OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 20, Iss. 10 — May. 7, 2012
  • pp: 10796–10806
« Show journal navigation

Broadband microwave photonic fully tunable filter using a single heterogeneously integrated III-V/SOI-microdisk-based phase shifter

Juan Lloret, Geert Morthier, Francisco Ramos, Salvador Sales, Dries Van Thourhout, Thijs Spuesens, Nicolas Olivier, Jean-Marc Fédéli, and José Capmany  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 20, Issue 10, pp. 10796-10806 (2012)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.20.010796


View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (1248 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

A broadband microwave photonic phase shifter based on a single III-V microdisk resonator heterogeneously integrated on and coupled to a nanophotonic silicon-on-insulator waveguide is reported. The phase shift tunability is accomplished by modifying the effective index through carrier injection. A comprehensive semi-analytical model aiming at predicting its behavior is formulated and confirmed by measurements. Quasi-linear and continuously tunable 2π phase shifts at radiofrequencies greater than 18 GHz are experimentally demonstrated. The phase shifter performance is also evaluated when used as a key element in tunable filtering schemes. Distortion-free and wideband filtering responses with a tuning range of ~100% over the free spectral range are obtained.

© 2012 OSA

1. Introduction

Over the past years, silicon-on-insulator (SOI) has arisen as the preferred technology platform for implementing passive photonic functionalities. Features such as the transparency of silicon at telecom wavelengths, the high refractive index contrast, which leads to high-density integration, or the compatibility with complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology offer the possibility of device fabrication in the sub-micron scale [1

1. R. Soref, “The past, present and future of silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1678–1687 (2006). [CrossRef]

,2

2. W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, P. Dumon, V. Wiaux, S. Beckx, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, J. Van Campenhout, P. Bienstman, and D. Van Thourhout, “Nanophotonic waveguides in silicon-on-insulator fabricated with CMOS technology,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(1), 401–412 (2005). [CrossRef]

]. However, a major obstacle for large-scale silicon-based electronic-photonic integration is the indirect band gap of silicon, which results in low-efficiency light-emitting. In practice, this fact hampers the assembly of high-performance active devices.

MWP enables the generation, transport and processing of radio frequency (RF), microwave and millimeter-wave signals in the optical domain [18

18. J. Capmany, B. Ortega, D. Pastor, and S. Sales, “Discrete-time optical processing of microwave signals,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(2), 702–723 (2005). [CrossRef]

]. In particular, reconfigurable and tunable photonic filtering of microwave signals free from bandwidth constraints has focused considerable efforts [19

19. J. Capmany, B. Ortega, and D. Pastor, “A tutorial on microwave photonic filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(1), 201–229 (2006). [CrossRef]

]. To this end, high performance tunable microwave phase shifters and true time delay lines are of key importance. For this purpose, integrated SOI slow-light-based ring resonators have found to be a very promising solution [20

20. R. W. Boyd and D. J. Gauthier, “Slow and fast light,” Prog. Opt. 43, 497–530 (2002). [CrossRef]

,21

21. T. F. Krauss, “Why do we need slow light?” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 448–450 (2008). [CrossRef]

]. Specifically, quasi-linear 360° phase shifts with a power penalty of less than 2 dB have been obtained at 40 GHz in SOI dual-microring resonators [22

22. M. Pu, L. Liu, W. Xue, Y. Ding, L. Hagedorn-Fradsen, H. Ou, K. Yvind, and J. M. Hvam, “Tunable microwave phase shifter based on silicon-on-insulator microring resonator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(12), 869–871 (2010). [CrossRef]

,23

23. M. Pu, L. Liu, W. Xue, Y. Ding, H. Ou, K. Yvind, J. M. Hvam, and J. M. Hvam, “Widely tunable microwave phase shifter based on silicon-on-insulator dual-microring resonator,” Opt. Express 18(6), 6172–6182 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Concerning time delaying functionalities, long tunable optical delays over wide bandwidths in novel configurations based on cascaded SOI microrings have also been demonstrated [24

24. J. Cardenas, M. A. Foster, N. Sherwood-Droz, C. B. Poitras, H. L. R. Lira, B. Zhang, A. L. Gaeta, J. B. Khurgin, P. Morton, and M. Lipson, “Wide-bandwidth continuously tunable optical delay line using silicon microring resonators,” Opt. Express 18(25), 26525–26534 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,25

25. J. D. Doménech, P. Muñoz, and J. Capmany, “Transmission and group-delay characterization of coupled resonator optical waveguides apodized through the longitudinal offset technique,” Opt. Lett. 36(2), 136–138 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Besides, the separate carrier tuning technique has been recently used for overcoming the inherent bandwidth limitation when employing microrings [26

26. P. A. Morton and J. B. Khurgin, “Microwave photonic delay line with separate tuning of the optical carrier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(22), 869–871 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. However, the main drawback of SOI-based approaches is connected to its tunability speed. Tunability is commonly carried out by modifying the group index through thermo-optic effects. Therefore, the tunability speed is limited by the silicon thermal dynamics, resulting in tuning times in the scale of hundreds of microseconds [27

27. R. L. Espinola, M. C. Tsai, J. T. Yardley, and R. M. Osgood, “Fast and low-power thermooptic switch on thin silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(10), 1366–1368 (2003). [CrossRef]

].

In this paper, a novel MWP fully-tunable phase shifter comprised of a single InP-based microdisk resonator (MDR) integrated on and coupled to a nanophotonic SOI waveguide fabricated through bonding technology is presented and demonstrated. The tuning control mechanism is based on carrier injection, rather than on the adjustment of the optical wavelength [22

22. M. Pu, L. Liu, W. Xue, Y. Ding, L. Hagedorn-Fradsen, H. Ou, K. Yvind, and J. M. Hvam, “Tunable microwave phase shifter based on silicon-on-insulator microring resonator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(12), 869–871 (2010). [CrossRef]

] or thermo-optic effects [23

23. M. Pu, L. Liu, W. Xue, Y. Ding, H. Ou, K. Yvind, J. M. Hvam, and J. M. Hvam, “Widely tunable microwave phase shifter based on silicon-on-insulator dual-microring resonator,” Opt. Express 18(6), 6172–6182 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. In this way, the tuning speed limitation is circumvented as dynamics as fast as hundreds of picoseconds can be reached in InP-based materials, resulting in an improvement by more of six orders of magnitude. Finally, the phase shifter is used as a key element in a notch-type filtering scheme yielding distortion-free and wideband response with a tuning range ~100% over the free spectral range (FSR).

2. Principle of operation

The technique of combining OSSB modulation with optical filtering to implement complex-valued filters was originally proposed in [28

28. M. Sagues, R. García Olcina, A. Loayssa, S. Sales, and J. Capmany, “Multi-tap complex-coefficient incoherent microwave photonic filters based on optical single-sideband modulation and narrow band optical filtering,” Opt. Express 16(1), 295–303 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], where phase shifters based on fiber Bragg gratings (FBG) instead of InP/SOI MDRs were considered.

Hereafter, a comprehensive semi-analytical analysis aiming at predicting the device behavior is derived. To avoid loss of generality, a double-sideband signal comprised of an optical carrier at optical frequency ω0 and two sidebands at ω0 ± Ω is considered at the MDR input
Ein(t,z)=(|E0(z)|ejθ0+|E1(z)|ej(Ωt+θ1)+|E+1(z)|ej(Ωtθ+1))ej(ω0tk0z),
(1)
where k0 is the propagation constant and Ω is the modulation frequency. |E0| and θ0 correspond to the amplitude modulus and optical phase of the optical carrier, whereas |E+1|, |E−1|, θ+1 and θ−1 are those corresponding to the blue and red shifted modulation sidebands, respectively. Equation (1) can be particularized for OSSB modulation by assuming |E+1| = 0 or |E−1| = 0. Harmonic distortion effects are neglected because small-signal modulation is considered.

After the transient time, the optical complex field at the MDR output can be expressed as a function of the transmission coefficient, T, as
Eout=(T|H|ejφ1T|H|ejφ)Ein,withT=1k2,
(2)
being |H| and ϕ the amplitude modulus and the phase of the resonant cavity’s transfer function, respectively. T|H| < 1 has to be fulfilled to reach the steady state. Therefore, the device must be operated below threshold.

The derivation of the cavity transfer function involves the assessment of the propagation equations for all the three optical waves. The propagation equations are formulated in the context of a wave mixing description. Wave mixing in active semiconductor materials has contributions from carrier density depletion, carrier heating, spectral hole burning, two-photon absorption and Kerr effects. However, for modulation frequencies up to some tens of GHz, the dominating mechanism mediating the wave mixing is the carrier density pulsation [29

29. Y. Chen, W. Xue, F. Öhman, and J. Mork, “Theory of optical-filtering enhanced slow and fast light effects in semiconductor optical waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(23), 3734–3743 (2008). [CrossRef]

]. In this manner, the ultrafast effects as well as the gain saturation due to amplified emission noise are neglected, which are reasonable approximations in the regime of moderate input optical power. Consequently, the wave mixing problem can be simplified by accounting just for the interactions between the three optical waves as
E0z=γ0E0,E1z=γ0E1+ε1{|E0|2E1+E02E+1*ejΔkz},E+1z=γ0E+1+ε+1{|E0|2E+1+E02E1*ejΔkz},
(3)
where γ0 and ε ± 1 are the complex first- and third-order susceptibilities, respectively. ∆k is the phase-mismatching factor induced by the background and the waveguide dispersions. ∆k = 0 is a good approximation when considering modulating frequencies up to several tens of GHz. Besides, E0, E−1 and E+1 refer in this case to the optical waves already travelling inside the cavity.

By referring Eq. (4) to the electrical field at the input, the MDR transfer function H = |H|e can be derived for all the three optical waves as
H0=eF(L),H1*=12{1+E+1(z=0)E1*(z=0)eF(L)eF(L)*[jα(eG(L)1)+eG(L)1]+jα(eG(L)1)+eG(L)},H+1=12{1+E1*(z=0)E+1(z=0)eF(L)eF(L)*[jα(1eG(L))+eG(L)1]+jα(1eG(L))+eG(L)}.
(6)
Equations (6) have to be inserted into Eq. (2) to obtain the output complex electrical field for each optical wave. After photodetection, the current beating term oscillating at Ω is then
iΩ(t)2{|Eout,0||Eout,1|cos(Ωt+(θout,0θout,1))+|Eout,0||Eout,+1|cos(Ωt+(θout,+1θout,0))},
(7)
where t refers to time, is the detector responsivity and θout,i = arg(Eout,i), for i = −1,0 or 1.

Finally, the electrical power and the phase shift of the microwave output signal is calculated as
PΩ=|iΩ|2Z0,Δφ=arg{iΩ}arg{iΩ}|ref,
(8)
where Z0 is the input impedance of the detector. The phase shift is stated relative to a reference, which is defined attending to the minimum carrier density. In this particular case, |E+1| = 0 because OSSB is inserted into the MDR.

3. Phase shifter implementation

Figure 2(a)
Fig. 2 (a) Experimental setup for the MWP phase shifter. (b) Schematic drawing of the heterogeneous MDR structure.
sketches the experimental setup of the InP/SOI MDR based MWP phase shifter. A CW tunable laser generates a weak spectral line centered at 1562 nm. The input RF signal, sin(t), is imprinted onto the optical carrier by means of an intensity modulator (IM) operated in dual-drive configuration, giving as a result OSSB modulation. The signal at the output of the modulator, which is comprised of two optical waves, is sent into the MDR. Both optical waves are then weighted and phase-shifted accordingly to the MDR transfer function, which can be spectrally shifted by modifying the effective index. To this end, a tunable voltage source is connected to the metal contacts of the MDR with the aim of controlling the carrier injection. Polarization controllers are inserted at both the modulator and the MDR input to avoid power penalty derived from polarization mismatching. Finally, the optical signal exiting the MDR output is detected using a high-bandwidth photodetector (HBW PD), amplified by means of a high-gain electrical amplifier (EA) and acquired by a vectorial network analyzer (VNA) in order to measure the system transfer function.

Figure 2(b) shows the schematic drawing of the heterogeneous MDR structure, showing the InP cavity, the SOI waveguide, the bottom and top metal contacts, the tunnel junction and the active layer. The 9-μm-diameter MDR, which includes a tunnel junction for loss minimization purposes, is integrated on top of a SOI waveguide circuit containing a 750-nm-wide and 220-nm-high Si strip waveguide using molecular bonding. The straight waveguide only supports the propagation of the TE mode, so the polarization must be controlled at the chip input. Under bias-free conditions the effective index is 3.474, which corresponds to a FSR of 3.054 THz (see Fig. 3(a)
Fig. 3 (a) Measured transfer function with the injection current. In the inset, the spectral shift of the resonance when changing the injection current. (b) Zoomed image of the measured gain and phase transfer functions.
). The width and depth of the periodic response notches are partly fixed by the coupling disk-to-waveguide gap, featuring in this case a k of ~6%. The total area, including both the input and output vertical grating couplers is around 0.1 mm2. More thorough details on the fabrication of such a device are given in [11

11. D. Van Thourhout, T. Spuesens, S. K. Selvaraja, L. Liu, G. Roelkens, R. Kumar, G. Morthier, P. Rojo-Romeo, F. Mandorlo, P. Regreny, O. Raz, C. Kopp, and L. Grenouillet, “Nanophotonic devices for optical interconnect,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(5), 1363–1375 (2010). [CrossRef]

].

The resonance placed around 1561.5 nm was chosen for two reasons: the first because minimum insertion losses are achieved, the second because it is placed inside the telecom wavelength region. Figure 3(b) shows a zoomed image of the mentioned resonance. Both the gain and phase transfer functions with the injection current are depicted. Not only can the different operating regimes be distinguished attending to the gain, but also to the phase-shift feature. Large phase change is only achieved when the structure is under critical or over-coupled regime.

4. Filter implementation

In order to obtain the maximum tunability range, the center frequency of the filter must be high enough to be phase-shifted up to 360°. Moreover, zero phase imbalance between the minimum and maximum modulating frequency along the filter bandwidth is required to guarantee distortion-free filter transfer function. Therefore, the condition of distortion-free is met as far as all the spectral components within the usable bandwidth experience flat phase response. Attending to these requirements, as a proof-of-concept implementation, a center frequency of 20 GHz and an operating bandwidth of 1 GHz have been chosen, i.e. from 19.5 GHz to 20.5 GHz. However, it does not mean that the technology is frequency-limited up to this range. On one hand, in order to get fully tunability from 0 to 2π, a minimum RF frequency of 18 GHz is required. On the other hand, for the purpose of implementing a distortion-free filter transfer function, flat phase response must experience all the frequency components comprising the usable bandwidth. This requirement can be met for a huge spectral range, at least from 1562.15 to 1563.5 nm according to Fig. 4(a). Therefore, if the usable bandwidth of the filter is accommodated within this broadband spectral range, distortion-free responses will be obtained. Consequently, the maximum operating bandwidth attending to a specific center frequency is completely dictated by the phase slope abruptness of the MDR phase transfer function. Hence, sharpness phase change in the vicinity of the resonance enables the functionality of 2π fully tunable MWP phase shifters starting from lower frequencies. Figure 6
Fig. 6 Normalized frequency response of the MWP tunable filter for different injection currents.
displays the normalized filter frequency response for different injection currents into the MDR. Experimental (symbols) and theoretical (solid lines) results show a good agreement. The small deviations are attributed to reflections in the electrical part of the setup, the residual unwanted sideband in the OSSB modulation and the spontaneous noise. Nearly 2π controllable basic phase shift (∆ϕ) over the operating bandwidth leads to continuously ~100% fractional tuning of the filter response. It is remarkable that each time the phase is changed for the purpose of tuning the response, the VOA must be properly adjusted.

Despite two taps have been considered, the approach can be extrapolated to any arbitrary number of taps. For this purpose, a new arm in the interferometric structure must be inserted when implementing a new tap. Each arm would be composed of a delay line with the corresponding length followed by a MDR and a VOA. Hence, the implementation of N taps involves the use of N−1 MDR acting as phase shifters. It is also important to remark that the tuning range inversely scales with the number of taps. The maximum phase change in this case becomes 2π/(N−1), resulting in maximum tuning ranges over the FSR following FSR/(N−1). Consequently, there exists a trade-off between number of taps and tuning range.

The exploitation of the phase feature provided by ring-type resonators when implementing tunable MWP filters has been previously demonstrated using different schemes based on Si [30

30. J. Lloret, J. Sancho, M. Pu, I. Gasulla, K. Yvind, S. Sales, and J. Capmany, “Tunable complex-valued multi-tap microwave photonic filter based on single silicon-on-insulator microring resonator,” Opt. Express 19(13), 12402–12407 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,31

31. M. Burla, D. Marpaung, L. Zhuang, C. Roeloffzen, M. R. Khan, A. Leinse, M. Hoekman, and R. Heideman, “On-chip CMOS compatible reconfigurable optical delay line with separate carrier tuning for microwave photonic signal processing,” Opt. Express 19(22), 21475–21484 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. However, this approach offers unique properties in the context of tuning speed, which is governed by the fast dynamics in the semiconductor. In order to obtain the tuning speed of the device, the small-signal response S21 was measured by deploying the experimental setup illustrated in Fig. 7(a)
Fig. 7 (a) Experimental setup for measuring the parameter S21 of the III-V/SOI MDR. (b) Small-signal response S21 of the MDR.
. The modulating signal was generated by the VNA electrical output in combination with a DC current source generating 1.5 mA. Both signals were combined by means of a T-bias. The VNA output was swept from 300 MHz to 4 GHz and the average power was set to be null. The input optical power at the MDR input was adjusted to 1 dBm. A −3 dB bandwidth of 1.8 GHz was measured, which means that the current applied can operate up to 1.8 Gbps without using any special driving technique [32

32. Q. Xu, S. Manipatruni, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, “12.5 Gbit/s carrier-injection-based silicon micro-ring silicon modulators,” Opt. Express 15(2), 430–436 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], as shown in Fig. 7(b).

5. Summary and conclusions

A novel ultra-small and low-power broadband MWP phase shifter based on a single III-V/SOI MDR in combination with OSSB modulation has been proposed and demonstrated. Quasi-linear and continuously tunable ~360° phase shifts have been experimentally obtained when considering radiofrequencies greater than 18 GHz. Phase shift tunability is accomplished by modifying the effective index through carrier injection in the III-V layer. As a consequence, the tunability speed is limited by the carrier dynamics in the semiconductor, which is in the scale of hundreds of ps. This fact greatly improves the performance compared to other similar Si-based approaches, in which the thermo-optic effect is used as tunable mechanism. A semi-analytical model has been derived, whose results are in good agreement with the measurements. Finally, the phase shifter is exploited for implementing complex-valued coefficients in tunable MWP filtering schemes. A proof-of-concept implementation involving two taps is demonstrated. Distortion-free and high-bandwidth filter responses with tuning range of ~100% over the FSR have been obtained.

Acknowledgments

The authors wish to acknowledge the technical support given by Rajesh Kumar and Pauline Mechet, as well as the financial support of the European Commission Seventh Framework Programme (FP 7) through the projects GOSPEL, WADIMOS and HISTORIC; the Generalitat Valenciana through the Microwave Photonics research Excellency award programme GVA PROMETEO 2008/092 and also the Plan Nacional I + D TEC2011-29120-C05-05 and TEC2008-06145.

References and links

1.

R. Soref, “The past, present and future of silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1678–1687 (2006). [CrossRef]

2.

W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, P. Dumon, V. Wiaux, S. Beckx, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, J. Van Campenhout, P. Bienstman, and D. Van Thourhout, “Nanophotonic waveguides in silicon-on-insulator fabricated with CMOS technology,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(1), 401–412 (2005). [CrossRef]

3.

G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, R. Nötzel, and M. Smit, “Laser emission and photodetection in an InP/InGaAsP layer integrated on and coupled to a Silicon-on-Insulator waveguide circuit,” Opt. Express 14(18), 8154–8159 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4.

A. W. Fang, H. Park, O. Cohen, R. Jones, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, “Electrically pumped hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent laser,” Opt. Express 14(20), 9203–9210 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

A. W. Fang, R. Jones, H. Park, O. Cohen, O. Raday, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, “Integrated AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent race track laser and photodetector,” Opt. Express 15(5), 2315–2322 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

J. Van Campenhout, P. Rojo Romeo, P. Regreny, C. Seassal, D. Van Thourhout, S. Verstuyft, L. Di Cioccio, J.-M. Fedeli, C. Lagahe, and R. Baets, “Electrically pumped InP-based microdisk lasers integrated with a nanophotonic silicon-on-insulator waveguide circuit,” Opt. Express 15(11), 6744–6749 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

J. Van Campenhout, P. Rojo-Romeo, D. Van Thourhout, C. Seassal, P. Regreny, L. Di Cioccio, J.-M. Fedeli, and R. Baets, “Design and optimization of electrically injected InP-based microdisk lasers integrated on and coupled to a SOI waveguide circuit,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(1), 52–63 (2008). [CrossRef]

8.

L. Liu, T. Spuesens, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, P. Regreny, and P. Rojo-Romeo, “A thermally tunable III-V compound semiconductor microdisk laser integrated on silicon-on-insulator circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(17), 1270–1272 (2010). [CrossRef]

9.

J. Van Campenhout, L. Liu, P. Rojo-Romeo, D. Van Thourhout, C. Seassal, P. Regreny, L. Di Cioccio, J.-M. Fedeli, and R. Baets, “A compact SOI-integrated multiwavelength laser source based on cascaded InP microdisks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(16), 1345–1347 (2008). [CrossRef]

10.

R. Kumar, L. Liu, G. Roelkens, E.-J. Geluk, T. de Vries, F. Karouta, P. Regreny, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, and G. Morthier, “10-GHz all-optical gate based on a III-V/SOI microdisk,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(13), 981–983 (2010). [CrossRef]

11.

D. Van Thourhout, T. Spuesens, S. K. Selvaraja, L. Liu, G. Roelkens, R. Kumar, G. Morthier, P. Rojo-Romeo, F. Mandorlo, P. Regreny, O. Raz, C. Kopp, and L. Grenouillet, “Nanophotonic devices for optical interconnect,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(5), 1363–1375 (2010). [CrossRef]

12.

L. Liu, J. Van Campenhout, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, P. Rojo-Romeo, P. Regreny, C. Seassal, J.-M. Fedeli, and R. Baets, “Ultralow-power all-optical wavelength conversion in a silicon-on-insulator waveguide based on a heterogeneously integrated III-V microdisk laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(6), 061107 (2008). [CrossRef]

13.

R. Kumar, T. Spuesens, P. Mechet, P. Kumar, O. Raz, N. Olivier, J.-M. Fedeli, G. Roelkens, R. Baets, D. Van Thourhout, and G. Morthier, “Ultrafast and bias-free all-optical wavelength conversion using III-V-on-silicon technology,” Opt. Lett. 36(13), 2450–2452 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

areL. Liu, R. Kumar, K. Huybrechts, T. Spuesens, G. Roelkens, E.-J. Geluk, T. de Vries, P. Regreny, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, and G. Morthier, “An ultra-small, low-power, all-optical flip-flop memory on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 4(3), 182–187 (2010). [CrossRef]

15.

L. Liu, J. Van Campenhout, G. Roelkens, R. A. Soref, D. Van Thourhout, P. Rojo-Romeo, P. Regreny, C. Seassal, J.-M. Fédéli, and R. Baets, “Carrier-injection-based electro-optic modulator on silicon-on-insulator with a heterogeneously integrated III-V microdisk cavity,” Opt. Lett. 33(21), 2518–2520 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

16.

A. Seeds, “Microwave photonics,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 50(3), 877–887 (2002). [CrossRef]

17.

J. Capmany and D. Novak, “Microwave photonics combines two worlds,” Nat. Photonics 1(6), 319–330 (2007). [CrossRef]

18.

J. Capmany, B. Ortega, D. Pastor, and S. Sales, “Discrete-time optical processing of microwave signals,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(2), 702–723 (2005). [CrossRef]

19.

J. Capmany, B. Ortega, and D. Pastor, “A tutorial on microwave photonic filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(1), 201–229 (2006). [CrossRef]

20.

R. W. Boyd and D. J. Gauthier, “Slow and fast light,” Prog. Opt. 43, 497–530 (2002). [CrossRef]

21.

T. F. Krauss, “Why do we need slow light?” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 448–450 (2008). [CrossRef]

22.

M. Pu, L. Liu, W. Xue, Y. Ding, L. Hagedorn-Fradsen, H. Ou, K. Yvind, and J. M. Hvam, “Tunable microwave phase shifter based on silicon-on-insulator microring resonator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(12), 869–871 (2010). [CrossRef]

23.

M. Pu, L. Liu, W. Xue, Y. Ding, H. Ou, K. Yvind, J. M. Hvam, and J. M. Hvam, “Widely tunable microwave phase shifter based on silicon-on-insulator dual-microring resonator,” Opt. Express 18(6), 6172–6182 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

24.

J. Cardenas, M. A. Foster, N. Sherwood-Droz, C. B. Poitras, H. L. R. Lira, B. Zhang, A. L. Gaeta, J. B. Khurgin, P. Morton, and M. Lipson, “Wide-bandwidth continuously tunable optical delay line using silicon microring resonators,” Opt. Express 18(25), 26525–26534 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

25.

J. D. Doménech, P. Muñoz, and J. Capmany, “Transmission and group-delay characterization of coupled resonator optical waveguides apodized through the longitudinal offset technique,” Opt. Lett. 36(2), 136–138 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

26.

P. A. Morton and J. B. Khurgin, “Microwave photonic delay line with separate tuning of the optical carrier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(22), 869–871 (2009). [CrossRef]

27.

R. L. Espinola, M. C. Tsai, J. T. Yardley, and R. M. Osgood, “Fast and low-power thermooptic switch on thin silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(10), 1366–1368 (2003). [CrossRef]

28.

M. Sagues, R. García Olcina, A. Loayssa, S. Sales, and J. Capmany, “Multi-tap complex-coefficient incoherent microwave photonic filters based on optical single-sideband modulation and narrow band optical filtering,” Opt. Express 16(1), 295–303 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

29.

Y. Chen, W. Xue, F. Öhman, and J. Mork, “Theory of optical-filtering enhanced slow and fast light effects in semiconductor optical waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(23), 3734–3743 (2008). [CrossRef]

30.

J. Lloret, J. Sancho, M. Pu, I. Gasulla, K. Yvind, S. Sales, and J. Capmany, “Tunable complex-valued multi-tap microwave photonic filter based on single silicon-on-insulator microring resonator,” Opt. Express 19(13), 12402–12407 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

31.

M. Burla, D. Marpaung, L. Zhuang, C. Roeloffzen, M. R. Khan, A. Leinse, M. Hoekman, and R. Heideman, “On-chip CMOS compatible reconfigurable optical delay line with separate carrier tuning for microwave photonic signal processing,” Opt. Express 19(22), 21475–21484 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

32.

Q. Xu, S. Manipatruni, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, “12.5 Gbit/s carrier-injection-based silicon micro-ring silicon modulators,” Opt. Express 15(2), 430–436 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

OCIS Codes
(070.1170) Fourier optics and signal processing : Analog optical signal processing
(130.3120) Integrated optics : Integrated optics devices
(230.5750) Optical devices : Resonators

ToC Category:
Integrated Optics

History
Original Manuscript: February 8, 2012
Revised Manuscript: April 12, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: April 16, 2012
Published: April 25, 2012

Citation
Juan Lloret, Geert Morthier, Francisco Ramos, Salvador Sales, Dries Van Thourhout, Thijs Spuesens, Nicolas Olivier, Jean-Marc Fédéli, and José Capmany, "Broadband microwave photonic fully tunable filter using a single heterogeneously integrated III-V/SOI-microdisk-based phase shifter," Opt. Express 20, 10796-10806 (2012)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-20-10-10796


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. R. Soref, “The past, present and future of silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(6), 1678–1687 (2006). [CrossRef]
  2. W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, P. Dumon, V. Wiaux, S. Beckx, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, J. Van Campenhout, P. Bienstman, and D. Van Thourhout, “Nanophotonic waveguides in silicon-on-insulator fabricated with CMOS technology,” J. Lightwave Technol.23(1), 401–412 (2005). [CrossRef]
  3. G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, R. Nötzel, and M. Smit, “Laser emission and photodetection in an InP/InGaAsP layer integrated on and coupled to a Silicon-on-Insulator waveguide circuit,” Opt. Express14(18), 8154–8159 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. A. W. Fang, H. Park, O. Cohen, R. Jones, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, “Electrically pumped hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent laser,” Opt. Express14(20), 9203–9210 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. A. W. Fang, R. Jones, H. Park, O. Cohen, O. Raday, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, “Integrated AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent race track laser and photodetector,” Opt. Express15(5), 2315–2322 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. Van Campenhout, P. Rojo Romeo, P. Regreny, C. Seassal, D. Van Thourhout, S. Verstuyft, L. Di Cioccio, J.-M. Fedeli, C. Lagahe, and R. Baets, “Electrically pumped InP-based microdisk lasers integrated with a nanophotonic silicon-on-insulator waveguide circuit,” Opt. Express15(11), 6744–6749 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. Van Campenhout, P. Rojo-Romeo, D. Van Thourhout, C. Seassal, P. Regreny, L. Di Cioccio, J.-M. Fedeli, and R. Baets, “Design and optimization of electrically injected InP-based microdisk lasers integrated on and coupled to a SOI waveguide circuit,” J. Lightwave Technol.26(1), 52–63 (2008). [CrossRef]
  8. L. Liu, T. Spuesens, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, P. Regreny, and P. Rojo-Romeo, “A thermally tunable III-V compound semiconductor microdisk laser integrated on silicon-on-insulator circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(17), 1270–1272 (2010). [CrossRef]
  9. J. Van Campenhout, L. Liu, P. Rojo-Romeo, D. Van Thourhout, C. Seassal, P. Regreny, L. Di Cioccio, J.-M. Fedeli, and R. Baets, “A compact SOI-integrated multiwavelength laser source based on cascaded InP microdisks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(16), 1345–1347 (2008). [CrossRef]
  10. R. Kumar, L. Liu, G. Roelkens, E.-J. Geluk, T. de Vries, F. Karouta, P. Regreny, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, and G. Morthier, “10-GHz all-optical gate based on a III-V/SOI microdisk,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(13), 981–983 (2010). [CrossRef]
  11. D. Van Thourhout, T. Spuesens, S. K. Selvaraja, L. Liu, G. Roelkens, R. Kumar, G. Morthier, P. Rojo-Romeo, F. Mandorlo, P. Regreny, O. Raz, C. Kopp, and L. Grenouillet, “Nanophotonic devices for optical interconnect,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(5), 1363–1375 (2010). [CrossRef]
  12. L. Liu, J. Van Campenhout, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, P. Rojo-Romeo, P. Regreny, C. Seassal, J.-M. Fedeli, and R. Baets, “Ultralow-power all-optical wavelength conversion in a silicon-on-insulator waveguide based on a heterogeneously integrated III-V microdisk laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(6), 061107 (2008). [CrossRef]
