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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 20, Iss. 12 — Jun. 4, 2012
  • pp: 12787–12792
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Passively cascade-pulsed erbium ZBLAN all-fiber laser

Tzong-Yow Tsai, Yen-Cheng Fang, Hong-Xi Tsao, Shih-Ting Lin, and Chieh Hu  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 20, Issue 12, pp. 12787-12792 (2012)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.20.012787


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Abstract

We propose and numerically demonstrate a cascade pulsing mechanism in a CW-pumped Er3+:ZBLAN all-fiber laser system. In the design, the laser was pumped at 980 nm and passively Q-switched at 1.6 μm. The Q-switched resonance reduced the population on 4I13/2 of the erbium gain fiber, thereby creating a population inversion between the levels of 4I11/2 and 4I13/2, and instantly inducing an intense gain-switched pulse at 2.7 μm. Sequential 2.7-μm single-mode pulsing with a pulse energy of 170 μJ and a peak power of 6 kW was achieved with an absorbed pump power of 0.65 W.

© 2012 OSA

1. Introduction

Intense mid-inferred lasers near the water absorption peak of 3 μm are useful for medical applications. This fact has spurred the development of erbium ZBLAN fiber lasers. The lasing of Er3+ at 2.7-2.8 μm is attributed to the transition from 4I11/2 to 4I13/2. The intrinsic lifetimes of τ2, τ1 and τ21 in an Er3+ doped ZBLAN fiber are 6.9, 9 and 16.9 ms, respectively [1

1. L. Wetenkamp, G. F. West, and H. Többen, “Optical properties of rare-earth-doped ZBLAN glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 140, 35–40 (1992). [CrossRef]

,2

2. M. Pollnan and S. D. Jackson, “Erbium 3-μm fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7(1), 30–40 (2001). [CrossRef]

]. Due to the small branching ratio from 4I11/2 to 4I13/2, i.e., ϕ21 = τ2/τ21, a positive population inversion and continuous-wave (CW) lasing can be obtained [2

2. M. Pollnan and S. D. Jackson, “Erbium 3-μm fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7(1), 30–40 (2001). [CrossRef]

,3

3. R. S. Quimby and W. J. Miniscalco, “Continuous-wave lasing on a self-terminating transition,” Appl. Opt. 28(1), 14–16 (1989). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. However, the laser efficiency and power scaling are limited by N1, the easily accumulated population of 4I13/2. Several approaches have been developed to reduce N1 and improve laser efficiency, including the use of 792-nm excited-state-absorption (ESA) pump on the 4I13/2 level [4

4. S. Bedö, M. Pollnau, W. Lüthy, and H. P. Weber, “Saturation of the 2.71 μm laser output in erbium doped ZBLAN fibers,” Opt. Commun. 116(1-3), 81–86 (1995). [CrossRef]

], lifetime quenching by energy transfer (ET) between Er3+ and a Pr3+ co-dopant [5

5. J. Y. Allain, M. Monerie, and H. Poignant, “Energy transfer in Er3+ /Pr3+ -doped fluoride glass fibers and application to lasing at 2.7 μm,” Electron. Lett. 27(5), 445–447 (1991). [CrossRef]

,6

6. S. D. Jackson, T. A. King, and M. Pollnau, “Diode-pumped 1.7-W erbium 3-mum fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 24(16), 1133–1135 (1999). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and energy-transfer-upconversion (ETU) in highly erbium-doped fibers [7

7. D. Faucher, M. Bernier, G. Androz, N. Caron, and R. Vallée, “20 W passively cooled single-mode all-fiber laser at 2.8 μm,” Opt. Lett. 36(7), 1104–1106 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. In addition, the de-excitation of 4I13/2 by 1.6-μm co-lasing in cascade transitions is an efficient solution for reducing the heat caused by multi-phonon relaxation [8

8. S. D. Jackson, M. Pollnau, and J. Li, “Diode pumped erbium cascade fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 47(4), 471–478 (2011). [CrossRef]

]. Opposite to these efforts directed towards de-populating the level 4I13/2 of Er3+, herein we propose an idea that the population of 4I13/2, N1, accumulated in the gain fiber can serve as an inherent absorber for 2.7-μm pulsing operation.

Similar to CW power scaling, the Q-switched pulse power can be increased using the fibers that are core-pumped at 792 nm [9

9. C. Frerichs and T. Tauermann, “Q-switched operation of laser diode pumped erbium-doped fluorozirconate fibre laser operating at 2.7 μm,” Electron. Lett. 30(9), 706–707 (1994). [CrossRef]

], co-doped with praseodymium [10

10. D. J. Coleman, T. A. King, D.-K. Ko, and J. Lee, “Q-switched operation of a 2.7 μm cladding-pumped Er3+/Pr3+ codoped ZBLAN fibre laser,” Opt. Commun. 236(4-6), 379–385 (2004). [CrossRef]

], or highly erbium-doped [11

11. S. Tokita, M. Murakami, S. Shimizu, M. Hashida, and S. Sakabe, “12 W Q-switched Er:ZBLAN fiber laser at 2.8 μm,” Opt. Lett. 36(15), 2812–2814 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The Q-switches that have been employed were traditional rotating mirrors [9

9. C. Frerichs and T. Tauermann, “Q-switched operation of laser diode pumped erbium-doped fluorozirconate fibre laser operating at 2.7 μm,” Electron. Lett. 30(9), 706–707 (1994). [CrossRef]

], shutters [10

10. D. J. Coleman, T. A. King, D.-K. Ko, and J. Lee, “Q-switched operation of a 2.7 μm cladding-pumped Er3+/Pr3+ codoped ZBLAN fibre laser,” Opt. Commun. 236(4-6), 379–385 (2004). [CrossRef]

], germanium acousto-optic modulators [9

9. C. Frerichs and T. Tauermann, “Q-switched operation of laser diode pumped erbium-doped fluorozirconate fibre laser operating at 2.7 μm,” Electron. Lett. 30(9), 706–707 (1994). [CrossRef]

,11

11. S. Tokita, M. Murakami, S. Shimizu, M. Hashida, and S. Sakabe, “12 W Q-switched Er:ZBLAN fiber laser at 2.8 μm,” Opt. Lett. 36(15), 2812–2814 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and passive saturable absorbers as semiconductor InAs epilayers [12

12. C. Frerichs and U. B. Unrau, “Passive Q-Switching and mode-Locking of erbium-doped fluoride fiber lasers at 2.7 μm,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 2(4), 358–366 (1996). [CrossRef]

] and a liquefying gallium mirror [13

13. N. J. C. Libatique, J. D. Tafoya, and R. K. Jain, “A compact diode-pumped passively Q-switched mid-IR fiber laser,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, Vol. 34 of Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), pp. 417–419.

]. Pulsed power scaling has recently been achieved by S. Tokita et al. [11

11. S. Tokita, M. Murakami, S. Shimizu, M. Hashida, and S. Sakabe, “12 W Q-switched Er:ZBLAN fiber laser at 2.8 μm,” Opt. Lett. 36(15), 2812–2814 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], who used a laser consisting of a double-cladding highly erbium-doped ZBLAN multimode fiber with a core diameter of 35 μm. In the aforementioned study, the laser was 75-W pumped and actively Q-switched to achieve an average output power of 12 W at 2.8 μm, a pulse energy of 100 μJ and a peak power of 0.9 kW. In comparison, although passive techniques are simple and cost-effective, progress on their performance enhancement has been relatively slow. Thus far, a fiber-type saturable absorber Q-switch (SAQS) has not been developed for erbium ZBLAN fiber lasers at this mid-IR range. Unlike the traditional Q-switching and pulse-pumped gain-switching [14

14. B. C. Dickinson, P. S. Golding, M. Pollnau, T. A. King, and S. D. Jackson, “Investigation of a 791-nm pulsed-pumped 2.7 μm Er-doped ZBLAN fibre laser,” Opt. Commun. 191(3-6), 315–321 (2001). [CrossRef]

,15

15. M. Gorjan, R. Petkovšek, M. Marinček, and M. Čopič, “High-power pulsed diode-pumped Er:ZBLAN fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 36(10), 1923–1925 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], in the present study, we propose and numerically demonstrate a cascade pulsing mechanism, where a large N1 served as an inherent absorber for populating a comparable N2, and an intense 2.7-μm pulse was induced by the sudden removal of N1 by intra-cavity 1.6-μm Q-switching. With a 980-nm CW pump, sequential 2.7-μm pulsing with a pulse energy of 170 μJ and a peak power of 6 kW was passively achieved with an absorbed pump power of 0.65W.

The Q-switching-induced gain-switching (QSIGS) mechanism in a CW-pumped Er:ZBLAN all-fiber laser is depicted in Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic design of a passively Q-switching-induced gain-switched Er:ZBLAN all-fiber laser. The resonators of 2.7 and 1.6 μm are defined by the FBGs. The pulsing wavelengths of 2.7 and 1.6 μm are attributed to the energy transitions from 4I11/2 to 4I13/2 and from 4I13/2 to 4I15/2, respectively.
. In the design, a 980-nm pump laser and a lightly erbium-doped double-cladding ZBLAN fiber were employed. As a result, the previously discussed ESA pump, ET with co-doped Pr3+ and ETU between highly-doped Er3+ pairs were negligible. Basically, the system was initially subjected to self-terminating lasing caused by the long lifetime of τ1 and the populated N1. Because the resonance of 1.6 μm was initially suppressed by a Tm3+-doped silica fiber, large amounts of N1 and N2 in the gain fiber were created by the 980-nm CW pump. Tm3+-doped fiber is an efficient SAQS material for erbium fiber lasers at emission wavelengths greater than 1570 nm [16

16. T.-Y. Tsai, Y.-C. Fang, and S.-H. Hung, “Passively Q-switched erbium all-fiber lasers by use of thulium-doped saturable-absorber fibers,” Opt. Express 18(10), 10049–10054 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,17

17. A. S. Kurkov, Ya. E. Sadovnikova, A. V. Marakulin, and E. M. Sholokhov, “All fiber Er-Tm Q-switched laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7(11), 795–797 (2010). [CrossRef]

]. When N1 reached the threshold, the erbium laser was saturable-absorber Q-switched at 1.6 μm by the thulium fiber. Due to the large ratio of the emission cross section (σ10) to the absorption cross section (σ01) of Er3+ (σ10 and σ01 of Er3+ ZBLAN fibers are 1.28 × 10−21 and 0.32 × 10−21 cm2 at 1.6 μm, respectively [18

18. M. J. F. Digonnet, Rare-Earth-Doped Fiber Lasers and Amplifiers, 2nd ed. (CRC Press, 2001).

]), the Q-switched pulse in the cavity efficiently reduced N1 to the ground state (4I15/2), and a positive population inversion was created between the 4I11/2 and 4I13/2, which yielded a gain-switched pulse at 2.7 μm. According to the thermal management [8

8. S. D. Jackson, M. Pollnau, and J. Li, “Diode pumped erbium cascade fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 47(4), 471–478 (2011). [CrossRef]

], the low Er3+ concentration and 1.6-μm co-pulsing used in the present system can reduce the heat generated by multi-phonon relaxations and improve the pulsed power scaling.

In the cascade transitions of 4I13/24I15/2 and 4I11/24I13/2, the pulses of 1.6 and 2.7 μm increase each other’s pulse energies when they are temporally overlapped. Since a gain-switched pulse follows a Q-switched pulse, to obtain effective pulse overlap, the gain of 2.7 μm must be present at the lasing threshold when Q-switching occurs, and the instantly switched gain of 2.7 μm must be larger than the Q-switched gain of 1.6 μm. These two criteria are satisfied due to the nature of self-terminating lasing and the relatively large σ12 at 2.7 μm compared with the σ10 at 1.6 μm (see Eq. (1) for explanation). The spectrum of σ12 cannot be easily measured and has not been thoroughly studied. Nevertheless, the fluorescence spectrum of Er-doped ZBLAN glass is known to range from 2.6 to 2.9 μm and peak at 2.72 μm, and the peak σ21 at room temperature is 5.7 × 10−21 cm2 [1

1. L. Wetenkamp, G. F. West, and H. Többen, “Optical properties of rare-earth-doped ZBLAN glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 140, 35–40 (1992). [CrossRef]

,19

19. F. Auzel, D. Meichenin, and H. Poignant, “Laser cross-section and quantum yield of Er at 2.7 μm in a ZrF -based fluoride glass,” Electron. Lett. 24(15), 909–910 (1988). [CrossRef]

]. Red shifts from 2.7 to 2.8 μm are often observed in the resonators with broadband mirrors [14

14. B. C. Dickinson, P. S. Golding, M. Pollnau, T. A. King, and S. D. Jackson, “Investigation of a 791-nm pulsed-pumped 2.7 μm Er-doped ZBLAN fibre laser,” Opt. Commun. 191(3-6), 315–321 (2001). [CrossRef]

,20

20. V. Lupei, S. Georgescu, and V. Florea, “On the dynamics of population inversion for 3 μm Er lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29(2), 426–434 (1993). [CrossRef]

,21

21. N. J. C. Libatique, J. Tafoya, N. K. Viswanathan, R. K. Jain, and A. Cable, “‘Field-usable’ diode-pumped ~120 nm wavelength-tunable CW mid-IR fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 36(9), 791–792 (2000). [CrossRef]

], which implies that the ratio of σ21 to σ12 increases with an increase in the wavelength. Due to Stokes shift, σ12 is comparable to σ21 at or below 2.72 μm. In the simulation, σ12 and σ21 were assumed to be 5 × 10−21 cm2 at 2.7 μm. Hence, fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) of 2.7 μm on the ZBLAN fiber must be employed to operate under a preferred large σ12 and avoid red shifts in the wavelength. In 2007, highly reflective FBGs were written on ZBLAN fibers using 800-nm femtosecond pulses [22

22. M. Bernier, D. Faucher, R. Vallée, A. Saliminia, G. Androz, Y. Sheng, and S. L. Chin, “Bragg gratings photoinduced in ZBLAN fibers by femtosecond pulses at 800 nm,” Opt. Lett. 32(5), 454–456 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and have been applied in CW high-power all-fiber Er:ZBLAN lasers [7

7. D. Faucher, M. Bernier, G. Androz, N. Caron, and R. Vallée, “20 W passively cooled single-mode all-fiber laser at 2.8 μm,” Opt. Lett. 36(7), 1104–1106 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,23

23. M. Bernier, D. Faucher, N. Caron, and R. Vallée, “Highly stable and efficient erbium-doped 2.8 microm all fiber laser,” Opt. Express 17(19), 16941–16946 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

A large modulation depth of 2.7-μm gain-switching provided by the inherent N1 is easily arranged and only limited by the concern of fiber damage threshold. The modulation depth ratio of gain-switching to Q-switching, rmd, can be derived as:
rmd=MdGMdQ11+g10Ag1σ12Ag2σ10,
(1)
where Ag1 and Ag2 are the fundamental mode-field areas of the 1.6- and 2.7-μm pulses in the erbium fiber, respectively, and g10 is the degeneracy ratio of level 1 to the ground state, i.e. σ01/σ10. In the derivation of Eq. (1), assuming a negligible non-saturable loss in the 1.6-μm resonator, the modulation depth of Q-switching provided by the absorption strength of the thulium fiber was approximated as MdQ = 10/ln(10)⋅(σ10NgQ/Ag1), where NgQ was the threshold gain population of Q-switching. Due to the negligible non-saturable loss, the extraction efficiency of NgQ was presumably 100%. Furthermore, because the resonator of 2.7 μm was already at the threshold when Q-switching occurred, the modulation depth of gain-switching, MdG, was defined to be MdG = 10/ln(10)⋅(σ12/Ag2)⋅ΔN1, where ΔN1 was the change in N1 corresponding to 100% extraction of NgQ by Q-switching, i.e., ΔN1 = NgQ/(1 + g10). In the later simulation, rmd was calculated to be 1.87 and MdG was approximately 18.7 dB.

2. Modeling and simulation

The passive cascade pulsing mechanism in a lightly erbium-doped ZBLAN fiber laser is relatively simple to model compared with the simulations of highly doped ZBLAN CW lasers, where the processes of ET and ETU must be considered. Additionally, due to the low brightness of the pump applied in the double-cladding erbium fiber, the ESA pump was negligible. Therefore, most of the Er3+ atoms were presumably distributed among 4I11/2, 4I13/2 and 4I15/2, and the summation of N2, N1 and N0 was a constant value. The rate Eqs. of the cascading pulsing mechanism were modified based on Siegman’s Eqs [24

24. A. Siegman, Lasers (University Science Books 1986), pp. 1024–1028.

]. and are shown below:
dN2dt=N2τ2+σ02Iphvp(N0g02N2)Kgsn2Ngs,
(2)
dN1dt=N2τ21N1τ10Kgn1Ng+Kgsn2Ngs,
(3)
dNadt=NaTNaτa2(1+ga,12)Kan1Na,
(4)
dn1dt=(KgNgKaNaαd1αm2)×n1,
(5)
dn2dt=(KgsNgsαd2αm2)×n2,
(6)
where n1 and n2 are the resonant 1.6- and 2.7-μm photon numbers. Ngs and Ng are the gain populations of Er3+, which were defined as (N2-g21N1) and (N1-g10N0); and Na is the absorption population of Tm3+, which was defined as (Na,1-ga,12Na,2), where glm is the ratio of the degeneracy of level l to that of level m. The coupling coefficients Kg, Ka and Kgs were defined as σ10/(Ag1t1), σa/(Aat1) and σ21/(Ag2t2), respectively, where σa is the absorption cross section of Tm3+ at 1.6 μm; Aa is the fundamental mode-field areas of the 1.6-μm pulse in the thulium fiber; and t1 and t2 are the one-way-trip transmit times of the 1.6- and 2.7-μm resonators, respectively. The factors αm and αd (sec−1) are the reflection loss of the output coupler and the cavity dissipation loss, respectively. Ip is the applied pump power density (W/cm2) at 980 nm, NaT is the total number of Tm3+ atoms doped in the silica fiber and τa2 is the relaxation lifetime of the excited state of Tm3+. In the simulation, the double-cladding erbium ZBLAN fiber was 3 meters in length and possessed an Er3+ concentration of 5.7 × 1019 cm−3 (i.e., approximately 0.3 mol%). The thulium SAQS fiber had an initial absorption strength of 10 dB at 1600 nm. The erbium and thulium fibers were single-moded at 2.7 and 1.6 μm, respectively. The mode-field areas Ag1, Aa and Ag2, were calculated to be approximately 1.54 × 10−6, 9.74 × 10−7 and 2.57 × 10−6 cm2, respectively. The lengths of the 1.6- and 2.7-μm resonators were 600 and 300 cm, respectively. The round-trip dissipation losses of the 1.6- and 2.7-μm resonators were 1 dB, and the reflection losses of their output couplers were 1 dB and 14 dB, respectively.

Figure 2
Fig. 2 Correlations between the pulses and the level populations. The populations of Er3+, N2, N1 and N0 was normalised by the total amount of Er3+ dopants, the absorption population of Tm3+, Na was normalised by total number of Tm3+ atoms, and the Q-switched pulse and the QSIGS pulse was normalised by the maximum peak power. The inset shows their variations and correlations on a large scale.
shows the correlations between the populations, N2, N1, N0, Na, and the output 1.6- and 2.7-μm pulses during the cascade pulsing operation. In the beginning, the absorption population of Tm3+, Na, was quickly saturated at the onset of a 1.6-μm Q-switched pulse. Next, the Q-switched pulse reduced N1 to N0 and induced a 2.7-μm gain-switched pulse. Due to the self-terminating lasing at 2.7 μm (shown later in Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Sequential passively Q-switched pulses and induced gain-switched pulses. (a). The QSIGS pulses at 2.7 μm had a stable peak power of 6 kW. Relaxation oscillation in self-terminating lasing between the QSIGS pulses is shown in inset (1). (b). The passively Q-switched pulses at 1.6 μm had a peak power of 1.2 kW. The relation between the spikes and the pulses of 2.7 and 1.6 μm is shown on smaller x and y scales in inset (2).
), a constant difference between N2 and N1 was maintained until Q-switching occurred, as shown in the inset of Fig. 2. Because the gain of 2.7 μm was already at the threshold and σ12 was larger than σ10, the gain-switched pulse appeared instantly, reached a peak and ended quickly, presenting a pulse width of 21 ns which was much shorter than the Q-switched pulse width of 192 ns. The pump power density (Ip) in Fig. 2 was approximately 0.7 times the saturation pump density (Ips), which was defined as p/(σ02τ1ϕ21). The average absorbed pump power was calculated using the second term in Eq. (2), and was equal to 647 mW. As a result, the output pulses of 1.6 and 2.7 μm possessed pulse energies of 257 and 170 μJ and peak powers of 1.2 and 6 kW, respectively. In the pulse overlap, the 1.6- and 2.7-μm pulses increased each other’s gains, and higher energy extractions were obtained. The extra amounts of energy contributed to the 1.6 and 2.7-μm pulses by pulse overlap were calculated to be 115 and 57 μJ, respectively.

The stable sequential pulses of 2.7 and 1.6 μm are shown in Fig. 3, along with the 2.7-μm spikes and their correlations on smaller time scales plotted in the insets. Because Er:ZBLAN is initially a 4-level laser medium, the relaxation oscillation at 2.7 μm occurred immediately after 980-nm pumping, as observed in inset (1). A spike appeared with an energy of 1 to 2 μJ and peak powers less than 2 W at an oscillation frequency of 43 kHz, as shown in inset (2). After an extended operating time, approximately 3000 gain-switched pulses were produced, and the average output powers of the spikes, the Q-switched pulses and the gain-switched pulses were calculated to be 76.8, 118.7 and 78.7 mW, respectively. At some pump levels, the spikes interfered with the gain-switched pulses, broadened the pulse durations and lowered the peak powers. However, the relaxation oscillation did not have a significant effect on the pulse energy and repetition rate due to the small spike energy. Figure 4
Fig. 4 Pulsing characteristics versus the pump normalised by Ips. (a). The pulse repetition rate and the pulse energies of the 1.6- and 2.7-μm pulses versus Ip/Ips. (b). The peak powers of 1.6 and 2.7 μm versus the normalized pump.
shows the variations of the pulse characteristics versus the pump normalised by Ips. Due to the long relaxation lifetime of Tm3+ (i.e., τa2 ~0.4 ms), the pulsing performance decreased with an increase in the repetition rate. When Ip/Ips was greater than 3, the system transitioned to CW lasing at 1.6 and 2.7 μm because a proper modulation depth of Q-switching could no longer be provided by the thulium fiber. A longer thulium fiber can provide larger modulation depths of Q- and gain-switching and can increase the range of pulse repetition rates as well as the pulse energies and peak powers.

3. Conclusion

We have modeled and numerically demonstrated a novel cascade-pulsed mechanism in a CW-pumped erbium ZBALN all-fiber laser system. The population on 4I13/2 of the erbium ZBLAN fiber was used as an inherent absorber at 2.7 μm and a gain medium at 1.6 μm, and was modulated by a coupled passively Q-switched resonator to induce intense 2.7-μm pulses. A large modulation depth of gain-switching can be easily arranged and was 18.7 dB in the design. The overlap of 1.6- and 2.7-μm pulses in the cascade transitions increased each other’s gain and contributed higher energy extractions. As a result, by use of a 980-nm CW pump, sequential 2.7-μm gain-switched pulses with a pulse energy of 170 μm and a peak power of 6 kW was passively achieved. The proposed technique of Q-switching-induced gain-switching is a potential mechanism for producing most intense 2.7-μm pulses in an all-fiber laser scheme.

Acknowledgments

The authors acknowledge support from the National Science Council of Taiwan (Project No. NSC 100-2628-E-006-030-MY3) and the Industrial Technology Research Institute, Tainan, Taiwan (FY101 Prospection Cooperation Project).

References and links

1.

L. Wetenkamp, G. F. West, and H. Többen, “Optical properties of rare-earth-doped ZBLAN glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 140, 35–40 (1992). [CrossRef]

2.

M. Pollnan and S. D. Jackson, “Erbium 3-μm fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7(1), 30–40 (2001). [CrossRef]

3.

R. S. Quimby and W. J. Miniscalco, “Continuous-wave lasing on a self-terminating transition,” Appl. Opt. 28(1), 14–16 (1989). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4.

S. Bedö, M. Pollnau, W. Lüthy, and H. P. Weber, “Saturation of the 2.71 μm laser output in erbium doped ZBLAN fibers,” Opt. Commun. 116(1-3), 81–86 (1995). [CrossRef]

5.

J. Y. Allain, M. Monerie, and H. Poignant, “Energy transfer in Er3+ /Pr3+ -doped fluoride glass fibers and application to lasing at 2.7 μm,” Electron. Lett. 27(5), 445–447 (1991). [CrossRef]

6.

S. D. Jackson, T. A. King, and M. Pollnau, “Diode-pumped 1.7-W erbium 3-mum fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 24(16), 1133–1135 (1999). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

D. Faucher, M. Bernier, G. Androz, N. Caron, and R. Vallée, “20 W passively cooled single-mode all-fiber laser at 2.8 μm,” Opt. Lett. 36(7), 1104–1106 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

S. D. Jackson, M. Pollnau, and J. Li, “Diode pumped erbium cascade fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 47(4), 471–478 (2011). [CrossRef]

9.

C. Frerichs and T. Tauermann, “Q-switched operation of laser diode pumped erbium-doped fluorozirconate fibre laser operating at 2.7 μm,” Electron. Lett. 30(9), 706–707 (1994). [CrossRef]

10.

D. J. Coleman, T. A. King, D.-K. Ko, and J. Lee, “Q-switched operation of a 2.7 μm cladding-pumped Er3+/Pr3+ codoped ZBLAN fibre laser,” Opt. Commun. 236(4-6), 379–385 (2004). [CrossRef]

11.

S. Tokita, M. Murakami, S. Shimizu, M. Hashida, and S. Sakabe, “12 W Q-switched Er:ZBLAN fiber laser at 2.8 μm,” Opt. Lett. 36(15), 2812–2814 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

C. Frerichs and U. B. Unrau, “Passive Q-Switching and mode-Locking of erbium-doped fluoride fiber lasers at 2.7 μm,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 2(4), 358–366 (1996). [CrossRef]

13.

N. J. C. Libatique, J. D. Tafoya, and R. K. Jain, “A compact diode-pumped passively Q-switched mid-IR fiber laser,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, Vol. 34 of Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), pp. 417–419.

14.

B. C. Dickinson, P. S. Golding, M. Pollnau, T. A. King, and S. D. Jackson, “Investigation of a 791-nm pulsed-pumped 2.7 μm Er-doped ZBLAN fibre laser,” Opt. Commun. 191(3-6), 315–321 (2001). [CrossRef]

15.

M. Gorjan, R. Petkovšek, M. Marinček, and M. Čopič, “High-power pulsed diode-pumped Er:ZBLAN fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 36(10), 1923–1925 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

16.

T.-Y. Tsai, Y.-C. Fang, and S.-H. Hung, “Passively Q-switched erbium all-fiber lasers by use of thulium-doped saturable-absorber fibers,” Opt. Express 18(10), 10049–10054 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

17.

A. S. Kurkov, Ya. E. Sadovnikova, A. V. Marakulin, and E. M. Sholokhov, “All fiber Er-Tm Q-switched laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7(11), 795–797 (2010). [CrossRef]

18.

M. J. F. Digonnet, Rare-Earth-Doped Fiber Lasers and Amplifiers, 2nd ed. (CRC Press, 2001).

19.

F. Auzel, D. Meichenin, and H. Poignant, “Laser cross-section and quantum yield of Er at 2.7 μm in a ZrF -based fluoride glass,” Electron. Lett. 24(15), 909–910 (1988). [CrossRef]

20.

V. Lupei, S. Georgescu, and V. Florea, “On the dynamics of population inversion for 3 μm Er lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29(2), 426–434 (1993). [CrossRef]

21.

N. J. C. Libatique, J. Tafoya, N. K. Viswanathan, R. K. Jain, and A. Cable, “‘Field-usable’ diode-pumped ~120 nm wavelength-tunable CW mid-IR fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 36(9), 791–792 (2000). [CrossRef]

22.

M. Bernier, D. Faucher, R. Vallée, A. Saliminia, G. Androz, Y. Sheng, and S. L. Chin, “Bragg gratings photoinduced in ZBLAN fibers by femtosecond pulses at 800 nm,” Opt. Lett. 32(5), 454–456 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

23.

M. Bernier, D. Faucher, N. Caron, and R. Vallée, “Highly stable and efficient erbium-doped 2.8 microm all fiber laser,” Opt. Express 17(19), 16941–16946 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

24.

A. Siegman, Lasers (University Science Books 1986), pp. 1024–1028.

OCIS Codes
(060.2310) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics
(140.3510) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, fiber
(140.3540) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, Q-switched

ToC Category:
Lasers and Laser Optics

History
Original Manuscript: February 27, 2012
Revised Manuscript: April 29, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: May 21, 2012
Published: May 23, 2012

Citation
Tzong-Yow Tsai, Yen-Cheng Fang, Hong-Xi Tsao, Shih-Ting Lin, and Chieh Hu, "Passively cascade-pulsed erbium ZBLAN all-fiber laser," Opt. Express 20, 12787-12792 (2012)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-20-12-12787


