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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 20, Iss. 10 — May. 7, 2012
  • pp: 10562–10571
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Ultrafast mid-infrared spectroscopy by chirped pulse upconversion in 1800-1000cm−1 region

Jingyi Zhu, Tilo Mathes, Andreas D. Stahl, John T.M. Kennis, and Marie Louise Groot  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 20, Issue 10, pp. 10562-10571 (2012)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.20.010562


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Abstract

Broadband femtosecond mid-infrared pulses can be converted into the visible spectral region by chirped pulse upconversion. We report here the upconversion of pump probe transient signals in the frequency region below 1800cm−1, using the nonlinear optical crystal AgGaGeS4, realizing an important expansion of the application range of this method. Experiments were demonstrated with a slab of GaAs, in which the upconverted signals cover a window of 120cm−1, with 1.5cm−1 resolution. In experiments on the BLUF photoreceptor Slr1694, signals below 1 milliOD were well resolved after baseline correction. Possibilities for further optimization of the method are discussed. We conclude that this method is an attractive alternative for the traditional MCT arrays used in most mid-infrared pump probe experiments.

© 2012 OSA

1. Introduction

The midinfrared (mid-IR) spectrum from 1000cm−1 to 3000cm−1 is a region with rich vibrational information relating directly to molecular structures of most organic molecules. Femtosecond time-resolved UV/Vis pump mid-IR probe spectroscopy is a powerful tool for investigating photo-induced molecular structural and conformational dynamics in fundamental processes in physical chemistry and biology. Recording real time changes in intensity or frequency of vibrational marker modes can provide direct insight into excited states structural dynamics such as biomolecular energy and charge transfer [1

1. P. Hamm, M. Zurek, W. Mäntele, M. Meyer, H. Scheer, and W. Zinth, “Femtosecond infrared spectroscopy of reaction centers from Rhodobacter sphaeroides between 1000 and 1800 cm-1.,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 92(6), 1826–1830 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3

3. M. Di Donato, A. D. Stahl, I. H. M. van Stokkum, R. van Grondelle, and M. L. Groot, “Cofactors involved in light-driven charge separation in photosystem I identified by subpicosecond infrared spectroscopy,” Biochemistry 50(4), 480–490 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], bond formation and dissociation [4

4. C. R. Baiz, R. McCanne, and K. J. Kubarych, “Structurally selective geminate rebinding dynamics of solvent-caged radicals studied with nonequilibrium infrared echo spectroscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(38), 13590–13591 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,5

5. P. A. Anfinrud, C. Han, and R. M. Hochstrasser, “Direct observations of ligand dynamics in hemoglobin by subpicosecond infrared spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 86(21), 8387–8391 (1989). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], cis-trans isomerization of a protein’s chromophore [6

6. J. R. Zheng, K. W. Kwak, J. Xie, and M. D. Fayer, “Ultrafast carbon-carbon single-bond rotational isomerization in room-temperature solution,” Science 313(5795), 1951–1955 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,7

7. L. J. G. W. van Wilderen, M. A. van der Horst, I. H. M. van Stokkum, K. J. Hellingwerf, R. van Grondelle, and M. L. Groot, “Ultrafast infrared spectroscopy reveals a key step for successful entry into the photocycle for photoactive yellow protein,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(41), 15050–15055 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], hydrogen network alternation [8

8. C. Bonetti, T. Mathes, I. H. M. van Stokkum, K. M. Mullen, M. L. Groot, R. van Grondelle, P. Hegemann, and J. T. M. Kennis, “Hydrogen bond switching among flavin and amino acid side chains in the BLUF photoreceptor observed by ultrafast infrared spectroscopy,” Biophys. J. 95(10), 4790–4802 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,9

9. T. Mathes, J. Zhu, I. H. M. van Stokkum, M. L. Groot, P. Hegemann, and J. T. M. Kennis, “Hydrogen Bond Switching among Flavin and Amino Acids Determines the Nature of Proton-Coupled Electron Transfer in BLUF Photoreceptors,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 3(2), 203–208 (2012). [CrossRef]