  13. R. Kumar, T. Spuesens, P. Mechet, P. Kumar, O. Raz, N. Olivier, J.-M. Fedeli, G. Roelkens, R. Baets, D. Van Thourhout, and G. Morthier, “Ultrafast and bias-free all-optical wavelength conversion using III-V-on-silicon technology,” Opt. Lett.36(13), 2450–2452 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. areL. Liu, R. Kumar, K. Huybrechts, T. Spuesens, G. Roelkens, E.-J. Geluk, T. de Vries, P. Regreny, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, and G. Morthier, “An ultra-small, low-power, all-optical flip-flop memory on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics4(3), 182–187 (2010). [CrossRef]
  15. L. Liu, J. Van Campenhout, G. Roelkens, R. A. Soref, D. Van Thourhout, P. Rojo-Romeo, P. Regreny, C. Seassal, J.-M. Fédéli, and R. Baets, “Carrier-injection-based electro-optic modulator on silicon-on-insulator with a heterogeneously integrated III-V microdisk cavity,” Opt. Lett.33(21), 2518–2520 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. A. Seeds, “Microwave photonics,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.50(3), 877–887 (2002). [CrossRef]
  17. J. Capmany and D. Novak, “Microwave photonics combines two worlds,” Nat. Photonics1(6), 319–330 (2007). [CrossRef]
  18. J. Capmany, B. Ortega, D. Pastor, and S. Sales, “Discrete-time optical processing of microwave signals,” J. Lightwave Technol.23(2), 702–723 (2005). [CrossRef]
  19. J. Capmany, B. Ortega, and D. Pastor, “A tutorial on microwave photonic filters,” J. Lightwave Technol.24(1), 201–229 (2006). [CrossRef]
  20. R. W. Boyd and D. J. Gauthier, “Slow and fast light,” Prog. Opt.43, 497–530 (2002). [CrossRef]
  21. T. F. Krauss, “Why do we need slow light?” Nat. Photonics2(8), 448–450 (2008). [CrossRef]
  22. M. Pu, L. Liu, W. Xue, Y. Ding, L. Hagedorn-Fradsen, H. Ou, K. Yvind, and J. M. Hvam, “Tunable microwave phase shifter based on silicon-on-insulator microring resonator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(12), 869–871 (2010). [CrossRef]
  23. M. Pu, L. Liu, W. Xue, Y. Ding, H. Ou, K. Yvind, J. M. Hvam, and J. M. Hvam, “Widely tunable microwave phase shifter based on silicon-on-insulator dual-microring resonator,” Opt. Express18(6), 6172–6182 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. J. Cardenas, M. A. Foster, N. Sherwood-Droz, C. B. Poitras, H. L. R. Lira, B. Zhang, A. L. Gaeta, J. B. Khurgin, P. Morton, and M. Lipson, “Wide-bandwidth continuously tunable optical delay line using silicon microring resonators,” Opt. Express18(25), 26525–26534 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. J. D. Doménech, P. Muñoz, and J. Capmany, “Transmission and group-delay characterization of coupled resonator optical waveguides apodized through the longitudinal offset technique,” Opt. Lett.36(2), 136–138 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. P. A. Morton and J. B. Khurgin, “Microwave photonic delay line with separate tuning of the optical carrier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(22), 869–871 (2009). [CrossRef]
  27. R. L. Espinola, M. C. Tsai, J. T. Yardley, and R. M. Osgood, “Fast and low-power thermooptic switch on thin silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.15(10), 1366–1368 (2003). [CrossRef]
  28. M. Sagues, R. García Olcina, A. Loayssa, S. Sales, and J. Capmany, “Multi-tap complex-coefficient incoherent microwave photonic filters based on optical single-sideband modulation and narrow band optical filtering,” Opt. Express16(1), 295–303 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. Y. Chen, W. Xue, F. Öhman, and J. Mork, “Theory of optical-filtering enhanced slow and fast light effects in semiconductor optical waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol.26(23), 3734–3743 (2008). [CrossRef]
  30. J. Lloret, J. Sancho, M. Pu, I. Gasulla, K. Yvind, S. Sales, and J. Capmany, “Tunable complex-valued multi-tap microwave photonic filter based on single silicon-on-insulator microring resonator,” Opt. Express19(13), 12402–12407 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. M. Burla, D. Marpaung, L. Zhuang, C. Roeloffzen, M. R. Khan, A. Leinse, M. Hoekman, and R. Heideman, “On-chip CMOS compatible reconfigurable optical delay line with separate carrier tuning for microwave photonic signal processing,” Opt. Express19(22), 21475–21484 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. Q. Xu, S. Manipatruni, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, “12.5 Gbit/s carrier-injection-based silicon micro-ring silicon modulators,” Opt. Express15(2), 430–436 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited