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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 20, Iss. 12 — Jun. 4, 2012
  • pp: 13100–13107
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Highly efficient CW parametric conversion at 1550 nm in SOI waveguides by reverse biased p-i-n junction

Andrzej Gajda, Lars Zimmermann, Mahmoud Jazayerifar, Georg Winzer, Hui Tian, Robert Elschner, Thomas Richter, Colja Schubert, Bernd Tillack, and Klaus Petermann  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 20, Issue 12, pp. 13100-13107 (2012)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.20.013100


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Abstract

In this paper we present four-wave mixing (FWM) based parametric conversion experiments in p-i-n diode assisted silicon-on-insulator (SOI) nano-rib waveguides using continuous-wave (CW) light around 1550 nm wavelength. Using a reverse biased p-i-n waveguide diode we observe an increase of the wavelength conversion efficiency of more than 4.5 dB compared to low loss nano-rib waveguides without p-i-n junction, achieving a peak efficiency of −1 dB. Conversion efficiency improves also by more than 7 dB compared to previously reported experiments deploying 1.5 µm SOI waveguides with p-i-n structure. To the best of our knowledge, the observed peak conversion efficiency of −1dB is the highest CW efficiency in SOI reported so far.

© 2012 OSA

1. Introduction

The silicon-on-insulator (SOI) platform stimulates increasing interest in waveguide based nonlinear optics. During the last decade, effects such as four-wave mixing (FWM) [1

1. R. M. Osgood Jr, N. C. Panoiu, J. I. Dadap, X. Liu, X. Chen, I.-W. Hsieh, E. Dulkeith, W. M. Green, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Engineering nonlinearities in nanoscale optical systems: physics and applications in dispersion-engineered silicon nanophotonic wires,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 1, 162–235 (2009).

11

11. J. R. Ong, M. L. Cooper, G. Gupta, W. M. J. Green, S. Assefa, F. Xia, and S. Mookherjea, “Low-power continuous-wave four-wave mixing in silicon coupled-resonator optical waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 36(15), 2964–2966 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], Raman scattering [12

12. R. Claps, D. Dimitropoulos, V. Raghunathan, Y. Han, and B. Jalali, “Observation of stimulated Raman amplification in silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 11(15), 1731–1739 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15

15. H. Rong, S. Xu, Y. Kuo, V. Sih, O. Cohen, O. Raday, and M. Paniccia, “Low-threshold continuous-wave Raman silicon laser,” Nat. Photonics 1(4), 232–237 (2007). [CrossRef]

], self phase modulation (SPM) [2

2. Q. Lin, O. J. Painter, and G. P. Agrawal, “Nonlinear optical phenomena in silicon waveguides: modeling and applications,” Opt. Express 15(25), 16604–16644 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,4

4. M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip,” Nature 441(7096), 960–963 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and cross phase modulation (XPM) [2

2. Q. Lin, O. J. Painter, and G. P. Agrawal, “Nonlinear optical phenomena in silicon waveguides: modeling and applications,” Opt. Express 15(25), 16604–16644 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,4

4. M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip,” Nature 441(7096), 960–963 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] were studied by various groups. After 2006 however, only few experiments on SOI waveguides using high intensity CW light in the telecom window were reported [5

5. M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, R. Salem, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Broad-band continuous-wave parametric wavelength conversion in silicon nanowaveguides,” Opt. Express 15(20), 12949–12958 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,6

6. W. Mathlouthi, H. Rong, and M. Paniccia, “Characterization of efficient wavelength conversion by four-wave mixing in sub-micron silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 16(21), 16735–16745 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,8

8. A. C. Turner-Foster, M. A. Foster, R. Salem, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Frequency conversion over two-thirds of an octave in silicon nanowaveguides,” Opt. Express 18(3), 1904–1908 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Instead, most of studies took up mid-infrared light [7

7. X. Liu, R. M. Osgood, Y. A. Vlasov, and W. M. J. Green, “Mid-infrared optical parametric amplifier using silicon nanophotonic waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 557–560 (2010). [CrossRef]

,10

10. S. Zlatanovic, J. S. Park, F. Gholami, J. Chavez Boggio, S. Moro, N. Alic, S. Mookherjea, and S. Radic, “Mid-infrared wavelength conversion in silicon waveguides pumped by silica-fiber-based source,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. PP, 1–9 (2011).

,16

16. B. Kuyken, X. Liu, R. M. Osgood Jr, R. Baets, G. Roelkens, and W. M. J. Green, “Mid-infrared to telecom-band supercontinuum generation in highly nonlinear silicon-on-insulator wire waveguides,” Opt. Express 19(21), 20172–20181 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], pulsed light [4

4. M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip,” Nature 441(7096), 960–963 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,7

7. X. Liu, R. M. Osgood, Y. A. Vlasov, and W. M. J. Green, “Mid-infrared optical parametric amplifier using silicon nanophotonic waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 557–560 (2010). [CrossRef]

,16

16. B. Kuyken, X. Liu, R. M. Osgood Jr, R. Baets, G. Roelkens, and W. M. J. Green, “Mid-infrared to telecom-band supercontinuum generation in highly nonlinear silicon-on-insulator wire waveguides,” Opt. Express 19(21), 20172–20181 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] or low intensities [11

11. J. R. Ong, M. L. Cooper, G. Gupta, W. M. J. Green, S. Assefa, F. Xia, and S. Mookherjea, “Low-power continuous-wave four-wave mixing in silicon coupled-resonator optical waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 36(15), 2964–2966 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,17

17. J. Leuthold, W. Freude, J. M. Brosi, R. Baets, P. Dumon, I. Biaggio, M. L. Scimeca, F. Diederich, B. Frank, and C. Koos, “Silicon organic hybrid technology-a platform for practical nonlinear optics,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1304–1316 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. Until today the question remains whether we can deploy SOI nonlinear optics in the telecom window for CW applications such as parametric amplifiers. In this paper we shall present our recent experimental results of four-wave mixing based wavelength conversion in nano-rib waveguides with p-i-n diode structures. The reason for using a p-i-n diode along the waveguide structure is to remove the free carriers induced by two photon absorption (TPA). Free carriers cause additional absorption that is highly detrimental for nonlinear effects like Raman scattering (SRS) or FWM. In this paper, we show that efficient removal of free carriers from nano-waveguides can be achieved using p-i-n waveguide diodes. The thus available higher intensities on a smaller waveguide cross section allow for considerably improved parametric scattering efficiencies, opening the perspective for telecom CW parametric amplifiers.

Some groups already demonstrated CW nonlinear optical effects in SOI rib waveguides with reverse biased p-i-n diode such as Raman lasing [14

14. H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser,” Nature 433(7027), 725–728 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,15

15. H. Rong, S. Xu, Y. Kuo, V. Sih, O. Cohen, O. Raday, and M. Paniccia, “Low-threshold continuous-wave Raman silicon laser,” Nat. Photonics 1(4), 232–237 (2007). [CrossRef]

], and wavelength conversion [3

3. Y. H. Kuo, H. Rong, V. Sih, S. Xu, M. Paniccia, and O. Cohen, “Demonstration of wavelength conversion at 40 Gb/s data rate in silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 14(24), 11721–11726 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. However, these works analyzed larger waveguides of 1.5µm x 1.55µm (width x height). In another work, reverse biased p-i-n diodes on nano-waveguides proved to be an efficient free carrier removal scheme [18

18. A. C. Turner-Foster, M. A. Foster, J. S. Levy, C. B. Poitras, R. Salem, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Ultrashort free-carrier lifetime in low-loss silicon nanowaveguides,” Opt. Express 18(4), 3582–3591 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], reducing free carrier lifetimes down to ps. However, this work did not experimentally investigate nonlinear optical effects. Most of the work on wavelength conversion and parametric gain was done for silicon nano-waveguides without active carrier removal [1

1. R. M. Osgood Jr, N. C. Panoiu, J. I. Dadap, X. Liu, X. Chen, I.-W. Hsieh, E. Dulkeith, W. M. Green, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Engineering nonlinearities in nanoscale optical systems: physics and applications in dispersion-engineered silicon nanophotonic wires,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 1, 162–235 (2009).

,2

2. Q. Lin, O. J. Painter, and G. P. Agrawal, “Nonlinear optical phenomena in silicon waveguides: modeling and applications,” Opt. Express 15(25), 16604–16644 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,4

4. M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip,” Nature 441(7096), 960–963 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11

11. J. R. Ong, M. L. Cooper, G. Gupta, W. M. J. Green, S. Assefa, F. Xia, and S. Mookherjea, “Low-power continuous-wave four-wave mixing in silicon coupled-resonator optical waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 36(15), 2964–2966 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. These experiments therefore suffered from free carrier absorption or used a pulsed pump in order to strongly reduce free carrier absorption in the waveguide [4

4. M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip,” Nature 441(7096), 960–963 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. In the Table 1

Table 1. Summary of CW Four-wave Mixing Results in Literature and This Work

table-icon
View This Table
. at the end of the paper we compare experimental results achieved by other groups to the results of this work.

2. Simulation method

Results of the simulations are shown in Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Typical simulated spectrum at the input and at the output of the waveguide (L = 4cm). In our experiment, the idler is only present at the output. (b) Conversion efficiency plotted vs. waveguide length for a set of pump powers.
. The depicted spectrum exemplifies signal and pump at the input, while signal, pump, and idler are present at the output. In the waveguide, linear loss and TPA will decrease the pump and the signal, while parametric scattering along the waveguide creates idler photons as well as signal photons. The dynamics of the process is better visible if we plot conversion gain as a function of waveguide length. The conversion efficiency saturates at ηLL = 0dB, if sufficient power is present in the waveguide. About 26-dBm pump power are required to achieve saturation on a length scale of 10 cm. Shorter devices are possible if more pump power can be injected into the waveguide.

3. Device fabrication and measurement setup

For our experiments we fabricated SOI nano-rib waveguides. The in- and out-coupling was realized by standard 1D-grating couplers. The samples were fabricated in a BiCMOS line with 248-nm lithography. Doped regions were created by implantation of B and As with 1018 cm−3 concentration to create p- and n-regions, respectively. Separation between doping regions was designed to be 1.2 µm. Higher doped contact regions were placed further away from the waveguide and contacted by metal electrodes. Figure 3
Fig. 3 SEM cross-section of rib-waveguide as used for the nonlinear experiments in this paper. The waveguide height was H = 220nm, slab height s = 50nm, the rib width w = 500nm.
shows the waveguide cross-section made with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The waveguides were covered with 100 nm silicon oxide and 90 nm silicon nitride. On top of the latter 1 µm of silicon oxide were deposited to separate the waveguides and the metal electrodes.

The four-wave mixing experiment was performed using the setup shown in Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Scheme of the measurement setup to characterize four-wave mixing in the waveguides.
. For pumping we deployed a tunable CW laser source followed by erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) with a maximum power of 5 W and a polarization controller. The CW pump was injected into the low-loss input of the 10-dB fiber optical coupler. Here, the pump (attenuated by 1 dB) was combined with the CW signal (attenuated by 11 dB) and the combined pump-signal-beam was delivered to the input grating coupler. Photodiode 1 (PD1) was dedicated to measuring pump power when the signal was turned off to determine background and pump peak. A cleaved fiber was used to couple light to the input of the device under test (DUT) and couple it out at the output of the DUT. On the output side, before reaching the optical spectrum analyzer (OSA), the light was attenuated by about 13 dB. Photodiode 2 (PD2) was used for the optimization of coupling. All the presented experiments were performed for TE polarization. During the measurements the temperature of the device under test (DUT) was stabilized at 35 °C and the applied voltage was controlled using probes placed on contact pads of the measured sample.

4. Results

In our experiment we used waveguides with and without p-i-n diode. On the realized structures we measured 2 dB/cm linear propagation loss by the cut-back method. We did not observe significant increase of loss for high pump power with bias applied. More detailed information about propagation loss in waveguides used for our experiment can be found in the recently accepted paper [20

20. H. Tian, G. Winzer, A. Gajda, K. Petermann, B. Tillack, and L. Zimmermann, “Fabrication of low-loss SOI nano-waveguides including BEOL processes for nonlinear applications,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Publ. (to be published).

]. In- and out-coupling loss was 5 dB, respectively. In Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Parametric conversion efficiency vs. pump power for two nano-waveguides (1 cm and 4 cm). The waveguides were fabricated without p-i-n, and show clear saturation behavior.
we show the measured conversion efficiency as a function of the in-coupled pump power for waveguides without p-i-n diode. The waveguides had a length of 1 and 4 cm, the 4cm waveguide had about 4x as many turns as the 1cm waveguide. We observe at small pump powers a rapid increase of the idler signal, however, soon followed by a saturation of efficiency around −24 dB, as the pump power keeps increasing. Such low conversion efficiencies are not surprising, since the parametric scattering will suffer from free-carrier absorption (nonlinear loss). The carriers are created by two-photon absorption, with typical free-carrier lifetimes around 1 ns [1

1. R. M. Osgood Jr, N. C. Panoiu, J. I. Dadap, X. Liu, X. Chen, I.-W. Hsieh, E. Dulkeith, W. M. Green, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Engineering nonlinearities in nanoscale optical systems: physics and applications in dispersion-engineered silicon nanophotonic wires,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 1, 162–235 (2009).

].

To determine peak conversion efficiency and bandwidth of the process we conducted a wavelength dependent measurement. The signal wavelength was detuned from the pump wavelength, and the conversion efficiency was determined from a 4-cm long waveguide. The experimental results are plotted in Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Conversion efficiency vs. detuning of signal-pump, for three different pump wavelengths. Pump power in the waveguide was 26 dBm.
.

Considering such high conversion efficiencies, the question arises whether it will be possible to achieve conversion gain using silicon nano-waveguides with integrated p-i-n diodes. We believe that this is possible if grating efficiency can be increased and if the linear waveguide loss can be further decreased. Increase of grating efficiency has been demonstrated, e.g. by means of silicon overgrowth [21

21. D. Vermeulen, S. Selvaraja, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, W. Bogaerts, P. Absil, D. Van Thourhout, and G. Roelkens, “High-efficiency fiber-to-chip grating couplers realized using an advanced CMOS-compatible silicon-on-insulator platform,” Opt. Express 18(17), 18278–18283 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Lower loss waveguides have been demonstrated as well for shallow etched geometries, with loss reaching as low as 0.3 dB/cm [22

22. S. K. Selvaraja, W. Bogaerts, P. Absil, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Record low-loss hybrid rib/wire waveguides for silicon photonic circuits,” Group IV Photonics proceedings 2010.

].

We estimated the conversion gain using our numerical model. We compared two waveguide geometries. Figure 8
Fig. 8 Conversion efficiency comparing signal input with idler output as predicted from our simple model. Only nano-waveguides allow for net- conversion gain.
shows conversion efficiency versus waveguide length of the nano-waveguides with p-i-n junctions with 0.5 dB/cm loss and of the 1.5-µm p-i-n assisted waveguides with 0.4 dB/cm loss, which correspond to the waveguides used in [3

3. Y. H. Kuo, H. Rong, V. Sih, S. Xu, M. Paniccia, and O. Cohen, “Demonstration of wavelength conversion at 40 Gb/s data rate in silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 14(24), 11721–11726 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,6

6. W. Mathlouthi, H. Rong, and M. Paniccia, “Characterization of efficient wavelength conversion by four-wave mixing in sub-micron silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 16(21), 16735–16745 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Our model indeed predicts parametric conversion gain for CW operation around 1550 nm if linear loss can be reduced to 0.5 dB/cm. We also observe that parametric gain is not achievable with the micrometer waveguides. Since there is a potential for reducing linear loss in nano-rib-waveguides below 0.3 dB/cm [21

21. D. Vermeulen, S. Selvaraja, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, W. Bogaerts, P. Absil, D. Van Thourhout, and G. Roelkens, “High-efficiency fiber-to-chip grating couplers realized using an advanced CMOS-compatible silicon-on-insulator platform,” Opt. Express 18(17), 18278–18283 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], an even higher parametric gain may be possible.

