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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 20, Iss. 1 — Jan. 2, 2012
  • pp: 397–402
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Highly flexible near-infrared metamaterials

G. X. Li, S. M. Chen, W. H. Wong, E. Y. B. Pun, and K. W. Cheah  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 20, Issue 1, pp. 397-402 (2012)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.20.000397


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Abstract

Plasmonic or metamaterial nanostructures are usually fabricated on rigid substrate i.e. glass, silicon. Optical functionality of such kinds of nanostructures is limited by the planar surface and thus sensitive to the incident angle of light. In this work, we demonstrated that a tri-layer flexible metamaterials working at near infrared (NIR) regime can be fabricated on transparent PET substrate using flip chip transfer (FCT) technique. FCT technique is solution-free and can also be applied to fabricate other functional nanostructures device on flexible substrate. We demonstrated NIR metamaterial device can be transformed into various shapes by bending the PET substrate.

© 2011 OSA

1. Introduction

Over the last ten years, the understanding and broader application implication of metamaterial has been greatly extended. In fact, metamaterial has been proposed for optical cloak, illusion, absorber, negative index materials [1

1. V. M. Shalaev, “Optical negative index metamaterial,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 41–48 (2007). [CrossRef]

4

4. D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], etc., in which the electromagnetic response could be engineered by scaling the size parameter of the artificial structures. Furthermore, the shape of the metamaterial device is also an important parameter for manipulating the light scattering. For example, optical cloak [5

5. J. Valentine, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “An optical cloak made of dielectrics,” Nat. Mater. 8(7), 568–571 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7

7. H. Chen, C. T. Chan, and P. Sheng, “Transformation optics and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9(5), 387–396 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and hyperlens [8

8. Z. Liu, H. Lee, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Far-field optical hyperlens magnifying sub-diffraction-limited objects,” Science 315(5819), 1686 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] fabricated with curved structure was used to meet the modulation of anisotropic refractive index. Metamaterial and plasmonic devices on flexible tape, silk, paper [9

9. F. Miyamaru, M. W. Taketa, and K. Taima, “Characterization of terahertz metamaterials fabricated on flexible plastic films: toward fabrication of bulk metamaterials in terahertz region,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 042001 (2009). [CrossRef]

15

15. Z. C. Chen, N. R. Han, Z. Y. Pan, Y. D. Gong, T. C. Chong, and M. H. Hong, “Tunable resonance enhancement of multi-layer terahertz metamaterials fabricated by parallel laser micro-lens array lithography on flexible substrates,” Opt. Express 1(2), 151–157 (2011). [CrossRef]

] and stretchable PDMS substrate [16

16. I. M. Pryce, K. Aydin, Y. A. Kelaita, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Highly strained compliant optical metamaterials with large frequency tunability,” Nano Lett. 10(10), 4222–4227 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] have been demonstrated to show unusual optical response. However, most of the reported flexible metamaterial or plasmonic devices work in the gigahertz, terahertz, or far-infrared frequency [9

9. F. Miyamaru, M. W. Taketa, and K. Taima, “Characterization of terahertz metamaterials fabricated on flexible plastic films: toward fabrication of bulk metamaterials in terahertz region,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 042001 (2009). [CrossRef]

16

16. I. M. Pryce, K. Aydin, Y. A. Kelaita, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Highly strained compliant optical metamaterials with large frequency tunability,” Nano Lett. 10(10), 4222–4227 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. For NIR and visible wavelength applications, the feature size of each unit cell has to be scaled down to tens of nanometer. Most of the current optical metamaterial nanostructures were fabricated on rigid substrate such as glass, silicon and they are fabricated using fabrication techniques [17

17. K. A. Arpin, A. Mihi, H. T. Johnson, A. J. Baca, J. A. Rogers, J. A. Lewis, and P. V. Braun, “Multidimensional architectures for functional optical devices,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(10), 1084–1101 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

23

23. H. Gao, W. Zhou, and T. W. Odom, “Plasmonic crystals: a platform to catalog resonances from ultraviolet to near-infrared wavelengths in a plasmonic library,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20, 523–529 (2010).

] such as focus ion beam (FIB), e-beam lithography (EBL), nano-imprint lithography (NIL) and soft interference lithography (SIL). Recently, single layer flexible metamaterial [24

24. A. D. Falco, M. Ploschner, and T. F. Krauss, “Flexible metamaterials at visible wavelengths,” New J. Phys. 12(11), 113006 (2010). [CrossRef]

] working at visible-NIR wavelength was directly fabricated on PET substrate using EBL. However, the chemical solution used in metal lift-off process needs to be carefully chosen to avoid chemical damages on the flexible substrate. Besides, the curved surface of the PET substrate brings additional difficulty for the focusing of electron in EBL process. Another important progress in this area is realizing large area 3D flexible metamaterial [25

25. D. Chanda, K. Shigeta, S. Gupta, T. Cain, A. Carlson, A. Mihi, A. J. Baca, G. R. Bogart, P. Braun, and J. A. Rogers, “Large-area flexible 3D optical negative index metamaterial formed by nanotransfer printing,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(7), 402–407 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] by nanometer printing technique. In Ref. [25

25. D. Chanda, K. Shigeta, S. Gupta, T. Cain, A. Carlson, A. Mihi, A. J. Baca, G. R. Bogart, P. Braun, and J. A. Rogers, “Large-area flexible 3D optical negative index metamaterial formed by nanotransfer printing,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(7), 402–407 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], a stamp is used to transfer nanostructure to target substrate, and the advantage of this method is that the stamp can be reused many times.

In this work, we demonstrated that multilayer flexible metamaterial can be fabricated using flip chip transfer (FCT) technique. This technique is different from other similar techniques such as metal lift off process which fabricates the nanostructures directly onto the flexible substrate [24

24. A. D. Falco, M. Ploschner, and T. F. Krauss, “Flexible metamaterials at visible wavelengths,” New J. Phys. 12(11), 113006 (2010). [CrossRef]

] or nanometer printing technique [25

25. D. Chanda, K. Shigeta, S. Gupta, T. Cain, A. Carlson, A. Mihi, A. J. Baca, G. R. Bogart, P. Braun, and J. A. Rogers, “Large-area flexible 3D optical negative index metamaterial formed by nanotransfer printing,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(7), 402–407 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. It is a solution-free FCT technique using double-side optical adhesive as the intermediate transfer layer and a tri-layer metamaterial nanostructures on a rigid substrate can be transferred onto adhesive first. Then, the thin optical adhesive and the nanostructure can be conformably coated onto flexible substrates, such as the bent PET substrate, paper, etc.

2. Device fabrication

A schematic fabrication process of multilayer metamaterials is shown in Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) to (e) are the EBL steps to fabricate the absorber metamaterials, period of the disc-array device is 600 nm, disc diameter: 365 nm; thickness of gold: 50 nm; thickness of Cr: 30 nm; (f) is the scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of the two dimensional gold disc-array absorber metamaterials.
. First, the multilayer plasmonic or metamaterial device was fabricated on chromium (Cr) coated quartz using conventional EBL process. The 30 nm thick Cr layer was used as sacrificial layer. Then gold/ITO (50 nm/50 nm) thin film was deposited onto the Cr surface using thermal evaporation and RF sputtering method respectively. Next, ZEP520A (positive e-beam resist) thin film with thickness of about 300 nm was spun on top of the ITO/gold/Cr/quartz substrate and two dimensional hole array was obtained the ZEP520A using the EBL process. To obtain the gold nanostructure (disc pattern), a second 50 nm thick gold thin film was coated onto the e-beam patterned resist. Finally, two dimensional gold disc-array nanostructures was formed by removing the resist residue. The area size of the each metamaterial pattern is 500 µm by 500 µm, and the period of the disc-array is 600 nm with disc diameter of ~365 nm.

Transfer process of flexible absorber metamaterial is shown in Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) to (e) is schematic diagram of flip chip transfer method, the tri-layer absorber metamaterial with an area of 500 µm by 500 µm was transferred to PET flexible substrate.
, double-sided sticky optically clear adhesive (50 µm thick, from 3M) was attached to the PET substrate (70 µm thick). Thus the tri-layer metamaterial device was placed in intimate contact with optical adhesive and sandwiched between the rigid substrate and the optical adhesive. Note that the Cr thin film on quartz substrate was exposed to the air for several hours after the RF sputtering process, so there is a thin native oxide film on the Cr surface. Hence the surface adhesion between Cr and gold is much weaker than that of gold/ITO/gold disc/optical adhesive bounding. This allows the tri-layer metamaterial nanostructure to be peeled off from the Cr coated quartz substrate. Once the metamaterial nanostructure was transferred onto the PET substrate, it possesses sufficient flexibility to bend into various shapes. Finally, the metamaterial nanostructure was encapsulated by spin-coating a 300 nm thick PMMA layer on top of the device.

Figure 3a
Fig. 3 (a) and (b) Flexible NIR absorber metamaterials on transparent PET substrate. Each separated pattern has an area size of 500 µm by 500 µm.
shows the flexible absorber metamaterial sandwiched by the transparent PET and PMMA thin film. Several absorber metamaterial nanostructures with area size of 500 µm by 500 µm were fabricated on flexible substrate. In fact, using the flexibility property of the PET layer, the absorber metamaterial device can be conformed into many shape e.g. cylindrical shape (Fig. 3b). The minimum radius of the cylindrical substrate is about 3 mm, not obvious defect on the metamaterial device can be observed after 10 times of repeatable bending tests.

3. Optical characterization and simulation

The tri-layer metal/dielectric nanostructure discussed above is an absorber metamaterial device [26

26. N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The design of the device is such that the energy of incident light is strongly localized in ITO layer. The absorbing effects of the NIR tri-layer metamaterial architecture could be interpreted as localized surface plasmon resonance [27

27. N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2342–2348 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] or magnetic resonance [28

28. H. Liu, Y. M. Liu, T. Li, S. M. Wang, S. N. Zhu, and X. Zhang, “Coupled magnetic plasmons in metamaterials,” Phys. Status Solidi (B) 246(7), 1397–1406 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. The absorbing phenomenon discussed here is different from the suppressed of transmission effect in metal disc arrays [29

29. S. Xiao and N. A. Mortensen, “Surface-plasmon-polariton-induced suppressed transmission through ultrathin metal disk arrays,” Opt. Lett. 36(1), 37–39 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], in which the incident light is strongly absorbed due to resonance anomaly of the ultrathin metal nanostructure. To characterize the optical property of gold disc/ITO/gold absorber metamaterial, Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) was used to measure the reflection spectrum of the absorber metamaterial. By combining the infrared microscope with the FTIR spectrometer, transmission and reflection spectra from micro-area nanophotonic device can be measured. In Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Relative reflection spectrum of the absorber metamaterials on quartz substrate (gold disc/ITO/gold/Cr/quartz), NIR light was normally focused on the device and the reflection signal was collected by the 15X objective lens; blue line is experimental result and red line is simulated reflection spectrum using RCWA method.
, the reflection spectrum (blue line) from air/metamaterial interface was measured with sampling area of 100 µm by 100 µm. At the absorption peak with wavelength of ~1690 nm, reflection efficiency is about 14%, i.e. the absorber metamaterial works at this wavelength. In RCWA simulation (red line), the real optical constants in Ref. [30

30. E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, New York, 1985).

] is used. At resonant wavelength, the experiment and calculation agree well with each other.

As shown in Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Experiment diagram of measuring the reflection spectrum of metamaterial device under different bending condition. The flexible substrate is bent by adjusting the distance of A and B, and the incident angle 90° – φ (varying from 0 to 45 degrees) is defined by the slope of PET substrate and direction of incident light.
, bending PET substrate allows us to measure the optical response of absorber metamaterial under different curving shape. The shape of the bent PET substrate was controlled by adjusting distance of substrate ends (A and B). Angle resolved back-reflection on the absorber device was measured by varying the bending conditions. From Fig. 6, incident angle (90°−φ) was determined from the bending slope at position of metamaterial device. From Fig. 5a, it is observed that when the incident angle was increased from 0 to 45 degrees, the intensity of back reflection becomes weaker and absorption dip becomes shallower. Nevertheless, it shows that the resonant absorption wavelength of the flexible absorber metamaterial is not sensitive to the incident angle of light.

4. Conclusion

In conclusion, we reported a highly flexible tri-layer absorber metamaterial device working at NIR wavelength. By using FCT method, the tri-layer gold disc/ITO/gold absorber metamaterial was transferred from quartz substrate to a transparent PET substrate using optically clear adhesive (3M). Finally, the tri-layer absorber metamaterial was encapsulated by PMMA thin film and optical adhesive layer to form a flexible device. FTIR experiment showed that the absorber metamaterial works well on both the quartz substrate and the highly flexible PET substrate. Besides, angle insensitive absorbing effects and Fano-type transmission resonance were observed on this flexible metamaterial.

The solution-free FCT technique described in this work can also be used to transfer other visible-NIR metal/dielectric multilayer metamaterial onto flexible substrate. The flexible metamaterial working at visible-NIR regime will show more advantages in manipulation of light in three dimensional space, especially, when the metamaterial architecture is designed on curved surfaces.

Acknowledgments

This work is supported by University Grant Council with grant SEG_HKUST10. G. X. and K. would like to acknowledge Prof. J. N. Wang for FTIR measurement and Dr. N. Li for fruitful discussions.

References and links

1.

V. M. Shalaev, “Optical negative index metamaterial,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 41–48 (2007). [CrossRef]

2.

C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Physics. Negative refractive index at optical wavelengths,” Science 315(5808), 47–49 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3.

C. M. Soukoulis and M. Wegener, “Materials science. Optical metamaterials—more bulky and less lossy,” Science 330(6011), 1633–1634 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

J. Valentine, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “An optical cloak made of dielectrics,” Nat. Mater. 8(7), 568–571 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

Y. Lai, J. Ng, H. Y. Chen, D. Z. Han, J. J. Xiao, Z. Q. Zhang, and C. T. Chan, “Illusion optics: the optical transformation of an object into another object,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(25), 253902 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

H. Chen, C. T. Chan, and P. Sheng, “Transformation optics and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9(5), 387–396 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

Z. Liu, H. Lee, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Far-field optical hyperlens magnifying sub-diffraction-limited objects,” Science 315(5819), 1686 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

F. Miyamaru, M. W. Taketa, and K. Taima, “Characterization of terahertz metamaterials fabricated on flexible plastic films: toward fabrication of bulk metamaterials in terahertz region,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 042001 (2009). [CrossRef]

10.

H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Pilon, D. Shrekenhamer, N. I. Landy, K. Fan, X. Zhang, W. J. Padilla, and R. D. Averitt, “Highly flexible wide angle of incidence terahertz metamaterial absorber: design, fabrication, and characterization,” Phys. Rev. B 78(24), 241103 (2008). [CrossRef]

11.

X. G. Peralta, M. C. Wanke, C. L. Arrington, J. D. Williams, I. Brener, A. Strikwerda, R. D. Averitt, W. J. Padilla, E. Smirnova, A. J. Taylor, and J. F. Ohara, “Large-area metamaterials on thin membranes for multilayer and curved applications at terahertz and higher frequencies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(16), 161113 (2009). [CrossRef]

12.

R. Melik, E. Unal, N. K. Perkgoz, C. Puttlitz, and H. V. Demir, “Flexible metamaterials for wireless strain sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(18), 181105 (2009). [CrossRef]

13.

H. Tao, J. J. Amsden, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, D. L. Kaplan, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and F. G. Omenetto, “Metamaterial silk composites at terahertz frequencies,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(32), 3527–3531 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

H. Tao, L. R. Chieffo, M. A. Brenckle, S. M. Siebert, M. Liu, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, D. L. Kaplan, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and F. G. Omenetto, “Metamaterials on paper as a sensing platform,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(28), 3197–3201 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15.

Z. C. Chen, N. R. Han, Z. Y. Pan, Y. D. Gong, T. C. Chong, and M. H. Hong, “Tunable resonance enhancement of multi-layer terahertz metamaterials fabricated by parallel laser micro-lens array lithography on flexible substrates,” Opt. Express 1(2), 151–157 (2011). [CrossRef]

16.

I. M. Pryce, K. Aydin, Y. A. Kelaita, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Highly strained compliant optical metamaterials with large frequency tunability,” Nano Lett. 10(10), 4222–4227 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

17.

K. A. Arpin, A. Mihi, H. T. Johnson, A. J. Baca, J. A. Rogers, J. A. Lewis, and P. V. Braun, “Multidimensional architectures for functional optical devices,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(10), 1084–1101 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18.

C. Enkrich, F. Pérez-Willard, D. Gerthsen, J. F. Zhou, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, M. Wegener, and S. Linden, “Focused ion beam nanofabrication of near-infrared magnetic metamaterials,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 17(21), 2547–2549 (2005). [CrossRef]

19.

S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, and P. J. Renstrom, “Imprint of sub-25 nm vias and trenches in polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(21), 3114–3116 (1995). [CrossRef]

20.

S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, and P. J. Renstrom, “Imprint lithography with 25-nanometer resolution,” Science 272(5258), 85–87 (1996). [CrossRef]

21.

J. H. Lee, C. H. Kim, K. M. Ho, and K. Constant, “Two-polymer microtransfer molding for highly layered microstructures,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 17(20), 2481–2485 (2005). [CrossRef]

22.

J. Henzie, M. H. Lee, and T. W. Odom, “Multiscale patterning of plasmonic metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(9), 549–554 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

23.

H. Gao, W. Zhou, and T. W. Odom, “Plasmonic crystals: a platform to catalog resonances from ultraviolet to near-infrared wavelengths in a plasmonic library,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20, 523–529 (2010).

24.

A. D. Falco, M. Ploschner, and T. F. Krauss, “Flexible metamaterials at visible wavelengths,” New J. Phys. 12(11), 113006 (2010). [CrossRef]

25.

D. Chanda, K. Shigeta, S. Gupta, T. Cain, A. Carlson, A. Mihi, A. J. Baca, G. R. Bogart, P. Braun, and J. A. Rogers, “Large-area flexible 3D optical negative index metamaterial formed by nanotransfer printing,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(7), 402–407 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

26.

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

27.

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2342–2348 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

28.

H. Liu, Y. M. Liu, T. Li, S. M. Wang, S. N. Zhu, and X. Zhang, “Coupled magnetic plasmons in metamaterials,” Phys. Status Solidi (B) 246(7), 1397–1406 (2009). [CrossRef]

29.

S. Xiao and N. A. Mortensen, “Surface-plasmon-polariton-induced suppressed transmission through ultrathin metal disk arrays,” Opt. Lett. 36(1), 37–39 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

30.

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, New York, 1985).

OCIS Codes
(160.3918) Materials : Metamaterials
(220.4241) Optical design and fabrication : Nanostructure fabrication
(250.5403) Optoelectronics : Plasmonics
(310.6628) Thin films : Subwavelength structures, nanostructures

ToC Category:
Metamaterials

History
Original Manuscript: November 1, 2011
Revised Manuscript: December 5, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: December 5, 2011
Published: December 21, 2011

Citation
G. X. Li, S. M. Chen, W. H. Wong, E. Y. B. Pun, and K. W. Cheah, "Highly flexible near-infrared metamaterials," Opt. Express 20, 397-402 (2012)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-20-1-397


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References

  1. V. M. Shalaev, “Optical negative index metamaterial,” Nat. Photonics1(1), 41–48 (2007). [CrossRef]
  2. C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Physics. Negative refractive index at optical wavelengths,” Science315(5808), 47–49 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. C. M. Soukoulis and M. Wegener, “Materials science. Optical metamaterials—more bulky and less lossy,” Science330(6011), 1633–1634 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science314(5801), 977–980 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. Valentine, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “An optical cloak made of dielectrics,” Nat. Mater.8(7), 568–571 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. Y. Lai, J. Ng, H. Y. Chen, D. Z. Han, J. J. Xiao, Z. Q. Zhang, and C. T. Chan, “Illusion optics: the optical transformation of an object into another object,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102(25), 253902 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. H. Chen, C. T. Chan, and P. Sheng, “Transformation optics and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater.9(5), 387–396 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. Z. Liu, H. Lee, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Far-field optical hyperlens magnifying sub-diffraction-limited objects,” Science315(5819), 1686 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. F. Miyamaru, M. W. Taketa, and K. Taima, “Characterization of terahertz metamaterials fabricated on flexible plastic films: toward fabrication of bulk metamaterials in terahertz region,” Appl. Phys. Express2, 042001 (2009). [CrossRef]
  10. H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Pilon, D. Shrekenhamer, N. I. Landy, K. Fan, X. Zhang, W. J. Padilla, and R. D. Averitt, “Highly flexible wide angle of incidence terahertz metamaterial absorber: design, fabrication, and characterization,” Phys. Rev. B78(24), 241103 (2008). [CrossRef]
  11. X. G. Peralta, M. C. Wanke, C. L. Arrington, J. D. Williams, I. Brener, A. Strikwerda, R. D. Averitt, W. J. Padilla, E. Smirnova, A. J. Taylor, and J. F. Ohara, “Large-area metamaterials on thin membranes for multilayer and curved applications at terahertz and higher frequencies,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(16), 161113 (2009). [CrossRef]
  12. R. Melik, E. Unal, N. K. Perkgoz, C. Puttlitz, and H. V. Demir, “Flexible metamaterials for wireless strain sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(18), 181105 (2009). [CrossRef]
  13. H. Tao, J. J. Amsden, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, D. L. Kaplan, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and F. G. Omenetto, “Metamaterial silk composites at terahertz frequencies,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)22(32), 3527–3531 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. H. Tao, L. R. Chieffo, M. A. Brenckle, S. M. Siebert, M. Liu, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, D. L. Kaplan, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and F. G. Omenetto, “Metamaterials on paper as a sensing platform,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23(28), 3197–3201 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. Z. C. Chen, N. R. Han, Z. Y. Pan, Y. D. Gong, T. C. Chong, and M. H. Hong, “Tunable resonance enhancement of multi-layer terahertz metamaterials fabricated by parallel laser micro-lens array lithography on flexible substrates,” Opt. Express1(2), 151–157 (2011). [CrossRef]
  16. I. M. Pryce, K. Aydin, Y. A. Kelaita, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Highly strained compliant optical metamaterials with large frequency tunability,” Nano Lett.10(10), 4222–4227 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. K. A. Arpin, A. Mihi, H. T. Johnson, A. J. Baca, J. A. Rogers, J. A. Lewis, and P. V. Braun, “Multidimensional architectures for functional optical devices,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)22(10), 1084–1101 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. C. Enkrich, F. Pérez-Willard, D. Gerthsen, J. F. Zhou, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, M. Wegener, and S. Linden, “Focused ion beam nanofabrication of near-infrared magnetic metamaterials,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)17(21), 2547–2549 (2005). [CrossRef]
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  20. S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, and P. J. Renstrom, “Imprint lithography with 25-nanometer resolution,” Science272(5258), 85–87 (1996). [CrossRef]
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