, and measurements,” in “23rd Annual Meeting of the IEEE Photonics Society, 2010,” 423–424 (2010).

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