5. Conclusions

In this work we show that reverse biased p-i-n diodes integrated with silicon nano-waveguides allow for a considerable increase of four-wave mixing efficiency in CW mode at 1550 nm compared to previously published results. To put our experimental findings into perspective, we compared them in Table 1 with the CW state-of-the-art work at 1550 nm. By reducing linear loss and by increasing grating coupler efficiency, we expect parametric gain from silicon waveguide based structures for 1550nm light in CW mode.

Acknowledgments

This work has been supported by Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) in the frame of the Forschergruppe FOR 653 and the DFG project PE 319/26-1 “Faseroptische parametrische Verstärker”.

References and links

1.

R. M. Osgood Jr, N. C. Panoiu, J. I. Dadap, X. Liu, X. Chen, I.-W. Hsieh, E. Dulkeith, W. M. Green, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Engineering nonlinearities in nanoscale optical systems: physics and applications in dispersion-engineered silicon nanophotonic wires,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 1, 162–235 (2009).

2.

Q. Lin, O. J. Painter, and G. P. Agrawal, “Nonlinear optical phenomena in silicon waveguides: modeling and applications,” Opt. Express 15(25), 16604–16644 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3.

Y. H. Kuo, H. Rong, V. Sih, S. Xu, M. Paniccia, and O. Cohen, “Demonstration of wavelength conversion at 40 Gb/s data rate in silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 14(24), 11721–11726 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4.

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip,” Nature 441(7096), 960–963 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, R. Salem, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Broad-band continuous-wave parametric wavelength conversion in silicon nanowaveguides,” Opt. Express 15(20), 12949–12958 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

W. Mathlouthi, H. Rong, and M. Paniccia, “Characterization of efficient wavelength conversion by four-wave mixing in sub-micron silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 16(21), 16735–16745 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

X. Liu, R. M. Osgood, Y. A. Vlasov, and W. M. J. Green, “Mid-infrared optical parametric amplifier using silicon nanophotonic waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 557–560 (2010). [CrossRef]

8.

A. C. Turner-Foster, M. A. Foster, R. Salem, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Frequency conversion over two-thirds of an octave in silicon nanowaveguides,” Opt. Express 18(3), 1904–1908 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

N. Ophir, J. Chan, K. Padmaraju, A. Biberman, A. C. Foster, M. A. Foster, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, and K. Bergman, “Continuous wavelength conversion of 40-Gb/s data over 100 nm using a dispersion-engineered silicon waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(2), 73–75 (2011). [CrossRef]

10.

S. Zlatanovic, J. S. Park, F. Gholami, J. Chavez Boggio, S. Moro, N. Alic, S. Mookherjea, and S. Radic, “Mid-infrared wavelength conversion in silicon waveguides pumped by silica-fiber-based source,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. PP, 1–9 (2011).

11.

J. R. Ong, M. L. Cooper, G. Gupta, W. M. J. Green, S. Assefa, F. Xia, and S. Mookherjea, “Low-power continuous-wave four-wave mixing in silicon coupled-resonator optical waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 36(15), 2964–2966 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

R. Claps, D. Dimitropoulos, V. Raghunathan, Y. Han, and B. Jalali, “Observation of stimulated Raman amplification in silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 11(15), 1731–1739 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

M. Krause, H. Renner, and E. Brinkmeyer, “Analysis of Raman lasing characteristics in silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Express 12(23), 5703–5710 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser,” Nature 433(7027), 725–728 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15.

H. Rong, S. Xu, Y. Kuo, V. Sih, O. Cohen, O. Raday, and M. Paniccia, “Low-threshold continuous-wave Raman silicon laser,” Nat. Photonics 1(4), 232–237 (2007). [CrossRef]

16.

B. Kuyken, X. Liu, R. M. Osgood Jr, R. Baets, G. Roelkens, and W. M. J. Green, “Mid-infrared to telecom-band supercontinuum generation in highly nonlinear silicon-on-insulator wire waveguides,” Opt. Express 19(21), 20172–20181 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

17.

J. Leuthold, W. Freude, J. M. Brosi, R. Baets, P. Dumon, I. Biaggio, M. L. Scimeca, F. Diederich, B. Frank, and C. Koos, “Silicon organic hybrid technology-a platform for practical nonlinear optics,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1304–1316 (2009). [CrossRef]

18.

A. C. Turner-Foster, M. A. Foster, J. S. Levy, C. B. Poitras, R. Salem, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Ultrashort free-carrier lifetime in low-loss silicon nanowaveguides,” Opt. Express 18(4), 3582–3591 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

19.

A. Gajda, L. Zimmermann, J. Bruns, B. Tillack, and K. Petermann, “Design rules for p-i-n diode carriers sweeping in nano-rib waveguides on SOI,” Opt. Express 19(10), 9915–9922 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

20.

H. Tian, G. Winzer, A. Gajda, K. Petermann, B. Tillack, and L. Zimmermann, “Fabrication of low-loss SOI nano-waveguides including BEOL processes for nonlinear applications,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Publ. (to be published).

21.

D. Vermeulen, S. Selvaraja, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, W. Bogaerts, P. Absil, D. Van Thourhout, and G. Roelkens, “High-efficiency fiber-to-chip grating couplers realized using an advanced CMOS-compatible silicon-on-insulator platform,” Opt. Express 18(17), 18278–18283 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

22.

S. K. Selvaraja, W. Bogaerts, P. Absil, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Record low-loss hybrid rib/wire waveguides for silicon photonic circuits,” Group IV Photonics proceedings 2010.

OCIS Codes
(130.3120) Integrated optics : Integrated optics devices
(130.4310) Integrated optics : Nonlinear
(190.4223) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear wave mixing
(190.4975) Nonlinear optics : Parametric processes
(230.7405) Optical devices : Wavelength conversion devices

ToC Category:
Nonlinear Optics

History
Original Manuscript: March 1, 2012
Revised Manuscript: May 21, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: May 21, 2012
Published: May 25, 2012

Citation
Andrzej Gajda, Lars Zimmermann, Mahmoud Jazayerifar, Georg Winzer, Hui Tian, Robert Elschner, Thomas Richter, Colja Schubert, Bernd Tillack, and Klaus Petermann, "Highly efficient CW parametric conversion at 1550 nm in SOI waveguides by reverse biased p-i-n junction," Opt. Express 20, 13100-13107 (2012)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-20-12-13100


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References

  1. R. M. Osgood, N. C. Panoiu, J. I. Dadap, X. Liu, X. Chen, I.-W. Hsieh, E. Dulkeith, W. M. Green, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Engineering nonlinearities in nanoscale optical systems: physics and applications in dispersion-engineered silicon nanophotonic wires,” Adv. Opt. Photon.1, 162–235 (2009).
  2. Q. Lin, O. J. Painter, and G. P. Agrawal, “Nonlinear optical phenomena in silicon waveguides: modeling and applications,” Opt. Express15(25), 16604–16644 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. Y. H. Kuo, H. Rong, V. Sih, S. Xu, M. Paniccia, and O. Cohen, “Demonstration of wavelength conversion at 40 Gb/s data rate in silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express14(24), 11721–11726 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip,” Nature441(7096), 960–963 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, R. Salem, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Broad-band continuous-wave parametric wavelength conversion in silicon nanowaveguides,” Opt. Express15(20), 12949–12958 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. W. Mathlouthi, H. Rong, and M. Paniccia, “Characterization of efficient wavelength conversion by four-wave mixing in sub-micron silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express16(21), 16735–16745 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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