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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 20, Iss. 11 — May. 21, 2012
  • pp: 11710–11717
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Phase-modulated radio over fiber multimode links

Ivana Gasulla and José Capmany  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 20, Issue 11, pp. 11710-11717 (2012)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.20.011710


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Abstract

We present the first experimental demonstration of a phase-modulated MMF link implementing high-frequency digital transmission in a cost-effective solution based on direct detection. Successful subcarrier transmission of QPSK, 16-QAM and 64-QAM data channels for bit rates up to 120 Mb/s through a 5 km MMF link is achieved over the microwave region comprised between 6 and 20 GHz. The overall capacity of the proposed approach can be further increased by properly accommodating more passband channels in the operative frequency range determined by the phase-to-intensity conversion process provided by the dispersive nature of the optical fiber. In this sense, our results show the possibility of achieving an aggregate bit rate per length product of 144 Gb/s·km and confirm, in consequence, the possibility of broadband phase-modulated radio over fiber transmission through MMF links suitable for multichannel SCM signal distribution.

© 2012 OSA

1. Introduction

Up to date, all the approaches oriented to enhance the transmission bandwidth in MMF networks were based on conventional intensity modulated (IM) architectures. However, phase modulation microwave photonic (PM-MWP) links can bring many advantages in comparison with IM links since phase modulators can provide a higher degree of linearity and do not require active bias control circuitry [10

10. V. J. Urick, F. Bucholtz, P. S. Devgan, J. D. McKinney, and K. J. Williams, “Phase modulation with interferometric detection as an alternative to intensity modulation with direct detection for analog-photonic links,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 55(9), 1978–1985 (2007). [CrossRef]

14

14. J. Zhang and T. E. Darcie, “Low-biased microwave-photonic link using optical frequency or phase modulation and fiber-Bragg-grating discriminator,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Anaheim, USA, 2006), OWG1.

]. In addition, multichannel systems can benefit from less crosstalk due to nonlinearities when applying constant-intensity phase modulation (PM) while improvements on the noise level or system linearity can be achieved by properly designing the optical filter discriminator required for phase-to-intensity conversion in some PM-MWP architectures. While traditional demodulation systems were based on coherent detection or feedback loops, the search for simplified phase-to-intensity conversion solutions employing square-low photodetectors has recently led to the proposal of the inclusion of dispersive devices as Fiber Bragg gratings [14

14. J. Zhang and T. E. Darcie, “Low-biased microwave-photonic link using optical frequency or phase modulation and fiber-Bragg-grating discriminator,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Anaheim, USA, 2006), OWG1.

], post-modulation optical carrier filtering, balanced [10

10. V. J. Urick, F. Bucholtz, P. S. Devgan, J. D. McKinney, and K. J. Williams, “Phase modulation with interferometric detection as an alternative to intensity modulation with direct detection for analog-photonic links,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 55(9), 1978–1985 (2007). [CrossRef]

] or unbalanced [13

13. M. J. LaGasse and S. Thaniyavaru, “Bias-free high-dynamic-range phase-modulated fiber-optic link,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(5), 681–683 (1997). [CrossRef]

] interferometric detection systems, as well as optical frequency discriminators for dynamic range enhancement in either frequency [15

15. J. M. Wyrwas and M. C. Wu, “Wu, “Dynamic range of frequency modulated direct-detection analog fiber optic links,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(24), 5552–5562 (2009). [CrossRef]

,16

16. T. E. Darcie, J. Zhang, P. F. Driessen, and J.-J. Eun, “Class-B microwave-photonic link using optical frequency modulation and linear frequency discriminators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(1), 157–164 (2007). [CrossRef]

] or phase modulated [12

12. D. Marpaung, C. Roeloffzen, A. Leinse, and M. Hoekman, “A photonic chip based frequency discriminator for a high performance microwave photonic link,” Opt. Express 18(26), 27359–27370 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] links. Although the implementation of these techniques in access networks results in a potential cost reduction, a deeper reduction in complexity can be achieved if we take advantage of the frequency response of phase modulated 2nd-order dispersive fiber links derived from the carrier suppression effect (CSE) at regions far from baseband [11

11. H. Chi, X. Zou, and J. Yao, “Analytical models for phase-modulation-based microwave photonic systems with phase modulation to intensity modulation conversion using a dispersive device,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(5), 511–521 (2009). [CrossRef]

].

2. Experimental results and discussion

With the purpose of evaluating the impact of the electrical subcarrier frequency on the quality of the demodulated signal, we analysed the digital space constellations of the measured In-phase/Quadrature polar vector for the channel frequencies of 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18 and 20 GHz. The EVM is a common quality metric widely used in digital communication systems that relates the performance of the actual waveform compared to an ideal signal as calculated over the course of the ideal constellation. The resorted signal analyzer provides the RMS value of the EVM over time at the instants of the symbol clock transitions:
EVM(%)=PerrorPreference100%
(4)
where Perror is the RMS power of the error vector and Preference is the RMS power of the ideal transmitted signal. Here the maximum IEEE 802.11 allowed EVM values of 12.5% for QPSK, 11.2% for 16-QAM and 5.6% for 64-QAM data are assumed as standard criteria for signal quality evaluation.

3. Practical considerations

4. Conclusions

Acknowledgments

The authors wish to acknowledge the financial support given by the Research Excellency Award Program GVA PROMETEO 2008/092.

References and links

1.

H. R. Stuart, “Dispersive multiplexing in multimode optical fiber,” Science 289(5477), 281–283 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2.

M. G. Larrode, A. M. J. Koonen, J. J. V. Olmos, and A. Ng’Oma, “Bidirectional radio-over-fiber link employing optical frequency multiplication,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(1), 241–243 (2006). [CrossRef]

3.

R. Shah, R. C. J. Hsu, A. Tarighat, A. H. Sayed, and B. Jalali, “Coherent optical MIMO (COMIMO),” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(8), 2410–2419 (2005). [CrossRef]

4.

E. J. Tyler, P. Kourtessis, M. Webster, E. Rochart, T. Quinlan, S. E. M. Dudley, S. D. Walker, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “Toward terabit-per-second capacities over multimode fiber links using SCM/WDM techniques,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21(12), 3237–3243 (2003). [CrossRef]

5.

J. M. Tang, P. M. Lane, and K. A. Shore, “Transmission performance of adaptively modulated optical OFDM signals in multimode fiber links,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(1), 205–207 (2006). [CrossRef]

6.

I. Gasulla and J. Capmany, “1 Tb/s x km multimode fiber link combining WDM transmission and low-linewidth lasers,” Opt. Express 16(11), 8033–8038 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

P. Hartmann and A. Xin Qian, Wonfor, R. V. Penty, and I. H White, “1-20 GHz directly modulated radio over MMF link,” in Proceedings of IEEE Microwave Photonics MWP2005, (Seoul, South Korea, 2005), 95–98.

8.

I. Gasulla and J. Capmany, “High-frequency radio over fibre QPSK transmission through a 5 km multimode fibre link,” in Proceedings of 33rd European Conference on Optical Communication, (Berlin, Germany, 2007), 2 pp.

9.

D. H. Sim, Y. Takushima, and Y. C. Chung, “Transmission of 10-Gb/s and 40-Gb/s signals over 3.7 km of multimode fiber using mode-field matched center launching technique,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference 2007, (Anaheim, USA, 2007), OTuL3.

10.

V. J. Urick, F. Bucholtz, P. S. Devgan, J. D. McKinney, and K. J. Williams, “Phase modulation with interferometric detection as an alternative to intensity modulation with direct detection for analog-photonic links,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 55(9), 1978–1985 (2007). [CrossRef]

11.

H. Chi, X. Zou, and J. Yao, “Analytical models for phase-modulation-based microwave photonic systems with phase modulation to intensity modulation conversion using a dispersive device,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(5), 511–521 (2009). [CrossRef]

12.

D. Marpaung, C. Roeloffzen, A. Leinse, and M. Hoekman, “A photonic chip based frequency discriminator for a high performance microwave photonic link,” Opt. Express 18(26), 27359–27370 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

M. J. LaGasse and S. Thaniyavaru, “Bias-free high-dynamic-range phase-modulated fiber-optic link,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(5), 681–683 (1997). [CrossRef]

14.

J. Zhang and T. E. Darcie, “Low-biased microwave-photonic link using optical frequency or phase modulation and fiber-Bragg-grating discriminator,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Anaheim, USA, 2006), OWG1.

15.

J. M. Wyrwas and M. C. Wu, “Wu, “Dynamic range of frequency modulated direct-detection analog fiber optic links,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(24), 5552–5562 (2009). [CrossRef]

16.

T. E. Darcie, J. Zhang, P. F. Driessen, and J.-J. Eun, “Class-B microwave-photonic link using optical frequency modulation and linear frequency discriminators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(1), 157–164 (2007). [CrossRef]

17.

I. Gasulla and J. Capmany, “Transfer function of multimode fiber links using an electric field propagation model: Application to Radio over Fibre Systems,” Opt. Express 14(20), 9051–9070 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18.

I. Gasulla and J. Capmany, “Analytical model and figures of merit for filtered Microwave Photonic Links,” Opt. Express 19(20), 19758–19774 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

19.

D. Visani, G. Tartarini, M. N. Petersen, L. Tarlazzi, and P. Faccin, “Link design rules for cost-effective short-range radio over multimode fiber systems,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 58(11), 3144–3153 (2010). [CrossRef]

20.

G. Alcaro, D. Visani, L. Tarlazzi, P. Faccin, and G. Tartarini, “Distortion mechanisms originating from modal noise in radio over multimode fiber links,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 60(1), 185–194 (2012). [CrossRef]

21.

R. A. Shafik, S. Rahman, and A. Islam, “On the extended relationships among EVM, BER and SNR as performance metrics,” in Proceedings of International Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering, (Dhaka, Bangladesh, 2006), 408–411.

22.

I. Gasulla and J. Capmany, “Analysis of the harmonic and intermodulation distortion in a multimode fiber optic link,” Opt. Express 15(15), 9366–9371 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

23.

I. Gasulla and J. Capmany, “Simultaneous baseband and radio over fiber signal transmission over a 5 km MMF link,” in Proceedings of IEEE Microwave Photonics MWP2008, (Goald Coast, Australia, 2008), 209–212.

OCIS Codes
(060.2330) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics communications
(060.2360) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics links and subsystems
(060.5060) Fiber optics and optical communications : Phase modulation
(060.5625) Fiber optics and optical communications : Radio frequency photonics

ToC Category:
Fiber Optics and Optical Communications

History
Original Manuscript: January 30, 2012
Revised Manuscript: April 12, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: April 18, 2012
Published: May 9, 2012

Citation
Ivana Gasulla and José Capmany, "Phase-modulated radio over fiber multimode links," Opt. Express 20, 11710-11717 (2012)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-20-11-11710


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References

  1. H. R. Stuart, “Dispersive multiplexing in multimode optical fiber,” Science289(5477), 281–283 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. G. Larrode, A. M. J. Koonen, J. J. V. Olmos, and A. Ng’Oma, “Bidirectional radio-over-fiber link employing optical frequency multiplication,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(1), 241–243 (2006). [CrossRef]
  3. R. Shah, R. C. J. Hsu, A. Tarighat, A. H. Sayed, and B. Jalali, “Coherent optical MIMO (COMIMO),” J. Lightwave Technol.23(8), 2410–2419 (2005). [CrossRef]
  4. E. J. Tyler, P. Kourtessis, M. Webster, E. Rochart, T. Quinlan, S. E. M. Dudley, S. D. Walker, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “Toward terabit-per-second capacities over multimode fiber links using SCM/WDM techniques,” J. Lightwave Technol.21(12), 3237–3243 (2003). [CrossRef]
  5. J. M. Tang, P. M. Lane, and K. A. Shore, “Transmission performance of adaptively modulated optical OFDM signals in multimode fiber links,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(1), 205–207 (2006). [CrossRef]
  6. I. Gasulla and J. Capmany, “1 Tb/s x km multimode fiber link combining WDM transmission and low-linewidth lasers,” Opt. Express16(11), 8033–8038 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. P. Hartmann and A. Xin Qian, Wonfor, R. V. Penty, and I. H White, “1-20 GHz directly modulated radio over MMF link,” in Proceedings of IEEE Microwave Photonics MWP2005, (Seoul, South Korea, 2005), 95–98.
  8. I. Gasulla and J. Capmany, “High-frequency radio over fibre QPSK transmission through a 5 km multimode fibre link,” in Proceedings of 33rd European Conference on Optical Communication, (Berlin, Germany, 2007), 2 pp.
  9. D. H. Sim, Y. Takushima, and Y. C. Chung, “Transmission of 10-Gb/s and 40-Gb/s signals over 3.7 km of multimode fiber using mode-field matched center launching technique,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference 2007, (Anaheim, USA, 2007), OTuL3.
  10. V. J. Urick, F. Bucholtz, P. S. Devgan, J. D. McKinney, and K. J. Williams, “Phase modulation with interferometric detection as an alternative to intensity modulation with direct detection for analog-photonic links,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.55(9), 1978–1985 (2007). [CrossRef]
  11. H. Chi, X. Zou, and J. Yao, “Analytical models for phase-modulation-based microwave photonic systems with phase modulation to intensity modulation conversion using a dispersive device,” J. Lightwave Technol.27(5), 511–521 (2009). [CrossRef]
  12. D. Marpaung, C. Roeloffzen, A. Leinse, and M. Hoekman, “A photonic chip based frequency discriminator for a high performance microwave photonic link,” Opt. Express18(26), 27359–27370 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. M. J. LaGasse and S. Thaniyavaru, “Bias-free high-dynamic-range phase-modulated fiber-optic link,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.9(5), 681–683 (1997). [CrossRef]
  14. J. Zhang and T. E. Darcie, “Low-biased microwave-photonic link using optical frequency or phase modulation and fiber-Bragg-grating discriminator,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Anaheim, USA, 2006), OWG1.
  15. J. M. Wyrwas and M. C. Wu, “Wu, “Dynamic range of frequency modulated direct-detection analog fiber optic links,” J. Lightwave Technol.27(24), 5552–5562 (2009). [CrossRef]
  16. T. E. Darcie, J. Zhang, P. F. Driessen, and J.-J. Eun, “Class-B microwave-photonic link using optical frequency modulation and linear frequency discriminators,” J. Lightwave Technol.25(1), 157–164 (2007). [CrossRef]
  17. I. Gasulla and J. Capmany, “Transfer function of multimode fiber links using an electric field propagation model: Application to Radio over Fibre Systems,” Opt. Express14(20), 9051–9070 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. I. Gasulla and J. Capmany, “Analytical model and figures of merit for filtered Microwave Photonic Links,” Opt. Express19(20), 19758–19774 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. D. Visani, G. Tartarini, M. N. Petersen, L. Tarlazzi, and P. Faccin, “Link design rules for cost-effective short-range radio over multimode fiber systems,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.58(11), 3144–3153 (2010). [CrossRef]
  20. G. Alcaro, D. Visani, L. Tarlazzi, P. Faccin, and G. Tartarini, “Distortion mechanisms originating from modal noise in radio over multimode fiber links,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.60(1), 185–194 (2012). [CrossRef]
  21. R. A. Shafik, S. Rahman, and A. Islam, “On the extended relationships among EVM, BER and SNR as performance metrics,” in Proceedings of International Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering, (Dhaka, Bangladesh, 2006), 408–411.
  22. I. Gasulla and J. Capmany, “Analysis of the harmonic and intermodulation distortion in a multimode fiber optic link,” Opt. Express15(15), 9366–9371 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. I. Gasulla and J. Capmany, “Simultaneous baseband and radio over fiber signal transmission over a 5 km MMF link,” in Proceedings of IEEE Microwave Photonics MWP2008, (Goald Coast, Australia, 2008), 209–212.

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