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References

  1. L. Wetenkamp, G. F. West, and H. Többen, “Optical properties of rare-earth-doped ZBLAN glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids140, 35–40 (1992). [CrossRef]
  2. M. Pollnan and S. D. Jackson, “Erbium 3-μm fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.7(1), 30–40 (2001). [CrossRef]
  3. R. S. Quimby and W. J. Miniscalco, “Continuous-wave lasing on a self-terminating transition,” Appl. Opt.28(1), 14–16 (1989). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. S. Bedö, M. Pollnau, W. Lüthy, and H. P. Weber, “Saturation of the 2.71 μm laser output in erbium doped ZBLAN fibers,” Opt. Commun.116(1-3), 81–86 (1995). [CrossRef]
  5. J. Y. Allain, M. Monerie, and H. Poignant, “Energy transfer in Er3+ /Pr3+ -doped fluoride glass fibers and application to lasing at 2.7 μm,” Electron. Lett.27(5), 445–447 (1991). [CrossRef]
  6. S. D. Jackson, T. A. King, and M. Pollnau, “Diode-pumped 1.7-W erbium 3-mum fiber laser,” Opt. Lett.24(16), 1133–1135 (1999). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. D. Faucher, M. Bernier, G. Androz, N. Caron, and R. Vallée, “20 W passively cooled single-mode all-fiber laser at 2.8 μm,” Opt. Lett.36(7), 1104–1106 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. S. D. Jackson, M. Pollnau, and J. Li, “Diode pumped erbium cascade fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.47(4), 471–478 (2011). [CrossRef]
  9. C. Frerichs and T. Tauermann, “Q-switched operation of laser diode pumped erbium-doped fluorozirconate fibre laser operating at 2.7 μm,” Electron. Lett.30(9), 706–707 (1994). [CrossRef]
  10. D. J. Coleman, T. A. King, D.-K. Ko, and J. Lee, “Q-switched operation of a 2.7 μm cladding-pumped Er3+/Pr3+ codoped ZBLAN fibre laser,” Opt. Commun.236(4-6), 379–385 (2004). [CrossRef]
  11. S. Tokita, M. Murakami, S. Shimizu, M. Hashida, and S. Sakabe, “12 W Q-switched Er:ZBLAN fiber laser at 2.8 μm,” Opt. Lett.36(15), 2812–2814 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. C. Frerichs and U. B. Unrau, “Passive Q-Switching and mode-Locking of erbium-doped fluoride fiber lasers at 2.7 μm,” Opt. Fiber Technol.2(4), 358–366 (1996). [CrossRef]
  13. N. J. C. Libatique, J. D. Tafoya, and R. K. Jain, “A compact diode-pumped passively Q-switched mid-IR fiber laser,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, Vol. 34 of Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), pp. 417–419.
  14. B. C. Dickinson, P. S. Golding, M. Pollnau, T. A. King, and S. D. Jackson, “Investigation of a 791-nm pulsed-pumped 2.7 μm Er-doped ZBLAN fibre laser,” Opt. Commun.191(3-6), 315–321 (2001). [CrossRef]
  15. M. Gorjan, R. Petkovšek, M. Marinček, and M. Čopič, “High-power pulsed diode-pumped Er:ZBLAN fiber laser,” Opt. Lett.36(10), 1923–1925 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. T.-Y. Tsai, Y.-C. Fang, and S.-H. Hung, “Passively Q-switched erbium all-fiber lasers by use of thulium-doped saturable-absorber fibers,” Opt. Express18(10), 10049–10054 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. A. S. Kurkov, Ya. E. Sadovnikova, A. V. Marakulin, and E. M. Sholokhov, “All fiber Er-Tm Q-switched laser,” Laser Phys. Lett.7(11), 795–797 (2010). [CrossRef]
  18. M. J. F. Digonnet, Rare-Earth-Doped Fiber Lasers and Amplifiers, 2nd ed. (CRC Press, 2001).
  19. F. Auzel, D. Meichenin, and H. Poignant, “Laser cross-section and quantum yield of Er at 2.7 μm in a ZrF -based fluoride glass,” Electron. Lett.24(15), 909–910 (1988). [CrossRef]
  20. V. Lupei, S. Georgescu, and V. Florea, “On the dynamics of population inversion for 3 μm Er lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.29(2), 426–434 (1993). [CrossRef]
  21. N. J. C. Libatique, J. Tafoya, N. K. Viswanathan, R. K. Jain, and A. Cable, “‘Field-usable’ diode-pumped ~120 nm wavelength-tunable CW mid-IR fibre laser,” Electron. Lett.36(9), 791–792 (2000). [CrossRef]
  22. M. Bernier, D. Faucher, R. Vallée, A. Saliminia, G. Androz, Y. Sheng, and S. L. Chin, “Bragg gratings photoinduced in ZBLAN fibers by femtosecond pulses at 800 nm,” Opt. Lett.32(5), 454–456 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. M. Bernier, D. Faucher, N. Caron, and R. Vallée, “Highly stable and efficient erbium-doped 2.8 microm all fiber laser,” Opt. Express17(19), 16941–16946 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. A. Siegman, Lasers (University Science Books 1986), pp. 1024–1028.

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