OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 20, Iss. 12 — Jun. 4, 2012
  • pp: 13238–13251
« Show journal navigation

Frequency selection in absolute phase maps recovery with two frequency projection fringes

Yi Ding, Jiangtao Xi, Yanguang Yu, Wenqing Cheng, Shu Wang, and Joe F. Chicharo  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 20, Issue 12, pp. 13238-13251 (2012)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.20.013238


View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (1921 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

In a recent published work we proposed a technique to recover the absolute phase maps of two fringe patterns with different spatial frequencies. It is demonstrated that a number of selected frequency pairs can be used for the proposed approach, but the published work did not provide a guideline for frequency selection. In addition, the performance of the proposed technique in terms of its anti-noise capability is not addressed. In this paper, the rules for selecting the two frequencies are presented based on theoretical analysis of the proposed technique. Also, when the two frequencies are given, the anti-noise capability of technique is formulated and evaluated. These theoretical conclusions are verified by experimental results.

© 2012 OSA

1. Introduction

Fringe projection profilometry (FPP) is one of the most promising approaches for non-contact 3D shape measurement. A challenging task associated with existing phase measurement techniques in FPP is phase unwrapping operation, which aims to recover the absolute phase maps from the wrapped phase maps falling in (π,π). Although various phase unwrapping methods have been proposed, such as spatial [1

1. S. Zhang, X. Li, and S. T. Yau, “Multilevel quality-guided phase unwrapping algorithm for real-time three-dimensional shape reconstruction,” Appl. Opt. 46(1), 50–57 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], temporal [2

2. J. M. Huntley and H. O. Saldner, “Temporal phase-unwrapping algorithm for automated interferogram analysis,” Appl. Opt. 32(17), 3047–3052 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,3

3. H. Zhao, W. Chen, and Y. Tan, “Phase-unwrapping algorithm for the measurement of three-dimensional object shapes,” Appl. Opt. 33(20), 4497–4500 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and period coding [4

4. H. J. Chen, J. Zhang, D. J. Lv, and J. Fang, “3-D shape measurement by composite pattern projection and hybrid processing,” Opt. Express 15(19), 12318–12330 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], recovery of absolute phase maps is still a challenging task when the wrapped phase maps contain noise, sharp changes or discontinuities [2

2. J. M. Huntley and H. O. Saldner, “Temporal phase-unwrapping algorithm for automated interferogram analysis,” Appl. Opt. 32(17), 3047–3052 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

To achieve reliable and accurate phase unwrapping for FPP, a variety of temporal phase unwrapping approaches have been proposed following work of Huntley and Saldner [2

2. J. M. Huntley and H. O. Saldner, “Temporal phase-unwrapping algorithm for automated interferogram analysis,” Appl. Opt. 32(17), 3047–3052 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The general idea behind the temporal method is the use of multiple fringe patterns that are projected onto the project, yielding a sequence of wrapped phase maps as a function of time t. These phase maps can be considered as a 3D phase map ϕ(m,n,t), denoting the wrapped phase value at pixel (m,n) at the tth phase map (t = 0, 1, 2, …, s). Phase unwrapping can be carried out along any path in the 3D space in order to avoid noise or boundaries and thus achieving correct recovery of the absolute phase map. While the method proposed in [2

2. J. M. Huntley and H. O. Saldner, “Temporal phase-unwrapping algorithm for automated interferogram analysis,” Appl. Opt. 32(17), 3047–3052 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] is demonstrated to be effective for accurate phase unwrapping, it also suffers from the drawback of requiring many intermediate phase patterns (e.g., 7 sets of fringe patterns were employed in [2

2. J. M. Huntley and H. O. Saldner, “Temporal phase-unwrapping algorithm for automated interferogram analysis,” Appl. Opt. 32(17), 3047–3052 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]), which is obviously not suitable for fast or real-time measurement. In order to increase the efficiency, Zhao, et al. [3

3. H. Zhao, W. Chen, and Y. Tan, “Phase-unwrapping algorithm for the measurement of three-dimensional object shapes,” Appl. Opt. 33(20), 4497–4500 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] proposed to use two image patterns, one of which has a very low spatial frequency in contrast to the other. In particular, the low spatial frequency pattern only has a single fringe. Such a pattern has its absolute phase value falling within the range (π,π), and hence it can be used as a reference to calculate the fringe number of the other fringe pattern, thus yielding its absolute phase map. Li, et al. [5

5. J. L. Li, H. J. Su, and X. Y. Su, “Two-frequency grating used in phase-measuring profilometry,” Appl. Opt. 36(1), 277–280 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,6

6. J. Li, L. G. Hassebrook, and C. Guan, “Optimized two-frequency phase-measuring-profilometry light-sensor temporal-noise sensitivity,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20(1), 106–115 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] also employ the phase map of single fringe pattern as reference to unwrap high spatial frequency fringe patterns, and it is shown that the spatial frequency of the pattern to be unwrapped is determined by the level of noise. Following the same method in [5

5. J. L. Li, H. J. Su, and X. Y. Su, “Two-frequency grating used in phase-measuring profilometry,” Appl. Opt. 36(1), 277–280 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], Liu, et al. [7

7. K. Liu, Y. Wang, D. L. Lau, Q. Hao, and L. G. Hassebrook, “Dual-frequency pattern scheme for high-speed 3-D shape measurement,” Opt. Express 18(5), 5229–5244 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] project a single fringe pattern and a high frequency pattern in one shot to accelerate the speed of 3D measurement. Although these approaches work well in principle, the gap between two spatial frequencies should be restricted within a range based on the noise level or steps in the low frequency phase maps. This is because under the same lighting conditions, fringe patterns with lower frequency are more vulnerable to the influence of noise or interferences [3

3. H. Zhao, W. Chen, and Y. Tan, “Phase-unwrapping algorithm for the measurement of three-dimensional object shapes,” Appl. Opt. 33(20), 4497–4500 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,6

6. J. Li, L. G. Hassebrook, and C. Guan, “Optimized two-frequency phase-measuring-profilometry light-sensor temporal-noise sensitivity,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20(1), 106–115 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,8

8. S. Zhang, “Phase unwrapping error reduction framework for a multiple-wavelength phase-shifting algorithm,” Opt. Eng. 48(10), 105601 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], and use of noisy low-frequency pattern as the reference will lead to mistakes for unwrapping the high-frequency phase maps. Therefore, the techniques proposed in [3

3. H. Zhao, W. Chen, and Y. Tan, “Phase-unwrapping algorithm for the measurement of three-dimensional object shapes,” Appl. Opt. 33(20), 4497–4500 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,5

5. J. L. Li, H. J. Su, and X. Y. Su, “Two-frequency grating used in phase-measuring profilometry,” Appl. Opt. 36(1), 277–280 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,6

6. J. Li, L. G. Hassebrook, and C. Guan, “Optimized two-frequency phase-measuring-profilometry light-sensor temporal-noise sensitivity,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20(1), 106–115 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] may not work well when the phase maps are noisy or discontinuous, and multiple intermediate image patterns are still required in order to reduce the frequency gaps among adjacent patterns. This problem is studied again by Saldner and Huntley [9

9. J. M. Huntley and H. O. Saldner, “Error-reduction methods for shape measurement by temporal phase unwrapping,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14(12), 3188–3196 (1997). [CrossRef]

,10

10. H. O. Saldner and J. M. Huntley, “Temporal phase unwrapping: application to surface profiling of discontinuous objects,” Appl. Opt. 36(13), 2770–2775 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], showing that to unwrap a phase map of frequency f, log2f+1 sets of fringe patterns are required. A similar result is also reached by Zhang [8

8. S. Zhang, “Phase unwrapping error reduction framework for a multiple-wavelength phase-shifting algorithm,” Opt. Eng. 48(10), 105601 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,11

11. S. Zhang, “Digital multiple-wavelength phase-shifting algorithm,” Proc. SPIE 7432, 74320N, 74320N-11 (2009). [CrossRef]

], indicating that the spatial frequency can be increased by a factor of 2 between two adjacent patterns. Taking a typical FPP arrangement as an example where the image pattern has 16 fringes, 5 image patterns are still required with these approaches. Towers, et al. [12

12. C. E. Towers, D. P. Towers, and J. D. C. Jones, “Absolute fringe order calculation using optimisied multi-frequency selection in full-filed profilometry,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 43(7), 788–800 (2005). [CrossRef]

] propose an optimal frequency selection method to increase the unambiguous range of the measurement, showing that at least three frequencies were needed for a defined reliability in fringe number calculation. Therefore, existing temporal phase unwrapping techniques still require the use of multiple image patterns, and reduction of the number of image pattern while keeping anti-noise capability is still a challenging problem.

A set of technologies, which are similar by name to the above and referred to as two (or multiple wavelength) interferometry, are also proposed in the area of traditional interferometry, where use of multiple light sources with different wavelengths have shown to yield significant advantages for distance measurement [13

13. J. C. Wyant, “Testing aspherics using two-wavelength holography,” Appl. Opt. 10(9), 2113–2118 (1971). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,14

14. C. Polhemus, “Two-wavelength interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 12(9), 2071–2074 (1973). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. When a monochromic light with wavelength λ is used, the measurement of a optical path difference (OPD) is suffered from ambiguity of module λ, making λ to be the so-called unambiguous OPD range (UR) for the measurement. The idea behind multiple wavelength interferometry technology is that by using multiple laser beams with different wavelengths in an interferometer, the resulting interferometric pattern is equivalent to the result of using a single laser beam in the same interferometer with a much longer wavelength, implying a significant increase in UR. If the laser beams of different wavelength λ1 and λ2 are used in two wavelength interferometry (TWI), an interferometric patterns can be formed with the equivalent wavelength of λeq=λ1λ2/|λ1λ2|, where λeq can be made much larger than λ1 and λ2. With the development of digital cameras and computers, the two wavelength interferometry is considerably improved by the introduction of the phase shifting algorithm [15

15. Y.-Y. Cheng and J. C. Wyant, “Two-wavelength phase shifting interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 23(24), 4539–4543 (1984). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,16

16. K. Creath, “Step height measurement using two-wavelength phase-shifting interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 26(14), 2810–2816 (1987). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Houairi, et al. [17

17. K. Houairi and F. Cassaing, “Two-wavelength interferometry: extended range and accurate optical path difference analytical estimator,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 26(12), 2503–2511 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] present an analytical algorithm, showing that the actual UR could be much larger than the equivalent wavelength depending on the wavelengths and different sources of error.

In summary of the above, we have seen two classes of research effort. On one hand, temporal phase unwrapping techniques aim to recover the absolute phase map of fringe patters used for FPP. Due to the existence of noise, multiple intermediate fringe patterns must be used. On the other hand, the approaches of multiple wavelength interferometry aim to increase of the UR for distance measurement; they employ an equivalent fringe pattern from the use of multiple laser sources with different wavelengths in the same interferometer setup. The spatial wavelength of the equivalent pattern can be made larger than the individual laser sources, hence leading to increase of the UR for distance measurement. However, it is not guaranteed that the spatial wavelength of the equivalent pattern cover the whole image (that is, the equivalent interferometric pattern contains only a single fringe), and hence they are not yet able to solve the problem of absolute phase map recovery in FPP.

In order to remedy the phase unwrapping problem in FPP described above, the authors of this paper developed a novel approach to recover the absolute phase maps of two image patterns with selected frequencies [18

18. Y. Ding, J. Xi, Y. Yu, and J. Chicharo, “Recovering the absolute phase maps of two fringe patterns with selected frequencies,” Opt. Lett. 36(13), 2518–2520 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Examples were presented to show that both of the two frequencies can be high enough for the applications of FPP. However, a number of issues are still outstanding associated with the proposed technique in [18

18. Y. Ding, J. Xi, Y. Yu, and J. Chicharo, “Recovering the absolute phase maps of two fringe patterns with selected frequencies,” Opt. Lett. 36(13), 2518–2520 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], namely, the basic rules to select the frequencies and anti-noise capability of the proposed technique, that is, the phase error bound that ensures the correct the recovered absolute phase recovery. This paper aims to address these two important issues with the aim to provide a complete solution for the implementation of the proposed technique in [18

18. Y. Ding, J. Xi, Y. Yu, and J. Chicharo, “Recovering the absolute phase maps of two fringe patterns with selected frequencies,” Opt. Lett. 36(13), 2518–2520 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

This paper is organized as follows. In Section 2 we firstly present a brief review of the technique in [18

18. Y. Ding, J. Xi, Y. Yu, and J. Chicharo, “Recovering the absolute phase maps of two fringe patterns with selected frequencies,” Opt. Lett. 36(13), 2518–2520 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], and then analyze the principle for frequency selection. In Section 3, the phase error bound is given. In Section 4, experiments are presented to validate the principle on frequency selection and the phase error bound. Section 5 concludes the paper.

2. Selection of the two frequencies

2.1 The technique proposed in [18

18. Y. Ding, J. Xi, Y. Yu, and J. Chicharo, “Recovering the absolute phase maps of two fringe patterns with selected frequencies,” Opt. Lett. 36(13), 2518–2520 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]

With the approach proposed in [18

18. Y. Ding, J. Xi, Y. Yu, and J. Chicharo, “Recovering the absolute phase maps of two fringe patterns with selected frequencies,” Opt. Lett. 36(13), 2518–2520 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], two fringe patterns with normalized spatial frequencies f1 and f2 respectively are projected onto the surface of an object, where f1 and f2 are positive integer numbers representing the total number of fringes on the respective patterns. Let us assume that f1<f2 and that the intensity of two fringe patterns varies in sinusoidal manner in x-direction. We have [18

18. Y. Ding, J. Xi, Y. Yu, and J. Chicharo, “Recovering the absolute phase maps of two fringe patterns with selected frequencies,” Opt. Lett. 36(13), 2518–2520 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]:
{Φ1(x)=2πm1(x)+ϕ1(x)Φ2(x)=2πm2(x)+ϕ2(x)
(1)
m2(x)f1m1(x)f2=Ψ(x)
(2)
whereΨ(x)=[f2φ1(x)f1φ2(x)]/2π, x[1,T] which is the pixel index in the horizontal direction and T is the total number of pixels. Φ1(x) and Φ2(x) are the absolute phase maps to be recovered, ϕ1(x) and ϕ2(x) are the wrapped phase maps associated with the two fringe patterns with frequencies f1 and f2 respectively. As ϕ1(x)(π,π) and ϕ2(x)(π,π), Φ1(x)(f1π,f1π) and Φ2(x)(f2π,f2π), the task of phase unwrapping is to determine the two integers m1(x) and m2(x), m1(x)=f1/2,...,1,0,1,...,f1/2 and m2(x)=f2/2,...,1,0,1,...,f2/2, where x denotes the operation to take the largest integer which is not bigger than x.

m1(x)={f1/2[f1(f1mod2+1)]π/f1Φ0(x)<π......1π/f1Φ0(x)<3π/f10π/f1<Φ0(x)<π/f113π/f1<Φ0(x)π/f1......f1/2π<1Φ0(x)[f1(f1mod2+1)]π/f1
(4a)
m2(x)={f2/2[f2(f2mod2+1)]π/f2Φ0(x)<π......1π/f2Φ0(x)<3π/f20π/f2<Φ0(x)<π/f213π/f2<Φ0(x)π/f2......f2/2π<Φ0(x)[f2(f2mod2+1)]π/f2
(4b)

Equation (4a) and (4b) give all the possible combinations of (m1(x),m2(x)) when x varies from 1 to T. With selection of f1 andf2, m2(x)f1m1(x)f2 will be integer which will enable us to have a unique map relationship between Ψ(x) and a pair (m1(x),m2(x)) [18

18. Y. Ding, J. Xi, Y. Yu, and J. Chicharo, “Recovering the absolute phase maps of two fringe patterns with selected frequencies,” Opt. Lett. 36(13), 2518–2520 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Therefore, for a given x, we will have the value of Ψ(x), and then the two absolute phases can be recovered by Eq. (1), where (m1(x),m2(x)) can be determined by minimizing the following with respect to all the possible pair of (m1(x),m2(x)) as defined by Eq. (4a) and (4b):

Minm1(x),m2(x){|m2(x)f1m1(x)f2Φ(x)|}
(5)

The operational principle of the proposed technique can also be explained graphically using an example where f1=5 and f2=8. Figure 1
Fig. 1 Absolute phases on reference pattern image.
shows the relationship among three absolute phase maps Φ0(x), Φ1(x) and Φ2(x). Figure 2
Fig. 2 Corresponding relationship between wrapped phase maps and
show how ϕ1(x) and ϕ2(x) varies over x, and Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Experiment results whenand. (a) and (b) are the deformed fringe patterns; (c) and (d) are the wrapped phase maps obtained by six-step PSP; (e) and (f) are the recovered absolute phase maps of (c) and (d); (g) and (h) are the wrapped phase maps obtained by three-step PSP; (i) and (j) are the recovered phase of (g) and (h); (k) and (l) are the three dimensional reconstruction results obtained from (e) and (f) respectively.
show how Ψ(x) changes with x. It is seem that Ψ(x) only takes integer values, and it switches its value when either of ϕ1(x) and ϕ2(x) experiences a sudden change due to the phase wrapping. It is seen that as long as all the steps in Ψ(x) exhibits different height, (m1(x),m2(x)) can be determined and hence Φ1(x) and Φ2(x) can be recovered.

2.2 Principle of frequency pair selection

The validity of the approach proposed in [18

18. Y. Ding, J. Xi, Y. Yu, and J. Chicharo, “Recovering the absolute phase maps of two fringe patterns with selected frequencies,” Opt. Lett. 36(13), 2518–2520 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] relies on the existence of unique mapping from [f2ϕ1(x)f1ϕ2(x)]/2π to a pair of m1(x)andm2(x). That is, f1 and f2 must be selected so that such a unique mapping relationship is held.

In order to achieve the above, let us firstly look at the relationship between Φ0(x) and (m1(x),m2(x)). From Eq. (4), the range of Φ0(x) can be divided into N1=2f1/2+1 intervals, and the values of Φ0(x) on interval boundaries are(2n1+1)π/f1 where f1/2<n1<f1/2. On each of the intervals m1(x) takes a different value. Similarly, Eq. (5) shows that the range of Φ0(x) can also be divided into N2=2f2/2+1 intervals, the values of Φ0(x) on interval boundaries are (2n2+1)π/f2 where f2/2<n2<f2/2. On each of the intervals m2(x) takes a different value.

When f1and f2 are coprime, it is easy to show that (2n1+1)π/f1(2n2+1)π/f2 (f1 and f2 will not be coprime otherwise). Hence we can say that the interval boundaries of the two types of intervals will not coincide. These two types of boundaries together can divide the range of Φ0(x) into N intervals:
N=N1+N21=2f1/2+2f2/2+1
(6)
Each of the intervals must correspond to an unique pair (m1(x),m2(x)). As Φ0(x) varies from π to π monotonically, these intervals on Φ0(x) will correspond to the same number of intervals on x, denoted by Ω1,Ω2,...,ΩN. Obviously, each of Ω1,Ω2,...,ΩN will also correspond to a unique pair(m1(x),m2(x)). In summary of the above, we have the following:

Statement 1: If f1 and f2 are selected to be coprime, both of the two phase maps can be divided into strips based on the intervals x[Ω1,Ω2,...,ΩN] . Each of the strips on the phase maps corresponds to a unique pair (m1(x),m2(x)), which can be used to recover the absolute phases.

The above statement shows when f1 and f2 to be coprime, there exists a unique solution for the phase unwrapping problem. In order to show that the proposed approach in [18

18. Y. Ding, J. Xi, Y. Yu, and J. Chicharo, “Recovering the absolute phase maps of two fringe patterns with selected frequencies,” Opt. Lett. 36(13), 2518–2520 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] is sufficient to work out the solution, we should also have the following:

Statement 2: When f1andf2 is coprime, for any two different intervals xaΩp, xbΩq and pq,we must have two corresponding pairs of (m1(x),m2(x))based on Statement 1, which also meet the following:
f2ϕ1(xa)f1ϕ2(xa)2πf2ϕ1(xb)f1ϕ2(xb)2πorm2(xa)f1m1(xa)f2m2(xb)f1m1(xb)f2
In other words, there exists a unique mapping from (m1(x),m2(x))to f2ϕ1(x)f1ϕ2(x)2π (that is, m2(x)f1m1(x)f2) .

We prove the Statement 2 by reductio ad absurdam. There are three possible scenarios making the two pairs of (m1(x),m2(x)) different: (a) m1(xa)m1(xb) and m2(xa)m2(xb), (b) m1(xa)m1(xb) and m2(xa)=m2(xb), and (c) m1(xa)=m1(xb) and m2(xa)m2(xb). Without loss of generality let us discuss the first case where m1(xa)m1(xb) and m2(xa)m2(xb). Assume that the following is valid:
m2(xa)f1m1(xa)f2=m2(xb)f1m1(xb)f2
(7)
Equation (7) can be rewritten as:
m1(xa)m1(xb)m2(xa)m2(xb)=f1f2
(8)
Asf1andf2 are coprime, Eq. (8) must be equivalent to the following:
m1(xa)m1(xb)=kf1andm2(xa)m2(xb)=kf2
(9)
where kis an integer andk0.

Considering the ranges of m1(x) and m2(x) given above, we have f12m1(xa)f12, f12m1(xb)f12, f22m2(xa)f22 and f22m2(xb)f22, so:

2f12m1(xa)m1(xb)2f12and2f22m2(xa)m2(xb)2f22
(10)

Comparing Eq. (9) with Eq. (10), it is obvious that k=±1. Hence we have

m1(xa)m1(xb)=±f1,m2(xa)m2(xb)=±f2
(11)

Looking at Eq. (10) again, when Eq. (11) is held, we must have:
f12=f12andf22=f22
(12)
Equation (12) implies that f1andf2 are both even numbers, which is contradict to the fact that f1 and f2 are coprime. Hence Eq. (7) will not be true for the case (a) m1(xa)m1(xb) and m2(xa)m2(xb), thus we have the following and also Statement 2:

m2(xa)f1m1(xa)f2m2(xb)f1m1(xb)f2
(13)

For the case (b) m1(xa)m1(xb) and m2(xa)=m2(xb), and (c) m1(xa)=m1(xb) and m2(xa)m2(xb), it is obvious that Eq. (13) will be held.

Combining Statements 1 and 2, we are able to propose the following for selection of the two frequencies f1andf2 for the technique proposed in [18

18. Y. Ding, J. Xi, Y. Yu, and J. Chicharo, “Recovering the absolute phase maps of two fringe patterns with selected frequencies,” Opt. Lett. 36(13), 2518–2520 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]:

Statement 3: If f1andf2are coprime, there existing a unique mapping from Ψ(x)(that is, [f2ϕ1(x)f1ϕ2(x)]/2π) to (m1(x),m2(x)), which will enable us to determine (m1(x),m2(x)) in order to recover the two absolute phases using the technique proposed in [18

18. Y. Ding, J. Xi, Y. Yu, and J. Chicharo, “Recovering the absolute phase maps of two fringe patterns with selected frequencies,” Opt. Lett. 36(13), 2518–2520 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

3. Phase error bound

In the proposed technique [18

18. Y. Ding, J. Xi, Y. Yu, and J. Chicharo, “Recovering the absolute phase maps of two fringe patterns with selected frequencies,” Opt. Lett. 36(13), 2518–2520 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], after calculating [f2ϕ1(x)f1ϕ2(x)]/2π, we need to round the calculated m2(x)f1m1(x)f2 to the closest integer, then using Eq. (5) to find the corresponding m1(x)and m2(x). However, when ϕ1(x) and ϕ2(x) is corrupted by unwanted noises or distortion,[f2ϕ1(x)f1ϕ2(x)]/2π may be rounded to a wrong value of m2(x)f1m1(x)f2, resulting in errors in the recovered absolute phase maps. In this section we will study the performance of the proposed technique in [16

16. K. Creath, “Step height measurement using two-wavelength phase-shifting interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 26(14), 2810–2816 (1987). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] in terms of its anti-error capability.

The anti-error capability of the proposed technique depends on the gaps between any two possible values of [f2ϕ1(x)f1ϕ2(x)]/2π. The larger the gap, the more unlikely the error will occur due to the rounding operation. Hence we need to find out the smallest gap between two values of [f2ϕ1(x)f1ϕ2(x)]/2π, and we should also work out the relationship between the phase error in (ϕ1(x),ϕ2(x)) and the smallest gap, which will yield the anti-noise capability of the technique in [16

16. K. Creath, “Step height measurement using two-wavelength phase-shifting interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 26(14), 2810–2816 (1987). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

The smallest gap can be determined by the range of [f2ϕ1(x)f1ϕ2(x)]/2π and the number of gaps. As indicated by Eq. (2), we can evaluate m2(x)f1m1(x)f2 to work out the range of [f2ϕ1(x)f1ϕ2(x)]/2π. In order to figure out the range of m2(x)f1m1(x)f2, we need to know all the possible pairs of m1(x) and m2(x).

As shown by Eq. (4) and Eq. (5), for a particular value of m1(x), Φ0(x)spans over a range of 2π/f1, and similarly for a particular value of m2(x), Φ0(x) cover a range of 2π/f2. Whenf1<f2, the Φ0(x) associated with a particular m1(x) will span two or more intervals of Φ0(x) with respect to different m2(x)values. Also for a given m1(x)(m1(x)1), the largest value of m2(x)f1m1(x)f2 corresponds to the case when m2(x) takes the largest possible value.

For a given m1(x), Φ0(x) falls in [2πm1(x)/f1π/f1,2πm1(x)/f1+π/f1). Within the same range of Φ0(x), the largest possible m2(x) can be obtained as follows:
m2max(x)=Φ0max(x)π/f22π/f2Φ0max(x)π/f22π/f2+1
(14)
where Φ0max(x)=2πm1(x)/f1+π/f1, is the upper bound of Φ0(x) for the given m1(x). Based on the above, the largest m2(x)f1m1(x)f2 for the given m1(x) is bounded by:

m2(x)f1m1(x)f2m2max(x)f1m1(x)f2
(15)

According to Eq. (14), we have:
m2max(x)f1m1(x)f2(Φ0max(x)π/f22π/f2)f1m1(x)f2=f1+f22
(16)
So we have the upper bound of m2(x)f1m1(x)f2for a given m1(x)as follows:

m2(x)f1m1(x)f2f1+f22
(17)

Similarly, we can obtain the minimal value of m2(x) for a given m1(x) as follows:
m2min(x)=Φ0min(x)π/f22π/f2Φ0min(x)π/f22π/f2
(18)
where Φ0min(x)=2πm1(x)/f1π/f1, which is the lower bound of Φ0(x) for the given m1(x). Based on above, the smallest m2(x)f1m1(x)f2 for the given m1(x) is:

m2(x)f1m1(x)f2f1m2min(x)f2m1(x)
(19)

According to Eq. (18), we have:
f1m2min(x)f2m1(x)(Φ0min(x)π/f22π/f2)f1m1(x)f2=f1+f22
(20)
So we have the lower bound of m2(x)f1m1(x)f2for a given m1(x)as follows:
m2(x)f1m1(x)f2f1+f22
(21)
Combining Eq. (17) and Eq. (21) we have:
f1+f22m2(x)f1f2m1(x)f1+f22
(22)
From Eq. (2) and Eq. (22) we have:

f1+f22f2ϕ1(x)f1ϕ2(x)2πf1+f22
(23)

The number of value gaps is determined by the number of different values in [f2ϕ1(x)f1ϕ2(x)]/2π. By Eq. (6) and Statement 3, when f1and f2 are coprime, the number of values in [f2ϕ1(x)f1ϕ2(x)]/2πis:
N=2f1/2+2f2/2+1
So the number of value gaps is:

N1=2f1/2+2f2/2
(24)

From Eq. (23) and Eq. (24), the average value gap of [f2ϕ1(x)f1ϕ2(x)]/2π is obtained as follows:
G=f1+f22f1/2+2f2/2<2
(25)
Since the values of [f2ϕ1(x)f1ϕ2(x)]/2π are integers, the minimal value gap between the values of [f2ϕ1(x)f1ϕ2(x)]/2π is 1.

If an error in [f2ϕ1(x)f1ϕ2(x)]/2π exceeds 0.5, an error will occur when rounding [f2ϕ1(x)f1ϕ2(x)]/2π into an integer. In other words, error in [f2ϕ1(x)f1ϕ2(x)]/2π must not exceed 0.5 if we want to round [f2ϕ1(x)f1ϕ2(x)]/2π into a correct integer. Assuming phase errors in the wrapped phase maps ϕ1(x)andϕ2(x) are Δϕ1(x)and Δϕ2(x) respectively, we have:
|f2Δϕ1(x)f1Δϕ2(x)2π|<0.5
(26)
LetΔϕmax=max(|Δϕ1(x)|,|Δϕ2(x)|), from Eq. (26) we can find the upper bound of the allowable phase error:
0Δϕmax<πf1+f2
(27)
The above gives the upper bound of Δϕmax(x) with which the absolute phase maps can be correctly recovered. In other words, if Δϕmax(x) is given, we should select the two frequencies to meeting the following:

f1+f2<πΔϕmax
(28)

If maximal phase error Δϕmax(x) is larger than πf1+f2, mistakes will occur in determining the correct (m1(x), m2(x)). The phase error Δϕ1(x) and Δϕ2(x) are mainly resulted from the noise (uncertainty) and non-linear distortion of the fringe pattern projection and capture system. According to the theoretical analysis and experiment results given in [19

19. K. Liu, Y. Wang, D. L. Lau, Q. Hao, and L. G. Hassebrook, “Gamma model and its analysis for phase measuring profilometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 27(3), 553–562 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,20

20. Y. Wang, K. Liu, Q. Hao, X. Wang, D. L. Lau, and L. G. Hassebrook, “Robust active stereo vision using Kullback-Leibler divergence,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 34(3), 548–563 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], phase error can be reduced by increasing the number of steps of PSP. Hence in practice we can make 0Δϕ1(x)<πf1+f2 and 0Δϕ2(x)<πf1+f2in order to determine (m1(x), m2(x)) correctly using the approach in [18

18. Y. Ding, J. Xi, Y. Yu, and J. Chicharo, “Recovering the absolute phase maps of two fringe patterns with selected frequencies,” Opt. Lett. 36(13), 2518–2520 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

4. Experiment

In order to validate the proposed rules for frequency selection, experiments have been carried out on absolute phase maps recovery for two frequencies f1=8 andf2=15. The camera in the experiment is DuncanTech MS3100 high resolution 3CCD camera, the projector is Hitachi CP-X260 Multimedia LCD Projector. Fringe patterns withf1=8 and f2=15 are projected onto a plaster hand model as the object, and the deformed fringe patterns are shown in Fig. 3 (a) and 3(b). The vertical (y-direction) resolution of pattern image is 1392, the horizontal (x-direction) is 1038.

We firstly used the six-step Phase Shifting Profilometry (PSP) to obtain the wrapped phase maps, which are depicted in Fig. 3 (c) and 3(d). By measuring Fig. 3 (c) and 3(d) we found thatΔϕmax is about π/100 in this experiment. Since f1 and f2 are coprime,f1+f2=23<100, the requirements of Statement 3 and Eq. (27) are met and hence the absolute phase maps can be recovered from the wrapped ones, as shown by Fig. 3(e) and 3(f). Also, the results for three dimensional reconstruction in Fig. 3(k) and 3(l) also demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is able to recover the absolute phase maps.

Then we obtained another set of wrapped phase maps in Fig. 3(g) and 3(h). As we did not apply any correction and calibration, the wrapped phase maps are corrupted by nonlinear distortion with Δϕmax being about π/10. In this case, f1+f2=23>10, according to Eq. (27), error will occur in absolute phase maps recovery, which is confirmed by Fig. 3(g) and 3(j).

The above can be further confirmed looking at the recovered absolute phases on a section for y = 800. The results are shown in Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Recovered absolute phases on section y = 800, the section across the palm model. (a) and (b) are the recovered absolute phases on section y = 800 for Fig. 3(e) and 3(f) by six-step PSP; (c) and (d) are the recovered phases on section y = 800 for Fig. 3(i) and 3(j) by three-step PSP.
which clearly demonstrates that absolute phases can be recovered from the wrapped ones obtained by six-step PSP, and that errors occur for the recovery of the phase maps obtained from three-step PSP.

We also carried out experiments to validate the effectiveness of our proposed rules for the object surface with steps. The object is a plane with a step of 72mm high. Fringe patterns withf1=8 and f2=15 are projected onto the object and the deformed fringe patterns are shown in Fig. 4(a) and 4(b). The resolution of image pattern is the same as Fig. 3, and the horizontal length of the image is 315mm. The distance between the camera and reference plane is 1200mm, the distance between the camera and projector is 300mm.

We found that the average phase jumping on section x = 240 is 5.75, so the average step height is obtained as 72.28mm. The average phase different on section x = 120 is 5.76, and so the average step height is 71.96mm. This result shows that our proposed technique can also determine the absolute phase maps when the objects are with steps.

Fig. 5 Experiment on the plane with step. (a) and (b) are deformed fringe patterns; (c) and (d) are the wrapped phase maps by six-step PSP (white part are areas covered by object shadows); (e) and (f) are the absolute phase maps recovered by (c) and (d).

In order to compare with the existing two-frequency temporal phase unwrapping algorithms, we also implemented the phase unwrapping technique in Eq. (37) in [6

6. J. Li, L. G. Hassebrook, and C. Guan, “Optimized two-frequency phase-measuring-profilometry light-sensor temporal-noise sensitivity,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20(1), 106–115 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Under the same experimental conditions, one of the fringe patterns has the unit frequency (i.e., only one fringe on the pattern), and the other has the spatial frequency 15. These two fringe patterns are projected onto the same plaster hand model, and the phase maps are obtained by six-step PSP algorithm. The experiment results are depicted in Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Experiment by the existing algorithm. (a) and (b) are deformed fringe patterns of f1=1 and f2=15; (c) and (d) are the wrapped phase maps of f1=1 and f2=15 by six-step PSP; (e) is the absolute phase maps recovered by (c) and (d) based on the existing algorithm. (f) is the three dimensional reconstruction cloud.
and Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Recovered absolute phase on section y = 800 of f2=15 based on existing algorithm in [6].
gives the absolute phase map on section y = 800 of the Fig. 6(e). Comparing the recovered phase map in Fig. 6 (e) with Fig. 3(e) and 3(f), it is clear that errors are observed in Fig. 6 (e) and Fig. 7. By looking at Fig. 6 (a), we find that the maximal phase error of phase map on unit frequency is about π/15, which is bigger than π/16, the threshold set Eq. (27) for correct absolute phase recovery. Note that such a large phase error is reasonable as the lower the frequency, the higher the phase noise [3

3. H. Zhao, W. Chen, and Y. Tan, “Phase-unwrapping algorithm for the measurement of three-dimensional object shapes,” Appl. Opt. 33(20), 4497–4500 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,8

8. S. Zhang, “Phase unwrapping error reduction framework for a multiple-wavelength phase-shifting algorithm,” Opt. Eng. 48(10), 105601 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], and such a large phase error in the wrapped unit frequency phase map has led to miscounting of the fringe orders and errors in absolute phase recovery. Looking into the results in Fig. 3 again, use of frequencies 8 and 15 enjoys the maximal phase error π/100, and hence meets the requirement of Eq. (29), thus enabling correct phase recovery by means of the proposed technique in [18

18. Y. Ding, J. Xi, Y. Yu, and J. Chicharo, “Recovering the absolute phase maps of two fringe patterns with selected frequencies,” Opt. Lett. 36(13), 2518–2520 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

5. Conclusion

We presented a guideline to select the frequencies of the two fringe patterns using the proposed technique in [18

18. Y. Ding, J. Xi, Y. Yu, and J. Chicharo, “Recovering the absolute phase maps of two fringe patterns with selected frequencies,” Opt. Lett. 36(13), 2518–2520 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. It is shown that when the two frequencies are coprime, the technique in [18

18. Y. Ding, J. Xi, Y. Yu, and J. Chicharo, “Recovering the absolute phase maps of two fringe patterns with selected frequencies,” Opt. Lett. 36(13), 2518–2520 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] can be employed to recover the absolute phase maps. The anti-error ability of the proposed technique in [18

18. Y. Ding, J. Xi, Y. Yu, and J. Chicharo, “Recovering the absolute phase maps of two fringe patterns with selected frequencies,” Opt. Lett. 36(13), 2518–2520 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] has also been investigated. We have shown that when the two frequencies f1 and f2 are given, the maximal allowable phase error is π/(f1+f2) for accurate phase map recovery. In other words, if we know the maximal phase error Δϕmax, f1 and f2 should be selected in such a way that f1+f2<πΔϕmax. These guidelines have been confirmed by experiments. With the guidelines presented in this paper, we are able to select the two frequencies and implement the proposed technique in [18

18. Y. Ding, J. Xi, Y. Yu, and J. Chicharo, “Recovering the absolute phase maps of two fringe patterns with selected frequencies,” Opt. Lett. 36(13), 2518–2520 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] for various applications.

References and links

1.

S. Zhang, X. Li, and S. T. Yau, “Multilevel quality-guided phase unwrapping algorithm for real-time three-dimensional shape reconstruction,” Appl. Opt. 46(1), 50–57 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2.

J. M. Huntley and H. O. Saldner, “Temporal phase-unwrapping algorithm for automated interferogram analysis,” Appl. Opt. 32(17), 3047–3052 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3.

H. Zhao, W. Chen, and Y. Tan, “Phase-unwrapping algorithm for the measurement of three-dimensional object shapes,” Appl. Opt. 33(20), 4497–4500 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4.

H. J. Chen, J. Zhang, D. J. Lv, and J. Fang, “3-D shape measurement by composite pattern projection and hybrid processing,” Opt. Express 15(19), 12318–12330 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

J. L. Li, H. J. Su, and X. Y. Su, “Two-frequency grating used in phase-measuring profilometry,” Appl. Opt. 36(1), 277–280 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

J. Li, L. G. Hassebrook, and C. Guan, “Optimized two-frequency phase-measuring-profilometry light-sensor temporal-noise sensitivity,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20(1), 106–115 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

K. Liu, Y. Wang, D. L. Lau, Q. Hao, and L. G. Hassebrook, “Dual-frequency pattern scheme for high-speed 3-D shape measurement,” Opt. Express 18(5), 5229–5244 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

S. Zhang, “Phase unwrapping error reduction framework for a multiple-wavelength phase-shifting algorithm,” Opt. Eng. 48(10), 105601 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

J. M. Huntley and H. O. Saldner, “Error-reduction methods for shape measurement by temporal phase unwrapping,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14(12), 3188–3196 (1997). [CrossRef]

10.

H. O. Saldner and J. M. Huntley, “Temporal phase unwrapping: application to surface profiling of discontinuous objects,” Appl. Opt. 36(13), 2770–2775 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

S. Zhang, “Digital multiple-wavelength phase-shifting algorithm,” Proc. SPIE 7432, 74320N, 74320N-11 (2009). [CrossRef]

12.

C. E. Towers, D. P. Towers, and J. D. C. Jones, “Absolute fringe order calculation using optimisied multi-frequency selection in full-filed profilometry,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 43(7), 788–800 (2005). [CrossRef]

13.

J. C. Wyant, “Testing aspherics using two-wavelength holography,” Appl. Opt. 10(9), 2113–2118 (1971). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

C. Polhemus, “Two-wavelength interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 12(9), 2071–2074 (1973). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15.

Y.-Y. Cheng and J. C. Wyant, “Two-wavelength phase shifting interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 23(24), 4539–4543 (1984). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

16.

K. Creath, “Step height measurement using two-wavelength phase-shifting interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 26(14), 2810–2816 (1987). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

17.

K. Houairi and F. Cassaing, “Two-wavelength interferometry: extended range and accurate optical path difference analytical estimator,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 26(12), 2503–2511 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18.

Y. Ding, J. Xi, Y. Yu, and J. Chicharo, “Recovering the absolute phase maps of two fringe patterns with selected frequencies,” Opt. Lett. 36(13), 2518–2520 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

19.

K. Liu, Y. Wang, D. L. Lau, Q. Hao, and L. G. Hassebrook, “Gamma model and its analysis for phase measuring profilometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 27(3), 553–562 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

20.

Y. Wang, K. Liu, Q. Hao, X. Wang, D. L. Lau, and L. G. Hassebrook, “Robust active stereo vision using Kullback-Leibler divergence,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 34(3), 548–563 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

OCIS Codes
(100.2650) Image processing : Fringe analysis
(120.5050) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Phase measurement
(100.5088) Image processing : Phase unwrapping

ToC Category:
Image Processing

History
Original Manuscript: March 12, 2012
Revised Manuscript: May 3, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: May 14, 2012
Published: May 29, 2012

Citation
Yi Ding, Jiangtao Xi, Yanguang Yu, Wenqing Cheng, Shu Wang, and Joe F. Chicharo, "Frequency selection in absolute phase maps recovery with two frequency projection fringes," Opt. Express 20, 13238-13251 (2012)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-20-12-13238


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. S. Zhang, X. Li, and S. T. Yau, “Multilevel quality-guided phase unwrapping algorithm for real-time three-dimensional shape reconstruction,” Appl. Opt.46(1), 50–57 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. J. M. Huntley and H. O. Saldner, “Temporal phase-unwrapping algorithm for automated interferogram analysis,” Appl. Opt.32(17), 3047–3052 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. H. Zhao, W. Chen, and Y. Tan, “Phase-unwrapping algorithm for the measurement of three-dimensional object shapes,” Appl. Opt.33(20), 4497–4500 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. H. J. Chen, J. Zhang, D. J. Lv, and J. Fang, “3-D shape measurement by composite pattern projection and hybrid processing,” Opt. Express15(19), 12318–12330 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. L. Li, H. J. Su, and X. Y. Su, “Two-frequency grating used in phase-measuring profilometry,” Appl. Opt.36(1), 277–280 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. Li, L. G. Hassebrook, and C. Guan, “Optimized two-frequency phase-measuring-profilometry light-sensor temporal-noise sensitivity,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A20(1), 106–115 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. K. Liu, Y. Wang, D. L. Lau, Q. Hao, and L. G. Hassebrook, “Dual-frequency pattern scheme for high-speed 3-D shape measurement,” Opt. Express18(5), 5229–5244 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. S. Zhang, “Phase unwrapping error reduction framework for a multiple-wavelength phase-shifting algorithm,” Opt. Eng.48(10), 105601 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. M. Huntley and H. O. Saldner, “Error-reduction methods for shape measurement by temporal phase unwrapping,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A14(12), 3188–3196 (1997). [CrossRef]
  10. H. O. Saldner and J. M. Huntley, “Temporal phase unwrapping: application to surface profiling of discontinuous objects,” Appl. Opt.36(13), 2770–2775 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. S. Zhang, “Digital multiple-wavelength phase-shifting algorithm,” Proc. SPIE7432, 74320N, 74320N-11 (2009). [CrossRef]
  12. C. E. Towers, D. P. Towers, and J. D. C. Jones, “Absolute fringe order calculation using optimisied multi-frequency selection in full-filed profilometry,” Opt. Lasers Eng.43(7), 788–800 (2005). [CrossRef]
  13. J. C. Wyant, “Testing aspherics using two-wavelength holography,” Appl. Opt.10(9), 2113–2118 (1971). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. C. Polhemus, “Two-wavelength interferometry,” Appl. Opt.12(9), 2071–2074 (1973). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. Y.-Y. Cheng and J. C. Wyant, “Two-wavelength phase shifting interferometry,” Appl. Opt.23(24), 4539–4543 (1984). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. K. Creath, “Step height measurement using two-wavelength phase-shifting interferometry,” Appl. Opt.26(14), 2810–2816 (1987). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. K. Houairi and F. Cassaing, “Two-wavelength interferometry: extended range and accurate optical path difference analytical estimator,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A26(12), 2503–2511 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. Y. Ding, J. Xi, Y. Yu, and J. Chicharo, “Recovering the absolute phase maps of two fringe patterns with selected frequencies,” Opt. Lett.36(13), 2518–2520 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. K. Liu, Y. Wang, D. L. Lau, Q. Hao, and L. G. Hassebrook, “Gamma model and its analysis for phase measuring profilometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A27(3), 553–562 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. Y. Wang, K. Liu, Q. Hao, X. Wang, D. L. Lau, and L. G. Hassebrook, “Robust active stereo vision using Kullback-Leibler divergence,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell.34(3), 548–563 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited