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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 20, Iss. 12 — Jun. 4, 2012
  • pp: 12640–12648
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Novel design of solar cell efficiency improvement using an embedded electron accelerator on-chip

Itsara Srithanachai, Surada Ueamanapong, Surasak Niemcharoen, and Preecha P Yupapin  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 20, Issue 12, pp. 12640-12648 (2012)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.20.012640


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Abstract

In this paper, we propose a novel design of an electron accelerator on-chip by using a small scale device known as a PANDA microring resonator, which can be embedded within the solar cell device, where the trapped electron can be accelerated and moved faster to the final destination. Therefore, the solar cell efficiency can be improved. In principle, a PANDA microring can generate the optical tweezers for hole tapping and transportation. The transported holes can be accelerated and moved via the optical waveguide to the solar cell device contact, where the effect of defects in silicon bulk can be solved. Therefore, this technique can be used to improve the solar cells performance. In practice, the accelerator unit can be embedded within the solar cell device, which allows the trapped holes moving to the required destination. This is claimed to be a novel technique by using a PANDA microring to accelerate the holes for solar cell performance improvement. Finally, this technique is the starting point of using a PANDA microring to enhance the performance of semiconductor device.

© 2012 OSA

1. Introduction

Energy has been an important issue of the world for half a century, where the most of energies are come from coal and oil. Moreover, the pollutions are increased due to the burning process of coal and oil [1

1. R. K. Tiwary and B. B. Dhar, “Environmental pollution from coal mining activities in damodar river basin, India,” Mine Water Environ. 13, 1–10 (1994).

4

4. R. Lagring, S. Degraer, G. de Montpellier, T. Jacques, W. Van Roy, and R. Schallier, “Twenty years of Belgian North Sea aerial surveillance: a quantitative analysis of results confirms effectiveness of international oil pollution legislation,” Mar. Pollut. Bull. 64(3), 644–652 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Nuclear power plant is the other way to generate energy. This technique can produce the electrical energy using the heat of nuclear reaction, instead burning of coal and oil. On the other hand, the nuclear reaction is very dangerous because the accidents in nuclear reactions are distribution of radioactivity. Green energy is the better choice more than burning of coal, oil and nuclear reaction. The green energy can generate electrical energy from many ways such as water, wind and sunlight. Although, the green energy from wind and water can be used to substitute the energy from burning energy, however, the differences of depreciation of landscapes and weather to electrical generate from wind and water are less than the sunlight.

A solar cell is the device for changing the sunlight to electrical energy. Although, the solar cells are important for green energy generation, on the other hand, the performance of the device is not high enough because there are many problems. The developments of solar cells are still continuously needed. Generally, the solar cell performance is caused by many problems such as the reflection of surface [5

5. K. S. Han, J. H. Shin, W. Y. Yoon, and H. Lee, “Enhanced performance of solar cells with anti-reflection layer fabricated by nano-imprint lithography,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(1), 288–291 (2011). [CrossRef]

], silicon bulk defects [6

6. A. Ali, T. Gouveas, M. A. Hasan, S. H. Zaidi, and M. Asghar, “Influence of deep level defects on the performance of crystalline silicon solar cells: Experimental and simulation study,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(10), 2805–2810 (2011). [CrossRef]

,7

7. D. M. Tsai, S. C. Wu, and W. C. Li, “Defect detection of solar cells in electroluminescence imange using fourier image reconstruction,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 99, 250–262 (2012). [CrossRef]

]. To solve the reflection problem on the surface, there are many ways such as adjust the surface of solar cells angle to ability for obtaining most of sunlight [8

8. K. Mukhopadhyay, S. D. Datta, and H. Saha, “Dependence of efficiency on slat angles of microgrooved solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 30, 1717–1722 (2010).

,9

9. S. Beringer, H. Schilke, I. Lohse, and G. Seckmeyer, “Case study showing that the tilt angle of photovoltaic plants is nearly irrelevant,” Sol. Energy 85(3), 470–476 (2011). [CrossRef]

]. Furthermore, the solar cell production is used high cost and not worth investment, where we found that the defect in silicon bulk is the important problem for solar cell performance decreasing because the electron and hole are recombined by trapping or defecting in silicon bulk. To solve this problem, several research works proposed the methods of modified bulk and heterojunction [10

10. N. Sun, G. Fang, P. Qin, Q. Zheng, M. Wang, X. Fan, F. Cheng, J. Wan, and X. Zhao, “Bulk heterojunction solar cells with NiO hole transporting layer based on AZO anode,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(12), 2328–2331 (2010). [CrossRef]

,11

11. J. Hagen, W. Schaffrath, P. Otschik, R. Fink, A. Bacher, H. W. Schmidt, and D. Haarer, “Novel hybrid solar cells consisting of inorganic nanoparticles and an organic hole transport material,” Synth. Met. 89(3), 215–220 (1997). [CrossRef]

] and control hole transport in silicon bulk to contact [12

12. G. S. Kousik and J. G. Fossum, “P+-n-n+ solar cells with hole diffusion lengths comparable with the base width: A simple analytic model,” Sol. cells 5, 75–79 (1981).

]. Therefore, this work presents the use of a PANDA microring resonator to improve the solar cells performance, in which the trapped holes can be controlled and faster transport to the required destination.

However, the use of a PANDA microring resonator is a new system, which has been proposed by the Suwanpayak et al [13

13. N. Suwanpayak, M. A. Jalil, C. Teeka, J. Ali, and P. P. Yupapin, “Optical vortices generated by a PANDA ring resonator for drug trapping and delivery applications,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(1), 159–168 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. By using the optical tweezer, the solar cell efficiency can be increased. The optical tweezers are generated by a PANDA microring, which can be used to accelerate and move electron and hole via the optical waveguide to the solar cell device contact. By using this technique, hole can transport to the contact without recombination in silicon bulk, therefore, the current of solar cell is increased. Moreover, the use of a PANDA microring is also founded in many applications such as photonic microdevice [14

14. M. Sumetsky, D. J. DiGiovanni, Y. Dulashko, J. M. Fini, X. Liu, E. M. Monberg, and T. F. Taunay, “Surface nanoscale axial photonics: robust fabrication of high-quality-factor microresonators,” Opt. Lett. 36(24), 4824–4826 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], hybrid transistor [15

15. N. Suwanpayak, C. Teeka, and P. P. Yupapin, “Hybrid transistor manipulation controlled by light,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 53, 2533–2537 (2011).

], therapeutic applications [16

16. M. S. Aziz, N. Suwanpayak, M. A. Jalil, R. Jomtarak, T. Saktioto, J. Ali, and P. P. Yupapin, “Gold nanoparticle trapping and delivery for therapeutic applications,” Int. J. Nanomedicine 7, 11–17 (2012). [PubMed]

], and telephone networks [17

17. P. P. Yupapin, “Generalized quantum key distribution via micro ring resonator for mobile telephone networks,” Optik (Stuttg.) 121(5), 422–425 (2010). [CrossRef]

]. In this paper, the trapping tool generation is reviewed and the new design system for particle accelerator described. Finally, simulation results using the commercial MATLAB is demonstrated, where all parameters were used closely to the practical fabricated device.

2. Particle trapping principle

A novel system of the P-N diode using a PANDA microring resonator was proposed by the authors in reference [13

13. N. Suwanpayak, M. A. Jalil, C. Teeka, J. Ali, and P. P. Yupapin, “Optical vortices generated by a PANDA ring resonator for drug trapping and delivery applications,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(1), 159–168 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. By using a dark-bright soliton pulses propagating within a modified add/drop optical multiplexer (PANDA microring), the trapping tools can be formed, which can be used to trap molecules/atoms. Inthis work, the multiplexed signals with slightly different wavelengths of the dark solitons are controlled and amplified within the system. The dynamic behaviors of dark bright soliton interaction are also analyzed and described. Finally, the use of optical switching to form a P-N photodetector using the Gaussian control at the add port is discussed in detail.

We are looking for a stationary dark soliton pulse, which is introduced into the add/drop optical filter system as shown in Fig. 1
Fig. 1 A PANDA microring resonator
. The input optical field (Ein) and the add port optical field (Eadd) of the dark, bright soliton or Gaussian pulses are given by [18

18. S. Mitatha, N. Pornsuwancharoen, and P. P. Yupapin, “A simultaneous short-wave and millimeter-wave generation using a soliton pulse within a nano-waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(13), 932–934 (2009). [CrossRef]

].
Ein(t)=Atanh[TT0]exp[(z2LD)iω0t],
(1a)
Ein(t)=Asech[TT0]exp[(z2LD)iω0t],
(1b)
Eadd(t)=E0exp[(z2LD)iω0t],
(1c)
Here A0 and zare the optical field amplitude and propagation distance, respectively. T=tβ1z,where β1 and β2 are the coefficients of the linear and second-order terms of Taylor expansion of the propagation constant. LD=T02/|B2|is the dispersion length of the soliton pulse. T0 in Eq. is a soliton pulse propagation time at initial input (or soliton pulse width), where t is the soliton phase shift time, and the frequency shift of the soliton is ω0. The optical fields of the system within the device as shown in Fig. 1 are obtained and expressed in following forms.
n=n0+n2I=n0=(n2Aeff)P,
(2)
E1=jκi+τ1E4,
(3)
E2=exp(jωT2)exp(αL4)E1,
(4)
E3=τ2E2jκ2E1,
(5)
E4=exp(jωT2)exp(αL4)E3,
(6)
Et=τtEijκ1E4,
(7)
Ed=τ2Eajκ2E2,
(8)
Here Ei is the input field, Ea is the add(control) field, Et is the through field, Edis the drop field, E1E4 are the fields in the ring at points 1…4, κ1is the field coupling coefficient between the input bus and ring, κ2 is the field coupling coefficient between the ring and output bus,L is the circumference of the ring, Tis the time taken for one round trip(roundtrip time), and α is the power loss in the ring per unit length. We assume that this is the lossless coupling, i.e., τ1,2=1κ1,22,T=Lneffc.

The output intensities at the drop and through ports are given by
|Ed|2=|κ1κ2A1,2Φ1/21τ1τ2AΦEi+τ2τ1AΦ1τ1τ2AΦEa|,
(9)
|Et|2=|τ2τ1AΦ1τ1τ2AΦEi+κ1κ2A1,2Φ1/21τ1τ2AΦEa|,
(10)
Here A1/2=exp(αL4) the half-round-trip amplitude), A=A1,22, Φ1/2exp(jωT2) (the half-round-trip phase contribution), and Φ=Φ1/22.

To form the broad soliton spectrum output, two nonlinear ring resonators are introduced. The circulated roundtrip light fields of the right ring radii, Rr, are given in Eq. (11) and (12), respectively [19

19. T. Phatharaworamet, C. Teeka, R. Jomtarak, S. Mitatha, and P. P. Yupapin, “Random binary code generation using dark-bright soliton conversion control within a PANDA ring resonator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(19), 2804–2809 (2010). [CrossRef]

].
Er1=j1γκ0E111γ1κ0eα2L1jκnL1,
(11)
Er2=j1γκ0E1eα2L1jκnL111γ1κ0eα2L1jκnL1,
(12)
Thus, the output circulated light field, E0, for the right ring is given by
E0=1γ(1κ0)(1γ)eα2L1jκnL111γ1κ0eα2L1jκnL1,
(13)
Similarly, the output circulated light field, E0L, for the left ring at the left side of the add/drop optical multiplexing system is given by
E0L=E3(1γ3(1κ3)(1γ3)eα2L2jκnL211γ31κ3eα2L2jκnL2),
(14)
Where κ3is the intensity coupling coefficient, γ3is the fractional coupler intensity loss, α is the attenuation coefficient, κn=2πλ is the wave propagation number, λ is the input wavelength light field and, L2=2πRL, RLis the radius of left ring.

From Eq. (11)-(14), the circulated light fields, E1, E3and E4are defined by given x1=(1γ1)1/2, x2=(1γ2)1/2, y1=(1κ1)1/2, and y2=(1κ2)1/2.
E1=jx1κ1Ei1+jx1x2y1κ2E0LEi2eα2L2jκnL21x1x2y1y2E0E0Leα2LjκnL,
(15)
E3=x2y2E0E1eα2L2jκnL2+jx2κ2Ei2,
(16)
E4=x2y2E0E1eα2L2jκnL2+jx2κ2Ei2eα2L2jκnL2,
(17)
Thus, from Eq. (11)-(17), the output optical field of the through port (Et1) is expressed by
Et1=x1y1Ei1+(jx1x2y2κ1E0E0LE1x1x2κ1κ2E0LEi2)eα2L2jκ2L2,
(18)
The power output of the through port (Pt1) is written by
Pt1=(Et1)(Et1)=|Et1|2,
(19)
Similarly, the output optical field of the drop port (Et2) is given by
Et2=x2y2Ei2+jx2κ2E0E1eα2L2jκnL2,
(20)
The power output of the drop port (Pt2) is expressed by

Pt2=(Et2)(Et2)*=|Et1|2,
(21)

An optical tweezer is recognized as a promising tool for molecule/atom trapping, which is basically depended on the laser wavelength control, where in this work the tweezer is formed by using a PANDA microring resonator. The optical tweezer generation can be designed and embedded within the device based on silicon, in which an electron can be injected to the contact without loss, and the transport time can be controlled before reaching the contacts. The optical tweezers can be varied and adjusted via the add port of a PANDA ring.

Figure 2
Fig. 2 Optical tweezer for hole trapping, where (a) trapping potential well, (b) an optical tweezer for hole trapping
shows the optical tweezer for electron and hole trapping and transportation via the optical waveguide. The trapping tool size (d) is required to tune between these two conditions, where (i) d > electron size, this case an electron can escape from the trap in the transport process to the contact, (ii) d < electron size, this case an electron cannot be trapped when the size of the trap too small. Therefore, the trap size is required to fit the electron/hole size (0.22 nm) [20

20. D. A. Neamen, Semiconductor Physic and Devices, McGraw-Hill, New York (2003).

].

3. Results and discussion

By using the proposed design, the optical tweezer can be used to trap and move the electron/hole via the optical waveguide. A PANDA microring resonator can generate the optical tweezer by add/drop, the particles in a bottle will be trapped and moved by the input tweezers, the suitable tweezers can be controlled and generated by the controlled port signals. In our application, the improvement solar cell performance by using PANDA microring is proposed. Normally, the characteristics of solar cells study by J-V characteristics, the J-V characteristics of solar cells depend on factors such as (i) series and shunt resistance, (ii) the front and back contacts and (iii) the main junction. The main junctions in the important factor for controls the current of solar cells because of P-N junction can generate the electron-hole pair. However, the diffusion of carriers to contact has a problem in silicon bulks such as the recombination of hole. This problem can be solved by increasing the trapped hole speed to the contact via optical waveguide, without trapping within a silicon bulk.

From Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Solar cell model using a PANDA microring, where (a) hole trapping and moving via optical waveguide, (b) diode model with PANDA microring.
, the holes are trapped in the junction and moved to the contact via optical waveguide. The ring radii are Radd = 15 µm, RR = 3 µm and RL = 3 µm, in which the evidence of the fabricated device was reported by the authors in reference [21

21. N. Suwanpayak and P. P. Yupapin, “Drug trapping and delivery using a PANDA ring resonator,” Procedia Eng. 8, 252–260 (2011). [CrossRef]

]. Aeffis 300 µm2, κ = κ1 = κ2 = κ3 = 0.5, the waveguide losses coefficient, αis 0.1 and coupling loss, γis 0.01 and n0 is 1.37. The simulation results are obtained for four different center wavelengths of tweezers generated, where the dynamical movements are (a)|E1|2, (b) |E2|2,, (c) \|E3|2,, (d) |E4|2,(e) through port and (f) drop port signals as shown in Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Results of dynamic optical tweezers generated at different center wavelengths, where (a) \E1\2, (b) \E2\2, (c) \E3\2, (d) \E4\2, (e) through port and (f) drop port signals.
.

Figure 5
Fig. 5 Trapping potential well of optical tweezers with various trapping sizes, where (a) 2 nm, (b) 1 nm, (c) 0.5 nm, and (d) 0.25 nm.
shows the optical tweezer that can be adjusted to fit the electron/hole size from 0.25 to 2 nm, which can be used for electron/hole transportation at the through port and drop port. The sizes of optical tweezers are important for trapping electron/hole moving to device contact. The current of solar cells compare between fabrication technique and using PANDA mircroring resonator for accelerator electron/hole, the current of solar cells is calculated by using Eq. (22).

IL=qA(Ln+W+Lp)G
(22)

Where IL is the light current, A is the area, Ln is the diffusion length of electron, Lpis the diffusion length of hole and W is the depletion width and Gis the generation rate.

The current of the device after using a trapping tool and technique of a PANDA microring resonator system is increased by 5 orders [22

22. H. Cheun, J. Kim, Y. Zhou, Y. Fang, A. Dindar, J. Shim, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, K. H. Sandhage, and B. Kippelen, “Inverted polymer solar cells with amorphous indium zinc oxide as the electron-collecting electrode,” Opt. Express 18(S4Suppl 4), A506–A512 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

25

25. J. Gutmann, M. Peters, B. Bläsi, M. Hermle, A. Gombert, H. Zappe, and J. C. Goldschmidt, “Electromagnetic simulations of a photonic luminescent solar concentrator,” Opt. Express 20(S2Suppl 2), A157–A167 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], which is shown in Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Light current of the diode using PANDA microring resonator.
.

4. Conclusions

We have proposed a new method of electron/hole accelerator, which can be used to accelerate electron/hole within the solar cell device. By using optical tweezers and optical waveguide embedded within the solar cell device, the hole/electron speed can be increased about 5 orders. Silicon is the applied material in this study, in which an electron can move to the metal contact via an optical waveguide without recombination in the silicon bulk. The obtained results have shown that the PANDA microring resonator can be used to generate the optical tweezers, which can be adjusted for electron/hole trapping. This design can also be used for the applications such as capacitor, photodetector and transistor.

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank Thai Microelectronics Center (TMEC), National Electronics and Computer Technology Center (NECTEC), Thailand and Thailand Graduate Institute of Science and Technology (TGIST), Institute of Nanoscale Science and Engineering Research Alliance and Hybrid Computing Research Laboratory, King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang (KMITL), Bangkok 10520, Thailand.

References and links

1.

R. K. Tiwary and B. B. Dhar, “Environmental pollution from coal mining activities in damodar river basin, India,” Mine Water Environ. 13, 1–10 (1994).

2.

S. I. Wilhelm, G. J. Robertson, P. C. Ryan, S. F. Tobin, and R. D. Elliot, “Re-evaluating the use of beached bird oiling rates to assess long-term trends in chronic oil pollution,” Mar. Pollut. Bull. 58(2), 249–255 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3.

C. J. Camphuysen and M. Heubeck, “Marine oil pollution and beached bird surveys: the development of a sensitive monitoring instrument,” Environ. Pollut. 112(3), 443–461 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4.

R. Lagring, S. Degraer, G. de Montpellier, T. Jacques, W. Van Roy, and R. Schallier, “Twenty years of Belgian North Sea aerial surveillance: a quantitative analysis of results confirms effectiveness of international oil pollution legislation,” Mar. Pollut. Bull. 64(3), 644–652 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

K. S. Han, J. H. Shin, W. Y. Yoon, and H. Lee, “Enhanced performance of solar cells with anti-reflection layer fabricated by nano-imprint lithography,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(1), 288–291 (2011). [CrossRef]

6.

A. Ali, T. Gouveas, M. A. Hasan, S. H. Zaidi, and M. Asghar, “Influence of deep level defects on the performance of crystalline silicon solar cells: Experimental and simulation study,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(10), 2805–2810 (2011). [CrossRef]

7.

D. M. Tsai, S. C. Wu, and W. C. Li, “Defect detection of solar cells in electroluminescence imange using fourier image reconstruction,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 99, 250–262 (2012). [CrossRef]

8.

K. Mukhopadhyay, S. D. Datta, and H. Saha, “Dependence of efficiency on slat angles of microgrooved solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 30, 1717–1722 (2010).

9.

S. Beringer, H. Schilke, I. Lohse, and G. Seckmeyer, “Case study showing that the tilt angle of photovoltaic plants is nearly irrelevant,” Sol. Energy 85(3), 470–476 (2011). [CrossRef]

10.

N. Sun, G. Fang, P. Qin, Q. Zheng, M. Wang, X. Fan, F. Cheng, J. Wan, and X. Zhao, “Bulk heterojunction solar cells with NiO hole transporting layer based on AZO anode,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(12), 2328–2331 (2010). [CrossRef]

11.

J. Hagen, W. Schaffrath, P. Otschik, R. Fink, A. Bacher, H. W. Schmidt, and D. Haarer, “Novel hybrid solar cells consisting of inorganic nanoparticles and an organic hole transport material,” Synth. Met. 89(3), 215–220 (1997). [CrossRef]

12.

G. S. Kousik and J. G. Fossum, “P+-n-n+ solar cells with hole diffusion lengths comparable with the base width: A simple analytic model,” Sol. cells 5, 75–79 (1981).

13.

N. Suwanpayak, M. A. Jalil, C. Teeka, J. Ali, and P. P. Yupapin, “Optical vortices generated by a PANDA ring resonator for drug trapping and delivery applications,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(1), 159–168 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

M. Sumetsky, D. J. DiGiovanni, Y. Dulashko, J. M. Fini, X. Liu, E. M. Monberg, and T. F. Taunay, “Surface nanoscale axial photonics: robust fabrication of high-quality-factor microresonators,” Opt. Lett. 36(24), 4824–4826 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15.

N. Suwanpayak, C. Teeka, and P. P. Yupapin, “Hybrid transistor manipulation controlled by light,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 53, 2533–2537 (2011).

16.

M. S. Aziz, N. Suwanpayak, M. A. Jalil, R. Jomtarak, T. Saktioto, J. Ali, and P. P. Yupapin, “Gold nanoparticle trapping and delivery for therapeutic applications,” Int. J. Nanomedicine 7, 11–17 (2012). [PubMed]

17.

P. P. Yupapin, “Generalized quantum key distribution via micro ring resonator for mobile telephone networks,” Optik (Stuttg.) 121(5), 422–425 (2010). [CrossRef]

18.

S. Mitatha, N. Pornsuwancharoen, and P. P. Yupapin, “A simultaneous short-wave and millimeter-wave generation using a soliton pulse within a nano-waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(13), 932–934 (2009). [CrossRef]

19.

T. Phatharaworamet, C. Teeka, R. Jomtarak, S. Mitatha, and P. P. Yupapin, “Random binary code generation using dark-bright soliton conversion control within a PANDA ring resonator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(19), 2804–2809 (2010). [CrossRef]

20.

D. A. Neamen, Semiconductor Physic and Devices, McGraw-Hill, New York (2003).

21.

N. Suwanpayak and P. P. Yupapin, “Drug trapping and delivery using a PANDA ring resonator,” Procedia Eng. 8, 252–260 (2011). [CrossRef]

22.

H. Cheun, J. Kim, Y. Zhou, Y. Fang, A. Dindar, J. Shim, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, K. H. Sandhage, and B. Kippelen, “Inverted polymer solar cells with amorphous indium zinc oxide as the electron-collecting electrode,” Opt. Express 18(S4Suppl 4), A506–A512 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

23.

D. Han, H. Kim, S. Lee, M. Seo, and S. Yoo, “Realization of efficient semitransparent organic photovoltaic cells with metallic top electrodes: utilizing the tunable absorption asymmetry,” Opt. Express 18(S4Suppl 4), A513–A521 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

24.

D. W. Liu, I. C. Cheng, J. Z. Chen, H. W. Chen, K. C. Ho, and C. C. Chiang, “Enhanced optical absorption of dye-sensitized solar cells with microcavity-embedded TiO2 photoanodes,” Opt. Express 20(S2Suppl 2), A168–A176 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

25.

J. Gutmann, M. Peters, B. Bläsi, M. Hermle, A. Gombert, H. Zappe, and J. C. Goldschmidt, “Electromagnetic simulations of a photonic luminescent solar concentrator,” Opt. Express 20(S2Suppl 2), A157–A167 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

OCIS Codes
(040.5350) Detectors : Photovoltaic
(350.6050) Other areas of optics : Solar energy

ToC Category:
Solar Energy

History
Original Manuscript: March 15, 2012
Revised Manuscript: April 12, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: April 13, 2012
Published: May 21, 2012

Citation
Itsara Srithanachai, Surada Ueamanapong, Surasak Niemcharoen, and Preecha P Yupapin, "Novel design of solar cell efficiency improvement using an embedded electron accelerator on-chip," Opt. Express 20, 12640-12648 (2012)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-20-12-12640


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References

  1. R. K. Tiwary and B. B. Dhar, “Environmental pollution from coal mining activities in damodar river basin, India,” Mine Water Environ.13, 1–10 (1994).
  2. S. I. Wilhelm, G. J. Robertson, P. C. Ryan, S. F. Tobin, and R. D. Elliot, “Re-evaluating the use of beached bird oiling rates to assess long-term trends in chronic oil pollution,” Mar. Pollut. Bull.58(2), 249–255 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. C. J. Camphuysen and M. Heubeck, “Marine oil pollution and beached bird surveys: the development of a sensitive monitoring instrument,” Environ. Pollut.112(3), 443–461 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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