] and protein folding [10

10. Z. Ganim, K. C. Jones, and A. Tokmakoff, “Insulin dimer dissociation and unfolding revealed by amide I two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 12(14), 3579–3588 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] et cetera. To realize high time and spectral resolution simultaneously, sensitive multichannel IR array detectors are used which can cover a broad spectral region. Traditional detector array elements for mid-IR are typically based upon liquid nitrogen cooled photocurrent semiconductors of MCT, InSb, or PbSe [11

11. P. Hamm, S. Wiemann, M. Zurek, and W. Zinth, “Highly sensitive multichannel spectrometer for subpicosecond spectroscopy in the midinfrared,” Opt. Lett. 19(20), 1642–1644 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,12

12. S. M. Arrivo, V. D. Kleiman, T. P. Dougherty, and E. J. Heilweil, “Broadband femtosecond transient infrared spectroscopy using a 256 x 256 element indium antimonide focal-plane detector,” Opt. Lett. 22(19), 1488–1490 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Currently in most laboratories, ultrafast IR spectroscopy is performed using 1D MCT arrays of 32, 64, or 128 pixels with or without a parallel reference [13

13. D. G. Kuroda and R. M. Hochstrasser, “Two-dimensional infrared spectral signature and hydration of the oxalate dianion,” J. Chem. Phys. 135(20), 204502 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

16

16. K. Haiser, F. O. Koller, M. Huber, N. Regner, T. E. Schrader, W. J. Schreier, and W. Zinth, “Nitro-phenylalanine: a novel sensor for heat transfer in peptides,” J. Phys. Chem. A 115(11), 2169–2175 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The MCT based detectors provide a limited spectral resolution because their pixels are spaced relatively far apart, they are expensive and have quite complicated electronics.

Alternative methods to detect the mid-IR pulses are optically converting them into the visible region where a sensitive, cheaper detector can be used with many more elements, such as a CCD. Several methods have been demonstrated for measuring mid-IR pulses directly with a visible detector. Pioneering studies by Heilweil et al [17

17. E. J. Heilweil, “Ultrashort-pulse multichannel infrared spectroscopy using broadband frequency conversion in LiIO(3).,” Opt. Lett. 14(11), 551–553 (1989). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,18

18. T. P. Dougherty and E. J. Heilwell, “Dual-beam subpicosecond broadband infrared spectrometer,” Opt. Lett. 19(2), 129–131 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] realized the first demonstration of direct measurements of picosecond mid-IR pulses in the visible region. In these experiments, the sum-frequency of the mid-IR pulse and a picosecond visible pulse was generated in a thick crystal LiIO3 and resolved with a 4cm−1 resolution. With the further development of laser sources and materials, in a recent renaissance this method was applied to measure femtosecond mid-IR pulses by upconversion to the visible range in a relatively thin but large area KNbO3 crystal [19

19. M. F. DeCamp and A. Tokmakoff, “Upconversion multichannel infrared spectrometer,” Opt. Lett. 30(14), 1818–1820 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. With this method it was necessary to first spectrally diffract the mid-IR pulse to different places on the KNbO3 crystal surface before it was up-converted with the fundamental pulse of 800nm, and a frequency resolution of around 2cm−1 was realized. A major breakthrough of this method was realized by the use of a chirped fundamental pulse [20

20. K. J. Kubarych, M. Joffre, A. Moore, N. Belabas, and D. M. Jonas, “Mid-infrared electric field characterization using a visible charge-coupled-device-based spectrometer,” Opt. Lett. 30(10), 1228–1230 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] in a thin Mg doped LiNbO3 crystal, with which a high spectral resolution of ~1cm−1 could be realized, limited only by the later stages of the experimental setup. This method was subsequently applied to pump probe experiments [21

21. J. Treuffet, K. J. Kubarych, J. C. Lambry, E. Pilet, J. B. Masson, J. L. Martin, M. H. Vos, M. Joffre, and A. Alexandrou, “Direct observation of ligand transfer and bond formation in cytochrome c oxidase by using mid-infrared chirped-pulse upconversion,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(40), 15705–15710 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,22

22. P. Nuernberger, K. F. Lee, A. Bonvalet, M. H. Vos, and M. Joffre, “Multiply Excited Vibration of Carbon Monoxide in the Primary Docking Site of Hemoglobin Following Photolysis from the Heme,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 1(14), 2077–2081 (2010). [CrossRef]

] and multidimensional [23

23. M. F. DeCamp, L. P. Deflores, K. C. Jones, and A. Tokmakoff, “Single-shot two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 15(1), 233–241 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

26

26. J. M. Anna, M. J. Nee, C. R. Baiz, R. McCanne, and K. J. Kubarych, “Measuring absorptive two-dimensional infrared spectra using chirped-pulse upconversion detection,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27(3), 382–393 (2010). [CrossRef]

] mid-IR spectroscopy. More recently, with the chirped upconversion method, a much broader window which covers almost 600cm−1 was realized [27

27. C. R. Baiz and K. J. Kubarych, “Ultrabroadband detection of a mid-IR continuum by chirped-pulse upconversion,” Opt. Lett. 36(2), 187–189 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] with a resolution of 1cm−1.

2. Principles of chirped pulse upconversion for femtosecond mid-infrared measurements

The key of this method is to use a chirped transient frequency in a pulse of long duration to produce a single narrow spectral component for shifting the broad band mid-IR to the visible region by frequency sum-generation in nonlinear optical crystals, allowing silicon-based detectors to be a viable alternative to the standard IR detectors. For upconversion of an ultrashort mid-IR pulse (without considering for the moment a sample signal field), the process can be easily understood by the schematic illustration depicted in Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic illustrations of upconversion the femtosecond mid-IR to the visible region with a highly chirped fundamental pulse of 800nm.
. Generally, a femtosecond mid-IR pulse created by difference frequency generation (DFG) has a pulse duration of ~200fs and a bandwidth of ~100cm−1. In the time regime, the mid-IR(ΔT~200fs) pulse acts as a time gate, and only a very narrow signal frequency component of the highly chirped fundamental pulse (800nm,~150ps) goes through the crystal and will be added up to the spectrum of the mid-IR pulse, generating the visible pulse without blurring of the spectral resolution. Thus, the upconverted signal is shifted to the visible region with a frequency bandwidth equal to that of the mid-IR pulse. The original mid-IR spectrum can be retrieved by spectrally resolving the upconverted signal with a visible optical spectrometer and a CCD detector. The final frequency resolution will depend on the spectrometer and detector channels of the used detection setup.

In practice, when measuring pump probe signals, coherent radiation of the signal field from the studied sample introduced by the excitation pulse, can be much longer than the mid-IR probe pulse, if the spectral features of the sample are narrow. This long-lived radiation field will also be upconverted by the chirped pulse, thus introducing spectral broadening and distortion, decreasing the spectral resolution. However, as previously demonstrated theoretically and experimentally [28

28. K. F. Lee, P. Nuernberger, A. Bonvalet, and M. Joffre, “Removing cross-phase modulation from midinfrared chirped-pulse upconversion spectra,” Opt. Express 17(21), 18738–18744 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], the distortion caused by the sample signal field can be removed with a correction procedure, maintaining the high spectral and sampling resolution.

3. Evaluation of nonlinear optical crystals properties for mid-infrared upconversion

4. Experimental setup

The laser system (Hurricane, Spectra Physics) is a Ti: sapphire regenerative amplifier with 1kHz repetition rate and fundamental output centered at 800nm, with a bandwidth of 10nm and a pulse duration of ~90fs. The setup for pump probe experiments employing mid-IR upconversion is sketched in Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Scheme of the experimental setup for pump probe measurements and the chirped pulse chirped pulse upconversion mid-infrared.
. The output fundamental pulse is split in two parts. One part is used for either pumping a homebuilt non-collinear optical parameter amplifier (NOPA) to generate the desired wavelength, or is frequency-doubled in a BBO crystal, and sent to a delay line to be used as excitation pulse. The other part is sent to a optical parametric generator and amplifier (TOPAS, Light Conversion), which consists of two stages: a first stage to generate signal and idler pulses in the near IR region, and a second stage where these two pulses are overlapped in a nonlinear crystal AgGaS2 (type I) to generated the difference frequency in the mid-IR. The mid-IR pulses generated in our lab can be tuned in a frequency range from 700cm−1 to 3000cm−1 with a single window bandwidth of around 100cm−1 each.

The chirped pulse for upconversion is picked up from the zero order diffraction of the grating in the compressor. This pulse is normally available in every laser system based on chirped pulse amplification, it is highly chirped and very easily used for upconversion without introduction of additional optics. In our laser system, this uncompressed chirped pulse has a pulse duration of ~150ps, with almost the same bandwidth as the compressed output of ~10nm. The chirped pulse is sent to another delay line, to match its optical path length with that of the mid-IR pulse.

After interrogation of the sample, the mid-IR pulse is collimated with a 5cm CaF2 lens, then focused on the crystal AgGaGeS4 with a 20cm CaF2 lens and overlapped with the chirped pulse. To ensure easy operation and alignment, the chirped pulse was also collimated and then loosely focused with a 50cm fused silica lens, and overlapped under an angle of less than 10 with the mid-IR pulse. The overlapping position of the two beams is before the focusing point of the chirped pulse, where the size of the chirped beam is around 1mm in radius, 5-10 time larger than the mid-IR beam. The nonlinear crystal AgGaGeS4 (type I, ooe) was ordered from CASTECH INC(China, Fujian) with uniform thickness of 0.2mm and 5mm × 5mm area, embedded in an easily rotated holder provided by the company. The crystal has cutting angles of θ = 50, φ = 0, which are the optimized angles for upconversion at 1250cm−1, in order to favor the upconversion in the lower frequency region. All lenses and the crystal AgGaGeS4 were mounted on micrometer to centimeter delay stages, in order to control and choose the proper beam sizes for upconversion. To get the upconverted signal as broad as possible, the lens position of the mid-IR beam was adjusted to get an optimal size inside the crystal where it overlapped with the chirped pulse. The upconverted signal was picked up and collimated, then sent to a ~0.5m spectrometer with a grating of 1200 grooves/mm (modified based on Model 500SM, CHROMEX), which can give a spectral resolution of 0.08nm (~1.6cm−1) at 700nm when using a slit width of 50μm. The spectrally dispersed signal was recorded by a 2048 × 1 pixel silicon CCD camera (model No.S11155-2048; Hamamatsu) and read out by computer for calculation of the transient optical density (OD) changes induced by the excitation pulse.

5. Results and discussion

Figure 4
Fig. 4 Upconverted mid-IR spectra by crystal AgGaGeS4 to the visible region and measured by in visible detector CCD. Each spectrum is the average of 1000 pulses. The chirped pulse energy was fixed at around 10μJ.The mid-IR pulse energy was around 1μJ at 2000cm−1. The strong decrease of the upconverted signal in the lower frequency region was caused by the decrease of the nonlinear efficiency of the crystal and the decrease in output power of mid-IR beam.
shows the mid-IR spectra from 2000cm−1 down to 1000cm−1 measured with the crystal AgGaGeS4. The top axis shows the visible region to which the mid-IR pulses were upconverted.

To demonstrate its practical use in a pump probe measurement, a sheet of 50μm thickness Gallium arsenide (GaAs) crystal was excited at 400nm and the transient decay dynamics measured. Figure 5
Fig. 5 Pump probe experiment results of a 50μm GaAs demonstrated by the chirped upconversion method. The excitation pulse is at 400nm, ~100nJ.
shows two representative time traces at a low frequency, 1520cm−1, and at a higher frequency, 2060cm−1. Both of the traces show a fast decay in a few ps, and at 2060cm−1 a flat non-decaying phase was observed. The high photon energy excitation at 400nm (3.1eV), causes electrons to be excited from the valence bands to Г6 valley with an excessive kinetic energy of ~1.6eV. The fast decays in a few ps in Fig. 5 reflect the intervalley scattering dynamics of Г6→ X6/ X7 in GaAs, which exhibits a mid-IR absorption introduced by the energetic hot electrons transition X6→ X7, as reported previously [30

30. W. B. Wang, N. Ockman, M. Yan, and R. R. Alfano, “The intervalley X6→Γ6, L6 scattering time in GaAs measured by ultrafast pump probe infrared absorption spectroscopy,” Solid-State Electron. 32(12), 1337–1345 (1989). [CrossRef]

], the decay decelerated to tens of ps when longer excitation wavelength of 527nm was used. The higher kinetic energy of the hot electrons created by 400nm excitation might accelerate the intervalley scattering dynamics Г6→ X6/ X7 and thus shorten the life time of Г6. The non-decaying tail of 2060cm−1 trace reflects decay of the free carrier absorption which indicates that recombination of electrons and holes occurs in the nanosecond range [30

30. W. B. Wang, N. Ockman, M. Yan, and R. R. Alfano, “The intervalley X6→Γ6, L6 scattering time in GaAs measured by ultrafast pump probe infrared absorption spectroscopy,” Solid-State Electron. 32(12), 1337–1345 (1989). [CrossRef]

]. For these large signals in the tens of milliOD, the chirped upconversion system provides a solid measurement of the semiconductor hot electron and carrier dynamics.

In the current measurement of the Slr1694 protein sample, the distortion introduced by cross-phase modulation with the sample signal field was not corrected. The distortion to the spectral resolution depends on how much the pulse is chirped and the coherence time of the signal field emitted by the sample. Here, in Slr1694, the population time is long (~200ps Fig. 6(c)), such that its contribution to the spectral width can be ignored, and the spectral width is dominated by the dephasing time. An estimate can be made from the full width at half maximum of the peak at 1550cm−1 in Fig. 6(b), which is ~14cm−1. Thus, the coherence time τc is ~1.1ps (Assume Gaussian shape as in ref 28

28. K. F. Lee, P. Nuernberger, A. Bonvalet, and M. Joffre, “Removing cross-phase modulation from midinfrared chirped-pulse upconversion spectra,” Opt. Express 17(21), 18738–18744 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, inhomogeneous dephasing in condense phase). For our chirped fundamental pulse of ~150ps, bandwidth of 10nm centered at 800nm, a linear chirp approximation gives the second derivative value of the time phase as φ”(t)~5 × 10−2 ps−2 (corresponding to a spectral phase second derivative φ”(ω)~20ps2). The upconverted frequency components of the chirped pulse with the signal field can be evaluated by φ”(t)τc, which is around ~1.8cm−1. Thus the distortion is small and correction is not needed for the Slr1694 sample. This is confirmed by the similar signals to the measured by MCT (Fig. 6(b)). For signals with longer dephasing time, correction will be needed. .An alternative solution is to add a high spectral resolution monochromator to filter out the unwanted spectral components of the chirped pulse before upconversion, as demonstrated in [31

31. L. J. Richter, T. P. Petralli-Mallow, and J. C. Stephenson, “Vibrationally resolved sum-frequency generation with broad-bandwidth infrared pulses,” Opt. Lett. 23(20), 1594–1596 (1998). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

As already shown in Fig. 6 and mentioned above, the baseline fluctuation is a serious issue for detection of weaker signals. This problem can be partly resolved by using a more stabilized laser system and a more stabilized mid-IR pulse generating system (NOPA/TOPAS). However, improving by this way has its limitation due to the many factors that can induce the baseline fluctuation, such as the excitation energy deposited in the sample which could give rise to a varying thermal diffusion in the solvent, the environmental temperature and air fluctuations in which the mid-IR pulse is propagating, etc. A way to permanently resolve the base line fluctuations and improving the signal to noise ratio is to introduce an additional beam as reference, a common method in transient absorption measurements. For the chirped pulse upconversion, we can take advantage of the property that the fundamental pulse is so highly chirped: by splitting the mid-IR beam into two, one for signal one for reference, and sending both to the nonlinear crystal to overlap with the chirped pulse in a symmetrical configuration, but delayed in time by several ps. Thus, the two mid-IR pulse will be upconverted by different frequency components of the chirped pulse. The two upconverted signals will have in the visible region a small frequency shift relative to each other, but have kept the same spectral shape. By designing an appropriate spectrometer, these two similar spectra, separated from each other probably only by several cm−1 can be easily imaged such that they match each other on the detector, by tuning a separate mirror or grating in the spectrometer. Such designs are currently under development in our lab.

6. Conclusion

In this study we reported on a method to measure mid-IR absorption difference spectra in the visible region by chirped pulse upconversion using the nonlinear optical crystal AgGaGeS4. This method provides an inexpensive and efficient alternative to conventional multichannel IR measurements using MCT arrays. Using the highly effective crystal AgGaGeS4 we succeeded to extend the upconversion region down to 1000cm−1 and for the first time demonstrate its use in pump probe experiments in the lower frequency region. Experiments with GaAs showed that the upconversion system is perfect for measurements of signals in the tens milliOD range. Weaker signals, of less than 1 milliOD, suffered from baseline fluctuations. Applying dynamic baseline subtraction, the basic spectral and dynamical properties of a BLUF photon receptor protein were clearly resolved. By further optimization, this upconversion system will be a promising method for pump probe experiments in the mid infrared spectral region.

Acknowledgment

This research was supported by the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research through the Dutch Foundation for Earth and Life Sciences (grants 812.08.001 and 819.02.001). T.M. and J.T.M.K were supported by the Netherlands Foundation for Scientific ResearchChemical Sciences council through an Echo grant. We thank dr. van Mourik (EPFL, Lausanne) for the temporary loan of the CCD camera and Mr. Jos Thieme for help with the spectrometer optics alignments.

References and links

1.

P. Hamm, M. Zurek, W. Mäntele, M. Meyer, H. Scheer, and W. Zinth, “Femtosecond infrared spectroscopy of reaction centers from Rhodobacter sphaeroides between 1000 and 1800 cm-1.,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 92(6), 1826–1830 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2.

M. L. Groot, N. P. Pawlowicz, L. J. G. W. van Wilderen, J. Breton, I. H. M. van Stokkum, and R. van Grondelle, “Initial electron donor and acceptor in isolated Photosystem II reaction centers identified with femtosecond mid-IR spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(37), 13087–13092 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3.

M. Di Donato, A. D. Stahl, I. H. M. van Stokkum, R. van Grondelle, and M. L. Groot, “Cofactors involved in light-driven charge separation in photosystem I identified by subpicosecond infrared spectroscopy,” Biochemistry 50(4), 480–490 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4.

C. R. Baiz, R. McCanne, and K. J. Kubarych, “Structurally selective geminate rebinding dynamics of solvent-caged radicals studied with nonequilibrium infrared echo spectroscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(38), 13590–13591 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

P. A. Anfinrud, C. Han, and R. M. Hochstrasser, “Direct observations of ligand dynamics in hemoglobin by subpicosecond infrared spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 86(21), 8387–8391 (1989). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

J. R. Zheng, K. W. Kwak, J. Xie, and M. D. Fayer, “Ultrafast carbon-carbon single-bond rotational isomerization in room-temperature solution,” Science 313(5795), 1951–1955 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

L. J. G. W. van Wilderen, M. A. van der Horst, I. H. M. van Stokkum, K. J. Hellingwerf, R. van Grondelle, and M. L. Groot, “Ultrafast infrared spectroscopy reveals a key step for successful entry into the photocycle for photoactive yellow protein,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(41), 15050–15055 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

C. Bonetti, T. Mathes, I. H. M. van Stokkum, K. M. Mullen, M. L. Groot, R. van Grondelle, P. Hegemann, and J. T. M. Kennis, “Hydrogen bond switching among flavin and amino acid side chains in the BLUF photoreceptor observed by ultrafast infrared spectroscopy,” Biophys. J. 95(10), 4790–4802 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

T. Mathes, J. Zhu, I. H. M. van Stokkum, M. L. Groot, P. Hegemann, and J. T. M. Kennis, “Hydrogen Bond Switching among Flavin and Amino Acids Determines the Nature of Proton-Coupled Electron Transfer in BLUF Photoreceptors,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 3(2), 203–208 (2012). [CrossRef]

10.

Z. Ganim, K. C. Jones, and A. Tokmakoff, “Insulin dimer dissociation and unfolding revealed by amide I two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 12(14), 3579–3588 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

P. Hamm, S. Wiemann, M. Zurek, and W. Zinth, “Highly sensitive multichannel spectrometer for subpicosecond spectroscopy in the midinfrared,” Opt. Lett. 19(20), 1642–1644 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

S. M. Arrivo, V. D. Kleiman, T. P. Dougherty, and E. J. Heilweil, “Broadband femtosecond transient infrared spectroscopy using a 256 x 256 element indium antimonide focal-plane detector,” Opt. Lett. 22(19), 1488–1490 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

D. G. Kuroda and R. M. Hochstrasser, “Two-dimensional infrared spectral signature and hydration of the oxalate dianion,” J. Chem. Phys. 135(20), 204502 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

J. P. Lomont, S. C. Nguyen, J. P. Schlegel, M. C. Zoerb, A. D. Hill, and C. B. Harris, “Ultrafast observation of a solvent dependent spin state equilibrium in CpCo(CO),” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134(6), 3120–3126 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15.

C. T. Middleton, P. Marek, P. Cao, C. Chiu, S. Singh, A. M. Woys, J. J. Pablo, D. P. Raleigh, and M. T. Zanni, “Two dimensional infrared spectroscopy reveals the complex behaviour of an amyloid fibril inhibitor,” Nat. Chem. (to be published).

16.

K. Haiser, F. O. Koller, M. Huber, N. Regner, T. E. Schrader, W. J. Schreier, and W. Zinth, “Nitro-phenylalanine: a novel sensor for heat transfer in peptides,” J. Phys. Chem. A 115(11), 2169–2175 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

17.

E. J. Heilweil, “Ultrashort-pulse multichannel infrared spectroscopy using broadband frequency conversion in LiIO(3).,” Opt. Lett. 14(11), 551–553 (1989). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18.

T. P. Dougherty and E. J. Heilwell, “Dual-beam subpicosecond broadband infrared spectrometer,” Opt. Lett. 19(2), 129–131 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

19.

M. F. DeCamp and A. Tokmakoff, “Upconversion multichannel infrared spectrometer,” Opt. Lett. 30(14), 1818–1820 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

20.

K. J. Kubarych, M. Joffre, A. Moore, N. Belabas, and D. M. Jonas, “Mid-infrared electric field characterization using a visible charge-coupled-device-based spectrometer,” Opt. Lett. 30(10), 1228–1230 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

21.

J. Treuffet, K. J. Kubarych, J. C. Lambry, E. Pilet, J. B. Masson, J. L. Martin, M. H. Vos, M. Joffre, and A. Alexandrou, “Direct observation of ligand transfer and bond formation in cytochrome c oxidase by using mid-infrared chirped-pulse upconversion,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(40), 15705–15710 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

22.

P. Nuernberger, K. F. Lee, A. Bonvalet, M. H. Vos, and M. Joffre, “Multiply Excited Vibration of Carbon Monoxide in the Primary Docking Site of Hemoglobin Following Photolysis from the Heme,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 1(14), 2077–2081 (2010). [CrossRef]

23.

M. F. DeCamp, L. P. Deflores, K. C. Jones, and A. Tokmakoff, “Single-shot two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 15(1), 233–241 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

24.

M. J. Nee, R. McCanne, K. J. Kubarych, and M. Joffre, “Two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy detected by chirped pulse upconversion,” Opt. Lett. 32(6), 713–715 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

25.

M. J. Nee, C. R. Baiz, J. M. Anna, R. McCanne, and K. J. Kubarych, “Multilevel vibrational coherence transfer and wavepacket dynamics probed with multidimensional IR spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 129(8), 084503 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

26.

J. M. Anna, M. J. Nee, C. R. Baiz, R. McCanne, and K. J. Kubarych, “Measuring absorptive two-dimensional infrared spectra using chirped-pulse upconversion detection,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27(3), 382–393 (2010). [CrossRef]

27.

C. R. Baiz and K. J. Kubarych, “Ultrabroadband detection of a mid-IR continuum by chirped-pulse upconversion,” Opt. Lett. 36(2), 187–189 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

28.

K. F. Lee, P. Nuernberger, A. Bonvalet, and M. Joffre, “Removing cross-phase modulation from midinfrared chirped-pulse upconversion spectra,” Opt. Express 17(21), 18738–18744 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

29.

M. Tsubouchi and T. Momose, “Cross-correlation frequency-resolved optical gating for mid-infrared femtosecond laser pulses by an AgGaGeS(4) crystal,” Opt. Lett. 34(16), 2447–2449 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

30.

W. B. Wang, N. Ockman, M. Yan, and R. R. Alfano, “The intervalley X6→Γ6, L6 scattering time in GaAs measured by ultrafast pump probe infrared absorption spectroscopy,” Solid-State Electron. 32(12), 1337–1345 (1989). [CrossRef]

31.

L. J. Richter, T. P. Petralli-Mallow, and J. C. Stephenson, “Vibrationally resolved sum-frequency generation with broad-bandwidth infrared pulses,” Opt. Lett. 23(20), 1594–1596 (1998). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

OCIS Codes
(040.1880) Detectors : Detection
(040.3060) Detectors : Infrared
(190.7220) Nonlinear optics : Upconversion
(320.7100) Ultrafast optics : Ultrafast measurements
(320.7150) Ultrafast optics : Ultrafast spectroscopy

ToC Category:
Ultrafast Optics

History
Original Manuscript: March 8, 2012
Revised Manuscript: April 6, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: April 10, 2012
Published: April 23, 2012

Citation
Jingyi Zhu, Tilo Mathes, Andreas D. Stahl, John T.M. Kennis, and Marie Louise Groot, "Ultrafast mid-infrared spectroscopy by chirped pulse upconversion in 1800-1000cm−1 region," Opt. Express 20, 10562-10571 (2012)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-20-10-10562


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References

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  22. P. Nuernberger, K. F. Lee, A. Bonvalet, M. H. Vos, and M. Joffre, “Multiply Excited Vibration of Carbon Monoxide in the Primary Docking Site of Hemoglobin Following Photolysis from the Heme,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett.1(14), 2077–2081 (2010). [CrossRef]
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  24. M. J. Nee, R. McCanne, K. J. Kubarych, and M. Joffre, “Two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy detected by chirped pulse upconversion,” Opt. Lett.32(6), 713–715 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. M. J. Nee, C. R. Baiz, J. M. Anna, R. McCanne, and K. J. Kubarych, “Multilevel vibrational coherence transfer and wavepacket dynamics probed with multidimensional IR spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys.129(8), 084503 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. J. M. Anna, M. J. Nee, C. R. Baiz, R. McCanne, and K. J. Kubarych, “Measuring absorptive two-dimensional infrared spectra using chirped-pulse upconversion detection,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B27(3), 382–393 (2010). [CrossRef]
  27. C. R. Baiz and K. J. Kubarych, “Ultrabroadband detection of a mid-IR continuum by chirped-pulse upconversion,” Opt. Lett.36(2), 187–189 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. K. F. Lee, P. Nuernberger, A. Bonvalet, and M. Joffre, “Removing cross-phase modulation from midinfrared chirped-pulse upconversion spectra,” Opt. Express17(21), 18738–18744 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. M. Tsubouchi and T. Momose, “Cross-correlation frequency-resolved optical gating for mid-infrared femtosecond laser pulses by an AgGaGeS(4) crystal,” Opt. Lett.34(16), 2447–2449 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. W. B. Wang, N. Ockman, M. Yan, and R. R. Alfano, “The intervalley X6→Γ6, L6 scattering time in GaAs measured by ultrafast pump probe infrared absorption spectroscopy,” Solid-State Electron.32(12), 1337–1345 (1989). [CrossRef]
  31. L. J. Richter, T. P. Petralli-Mallow, and J. C. Stephenson, “Vibrationally resolved sum-frequency generation with broad-bandwidth infrared pulses,” Opt. Lett.23(20), 1594–1596 (1998). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

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