OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 20, Iss. 12 — Jun. 4, 2012
  • pp: 13488–13500
« Show journal navigation

Modeling and characterization of the electrostatic coupling intra-body communication based on Mach-Zehnder electro-optical modulation

Yong Song, Kai Zhang, Qun Hao, and Jannick P. Rolland  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 20, Issue 12, pp. 13488-13500 (2012)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.20.013488


View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (1433 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

The method of Mach-Zehnder electro-optical modulation is applied to Intra-Body Communication (IBC), where the modeling and characterization of this type of IBC are discussed. The mathematical model of the electrostatic coupling IBC based on Mach-Zehnder electro-optical modulation is developed. The main characteristics of this IBC form have been simulated within the frequency range of 200 kHz-40MHz and compared to in-vivo measurements, with close agreements. Results show that the proposed method will help achieving good temperature characteristics, small size, and lower power consumption IBC system.

© 2012 OSA

1. Introduction

In this paper, the modeling and characterization of Mach-Zehnder electro-optical modulator for IBC have been investigated for the first time. We present a mathematical model of the electrostatic coupling IBC based on the Mach-Zehnder electro-optical modulator. Next, important characteristics of this IBC form have been simulated, and the corresponding in-vivo measurements were carried out and compared to the simulations. Results show that the proposed method will help to achieve good temperature characteristics, small size and lower power consumption IBC system.

2. Modeling of IBC based on a Mach-Zehnder electro-optical modulator

The electrostatic coupling IBC based on a Mach-Zehnder electro-optical modulator is illustrated in Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Model of the electrostatic coupling IBC based on Mach-Zehnder electro-optical modulator.
, in which the signal is coupled into the human body through the signal electrode at the transmitting terminal, which is also coupled into the earth ground through the ground electrode. At the receiving terminal, the signal transmitted through the human body is coupled into a Mach-Zehnder electro-optical modulator through the signal electrode. The functions of the Mach-Zehnder electro-optical modulator can be described as follows. The refractive index of the arm of the Mach-Zehnder modulator changes with the voltage of the received signal which is applied onit. As a result, when the laser light from the laser diode (LD) passes through the arms of the Mach-Zehnder modulator, the phase of the optical wave changes in one arm relative to the other. Subsequently, the Mach-Zehnder modulator sums the optical waves from each arm, and the phase change is converted to amplitude change, which results in optical intensity modulation. Finally, the change in optical amplitude is converted into the corresponding change in electric signals by a photo detector (PD). Moreover, because the ground electrode is insulated from the PD and the corresponding circuit of the receiver based on the Mach-Zehnder modulator, as shown in Fig. 3, signal detection with low noise and low signal distortion can be achieved in this IBC form.

2.1. Circuit model

The circuit model of the electrostatic coupling IBC based on a Mach-Zehnder electro-optical modulator, illustrated in Fig. 3, was developed and reported in Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The circuit model of the electrostatic coupling IBC based on a Mach-Zehnder electro-optical modulator.
. Considering that the impedances of the signal return paths (Cg1, Cg2 and Cg3) are far greater than that of the body channel, the human body can be modeled as a perfect conductor [1

1. T. G. Zimmerman, Personal Area Networks (PAN): Near-Field Intra-Body Communication, in Media Art and Science. Master Thesis: Massachusetts Institute of Technology (1995).

]. Therefore, the human body is considered as a body node in the proposed circuit model. Meanwhile, compared with the modulator based on a bulk electro-optical crystal, which has one internal signal electrode and is generally modeled as a capacitance [3

3. M. Shinagawa, M. Fukumoto, K. Ochiai, and H. Kyuragi, “A Near-Field-Sensing Transceiver for Intrabody Communication Based on the Electrooptic Effect,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 53(6), 1533–1538 (2004). [CrossRef]

,6

6. A. Sasaki, M. Shinagawa, and K. Ochiai, “Principles and Demonstration of Intrabody Communication with a Sensitive Electrooptic Sensor,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 58(2), 457–466 (2009). [CrossRef]

], the Mach-Zehnder electro-optical modulator has two internal signal electrodes corresponding to the two arms. The modulator itself can be modeled as two capacitances represented as Ce1and Ce2, respectively, in our circuit model. Additionally, some of the weak couplings (such as the coupling between the two ground electrodes) were ignored for simplifying the model of electrostatic coupling IBC, which may influence the precision of the model to some extent.

Based on the proposed circuit model and common practices, the relationship between the voltage (Vin)of the IBC transmitter and the measured voltage of the Mach-Zehnder modulator (Ve) can be shown to be given as
{Ve=VinZg2Ze'(R0+Zs1+Zg1+Zg2)(Zs2+Ze'+Zg3+Zg2)Zg22,Zgi=1j2πfCgi(i=1,2,3),Ze'=Ze1Ze2Ze1+Ze1=1j2πf(Ce1+Ce2),Zsi=Ri+1j2πfCsi(i=1,2),
(1)
Where the “Z” parameters represent the impedances corresponding to the corresponding “C” parameters shown in Fig. 4. Therefore, the signal attenuation (GH) caused by the human body can be represented as

GH=20log10(VeVin)=20log10[Zg2Ze'(R0+Zs1+Zg1+Zg2)(Zs2+Ze'+Zg3+Zg2)Zg22].
(2)

2.2. Mathematical model

2.2.1. Modulation based on a bulk electro-optical crystal

As shown in Fig. 5(a), in the transverse electro-optical modulation of the IBC based on a bulk electro-optical crystal [3

3. M. Shinagawa, M. Fukumoto, K. Ochiai, and H. Kyuragi, “A Near-Field-Sensing Transceiver for Intrabody Communication Based on the Electrooptic Effect,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 53(6), 1533–1538 (2004). [CrossRef]

], the direction of the signal electric field (i.e. along the z-direction) applied on the x-cut electro-optical crystal is generally perpendicular to the light propagation direction, which in this case is along the y-direction. If the polarized directions of the polarizer and analyzer are orthogonal, and the angle between the z-direction and the polarized direction of the polarizer is π/4, the relationship between the input optical power(Pin) and the output optical power(Pout)of the electro-optical crystal can be expressed as [12

12. R. W. Boyd, “Electrooptic Modulators,” in Nonlinear Optics (Academic, Rochester, New York, 2008).

]
Pout=Pinsin2(Δφ2)=Pinsin2[πlλ(none)+πl2λd(ne3γ33no3γ13)Ve],
(3)
where △φ represents the phase delay of the output light relative to the input light, l and d are the length and height of the electro-optical crystal, respectively,γ33 andγ13 are the electro-optic coefficients of the electro-optical crystal, and Ve represents the voltage applied on the electro-optical crystal [12

12. R. W. Boyd, “Electrooptic Modulators,” in Nonlinear Optics (Academic, Rochester, New York, 2008).

]. Finally, the change in light signal is converted into the corresponding electric voltage (Vout) by the photo detector, which is given as
Vout=SRk10k10Pinsin2[πlλ(none)+πl2λd(ne3γ33no3γ13)Ve],
(4)
where k is the insertion loss of the modulator, and S and Rk represent the conversion efficiency and the transimpedance of the photo detector, respectively.

2.2.2. Modulation based on a Mach-Zehnder electro-optical modulator

As for the Mach-Zehnder electro-optical modulator shown in Fig. 5(b), if the electric field of the incident input light Ein equal Aexp(jωt), the electric fields in the two arms of the Mach-Zehnder electro-optical modulator can be described as Ea equal Eb equal (A/2)exp(jωt). Therefore, the electric field referring to the emergent light of the Mach-Zehnder modulator (Eout) can be expressed as [12

12. R. W. Boyd, “Electrooptic Modulators,” in Nonlinear Optics (Academic, Rochester, New York, 2008).

]
Eout=A2exp(jωt)[exp(jφa)+exp(jφb)]=Aexp{j[ωt+2πlλ0(neno)]}cos[ΓπLGλ0(ne3γ33no3γ13)Ve+φ0],
(5)
where φa and φb are the phases of the arm A and B, respectively, Γ is the overlap integral factor representing the interaction between the electric field applied on the electrodes and the light wave field, G is the distance between the signal electrode and the ground electrode of the Mach-Zehnder electro-optical modulator, and φ0is the phase difference used for setting the operating point of the Mach-Zehnder electro-optical modulator. Subsequently, according to Eq. (6), the relationship between the (Pin) and (Pout) of the Mach-Zehnder electro-optical modulator can be expressed as
Pout=Pincos2[ΓπLGλ0(ne3γ33no3γ13)Ve+φ0].
(6)
Finally, the receiving voltage of the IBC receiver (Vout) based on the Mach-Zehnder electro-optical modulator can be expressed as [13

13. G. N. Lu and G. Sou, “A CMOS Op Amp using a regulated-cascade transimpedance building block for high-gain, low-voltage achievement,” in Proceedings of 1997 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (Hong Kong,1997).165–168.

]
Vout=1010/kSRkPout.
(7)
Therefore, the theoretical value of the signal attenuation (GEO1) caused by the Mach-Zehnder electro-optical modulation system, which includes the laser diode (LD), the Mach-Zehnder electro-optical modulator itself and the photo detector (PD),can be represented as

GEO1=20log10(dVoutdVe)=20log10ddVe{10k/10SRkPincos2[ΓπLGλ0(ne3γ33no3γ13)Ve+φ0]}=20log10{10k/10SRkPinΓπLGλ0(ne3γ33no3γ13)sin[2ΓπLGλ0(ne3γ33no3γ13)Ve+φ0]}.
(8)

2.2.3. Influence factors

2.2.3.1. The frequency response of the Mach-Zehnder electro-optical modulation

The Mach-Zehnder electro-optical modulation as a function of the signal temporal frequency is an important factor that influences the frequency characteristic of the IBC system that is based on it. However, because the frequency response of the Mach-Zehnder electro-optical modulation system consisting of an LD, an electro-optical modulator, and a PDis determined by several factors such as input optical power, operating wavelength, the insertion loss and crystal type of the modulator and parameters of the PD, it is generally challenging to achieve an accurate mathematical model for the frequency response of the Mach-Zehnder electro-optical modulation. As a result, the proposed mathematical model for the signal attenuation (GEO1) given in Eq. (8) that represents the Mach-Zehnder electro-optical modulation is typically taken to be a constant with signal frequency. In our investigation, the frequency response of the Mach-Zehnder electro-optical modulator was achieved by curve fitting of the measurements.

Our experimental setup for measuring the frequency response of the Mach-Zehnder electro-optical modulation was composed of a battery powered waveform generator (DSO8060, made by Qing Dao Hantek Electronic co., Ltd China), an LD, a Mach-Zehnder electro-optical modulator (10 Gb/sec intensity modulator, made by JDS Uniphase Corporation, USA), a PD and a digital oscilloscope(Agilent 54641A), in which the waveform generator served as an IBC transmitter, while the digital oscilloscope was used for measuring the output signal of the PD. Additionally, to avoid the influence of the AC power and the earth ground connected with the oscilloscope, a balun (a type of electrical transformer that converts balanced electrical signals relative to the earth ground to unbalanced signals, and the reverse) was used for separating the Mach-Zehnder electro-optical sensor from the digital oscilloscope [14

14. H. J. Zhu, R. Y. Xu, and J. Yuan, “High Speed Intra-Body Communication for Personal Health Care,” in Proceedings of 31st Annual International Conference of the IEEE EMBS Minneapolis (Minnesota, 2009), 709–712.

] (see Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Measured frequency response of the experimental setup together with curve fitting.
).

Firstly, the frequency response function of the signal attenuation (GEO2) associated with the Mach-Zehnder electro-optical modulation can be modeled using a piecewise fitting method as

GEO2={25.22e2.5055f15.12e2.8786f(10kHzf500KHz),1.63915f21.3567f3.415(500KHz<f40MHz).
(9)

Secondly, the frequency response function of the signal attenuation (Gbalun) associated with the balun may be modeled, also based on curve fitting, as

Gbalun=1836f0.4761+0.4708.
(10)

2.2.3.2. Temperature

Temperature is an important influence factor of the IBC based on electro-optical modulation. Generally, the temperature effect on the electro-optical modulation mainly consists in a change in refractive index. As for a LiNbO3crystal, which has been widely used in electro-optical modulation, the temperature effect on its refraction index (no, ne) may be captured with the Sellmeier equations [15

15. D. L. Zhang, Q. Z. Yang, P. R. Hua, H. L. Liu, Y. M. Cui, L. Sun, Y. H. Xu, and E. Y. B. Pun, “Sellmeier equation for doubly Er/Mg-doped congruent LiNbO3 crystals,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26, 620–626 (2009).

], given as
{no2=4.913+0.1173+1.64×108T2λ2(0.212+2.7×108T2)22.78×102λ2,ne2=4.5567+2.605×107T2+0.097+2.7×108T2λ2(0.212+5.4×108T2)22.24×102λ2.
(11)
Therefore, according to Eq. (4) that describes the relationship between Vout and Ve, the temperature characteristic of the electro-optical modulation based on a bulk electro-optical crystal can be determined using also Eq. (11). Similarly, the temperature characteristic of the Mach-Zehnder electro-optical modulator can also be described using Eq. (8) and (11).

2.2.4. The complete mathematical model

According to Eq. (2), (8), (9) and (10), the total signal attenuation (GTotal) that refers to the electrostatic coupling IBC based on the Mach-Zehnder electro-optical modulation can be represented as
GTotal=GH+GBalun+GEO1+GEO2K,
(12)
where GH is the signal attenuation caused by the human body, GBalun represents the signal attenuations caused by the balun at the receiving terminal, GEO1 is the signal attenuation associated with the Mach-Zehnder electro-optical modulation when considered independent of signal frequency, GEO2 is the signal attenuation caused by Mach-Zehnder electro-optical modulation achieved by the piecewise fitting based on measurements and is dependent of signal frequency, and K is the correction factor which is equal to the calculation value of GEO1represented as Eq. (8).Based on the same parameters as our measurement setup and the same temperature, K = −0.41dB.

Finally, the complete mathematical model of the signal attenuation (GTotal) that refers to the electrostatic coupling IBC based on the Mach-Zehnder electro-optical modulation can be modeled and computed as

{GTotal=GH+GBalun+GEO1+GEO2K,GH=20log10(Zg2Ze'(R0+Zs1+Zg1+Zg2)(Zs2+Ze'+Zg3+Zg2)Zg22),Zgi=1j2πfCgi(i=1,2,3),Ze'=1j2πf(Ce1+Ce2),Zsi=Ri+1j2πfCsi(i=1,2),GEO1=20log10{10k10SRkPinΓπLGλ0(ne3γ33no3γ13)sin[2ΓπLGλ0(ne3γ33no3γ13)Ve+φ0]},no2=4.913+0.1173+1.64×108T2λ2(0.212+2.7×108T2)22.78×102λ2,ne2=4.5567+2.605×107T2+0.097+2.7×108T2λ2(0.212+5.4×108T2)22.24×102λ2,GEO2=25.22e2.5055f15.12e2.8786f(10kHzf500kHz),GEO2=1.63915f21.3567f3.415(500kHz<f40MHz),Gbalun=1836f0.4761+0.4708.
(13)

3. Experiments

3.1. Frequency response

The effectiveness of Eq. (13)in modeling overall signal attenuation that is equivalent to the electrostatic coupling IBC based on the Mach-Zehnder electro-optical modulation is shown in Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Comparison between in-vivo measurements and simulation results based on the proposed model given by Eq. (13).
, in which both in-vivo measurements of the frequency response and the corresponding simulated results are compared. Results show that in simulation and the corresponding measurement, the attenuation decreases gradually in the 200 kHz-2 MHz window, keeps relatively stable in the 2 MHz-10 MHz window, and increases gradually in the 10 MHz-40 MHz window, which indicate similar trend in these frequency regions.

On the other hand, some potential advantages of the IBC based on the Mach-Zehnder electro-optical modulation can be found in other results. Figure 9
Fig. 9 Measurements of the electrostatic coupling IBC with various signal transmission paths, including the frequency responses of the IBC based on the electrical sensor and that based on Mach-Zehnder electro-optical modulation.
shows the in-vivo measurements of the frequency responses corresponding to the IBC based on the electrical sensor and the IBC based on Mach-Zehnder electro-optical modulation within the frequency range of 1MHz to 40 MHz. Results show that for the IBC based on the electrical sensor, all the signal attenuations corresponding to various paths (left arm-right arm, arm-torso and arm-leg) decrease from approximately 64.57dB to 47.16 dB in the range of1 MHz to 5 MHz, and have comparatively big variation (the maximum deviation is 15.96 dB) in the range of 5 MHz to 40 MHz. On the other hand, according to Fig. 9, the signal frequency has comparatively less effect on the signal attenuations in the case of the IBC based on the Mac-Zehnder electro-optical modulation. This phenomenon indicates that compared with the IBC based on an electrical sensor, the electrostatic coupling IBC based on Mach-Zehnder modulation has a comparatively steady frequency response, especially in the range of 2 MHz to 10 MHz (the maximum deviation of this range is only 0.82 dB).Therefore, if the signal frequency or the carrier frequency of IBC is set in this range, high quality of electrostatic coupling IBC will be expected.

3.2. Temperature characteristic

In our investigation, the advantage of the IBC based on the Mach-Zehnder electro-optical modulation in terms of temperature characteristic was also verified in terms of temperature characteristic by the comparison between the temperature characteristic of this kind of IBC and that of the IBC based on a bulk electro-optical sensor.

According to Eq. (4) and (11), the signal attenuation of the IBC based on a bulk electro-optical sensor can be estimated as a function of temperature. Figure 10shows the simulation results of the bulk electro-optical sensor used in IBC in the temperature range of 283.15 K-305.15 K, which shows that the signal attenuation varies greatly. Moreover, it also can be seen from Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Simulations of attenuation corresponding to different ambient temperatures (283.15 K-305.15 K) of the bulk electro-optical sensor used in IBC.
that the variation is periodical, and the maximum variation is up to approximately 55 dB, which indicates that ambient temperature affects the communication quality greatly in the IBC based on bulk electro-optical sensor.

Figure 11
Fig. 11 Measurements and simulation of attenuation corresponding to various ambient temperatures (283.15 K-305.15 K) of the Mach-Zehnder electro-optical sensor used in IBC.
shows the simulation results of the Mach-Zehnder electro-optical sensor used in IBC, the corresponding measurements and the errors between them, respectively. We can find that compared with Fig. 11, both the simulation results and the measurements shown in Fig. 11 have negligibly smaller variation. For instance, as the temperature increases from 283.15 K to 305.15 K, the increase in the simulation results is less than0.02 dB, while the measurements exhibit a periodic variation in the order of +/− 0.25 dB. Yet both are small, which indicates that the IBC based on Mach-Zehnder electro-optical modulation has good temperature characteristic.

4. Conclusion

In this paper, the Mach-Zehnder electro-optical modulation method is first used in IBC, while the characteristics of the electrostatic coupling IBC based on Mach-Zehnder electro-optical modulation are investigated. We have shown that the frequency response of the IBC based on Mach-Zehnder electro-optical modulation was modeled and shown to agree with the corresponding measurements in the frequency of 200 kHz to40 MHz. Also, we demonstrated that, compared with the IBC based on an electrical sensor, the electrostatic coupling IBC based on Mach-Zehnder electro-optical modulation has a steady frequency response in the range of 2 MHz to 10 MHz. Therefore, the stability of electrostatic coupling IBC is increased. Finally, compared with the IBC based on a bulk electro-optical sensor, the IBC based on Mach-Zehnder modulation has good temperature characteristic, which decreases the impact of ambient temperature and finally increases the communication quality of electrostatic coupling IBC. Moreover, the proposed method can also help to decrease the size and power consumption of the IBC system compared with the method based on a bulk electro-optical sensor.

Acknowledgment

The work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (60801050), the Excellent Talent Fund of Beijing, China (2011) and the Scientific and Technological Innovation Project of Beijing Institute of Technology (3040012241002). Jannick Rolland was supported by the NYSTAR Foundation (C050070).

References and links

1.

T. G. Zimmerman, Personal Area Networks (PAN): Near-Field Intra-Body Communication, in Media Art and Science. Master Thesis: Massachusetts Institute of Technology (1995).

2.

M. S. Wegmueller, M. Oberle, N. Felber, N. Kuster, and W. Fichtner, “Signal Transmission by Galvanic Coupling Through the Human Body,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 59(4), 963–969 (2010). [CrossRef]

3.

M. Shinagawa, M. Fukumoto, K. Ochiai, and H. Kyuragi, “A Near-Field-Sensing Transceiver for Intrabody Communication Based on the Electrooptic Effect,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 53(6), 1533–1538 (2004). [CrossRef]

4.

M. S. Wegmueller, S. Huclova, J. Froehlich, M. Oberle, N. Felber, N. Kuster, and W. Fichtner, “Galvanic Coupling Enabling Wireless Implant Communications,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 58(8), 2618–2625 (2009). [CrossRef]

5.

Y. Song, Q. Hao, K. Zhang, M. Wang, Y. Chu, and B. Kang, “The Simulation Method of the Galvanic Coupling Intra-body Communication with Different Signal Transmission Paths,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 60(4), 1257–1266 (2011). [CrossRef]

6.

A. Sasaki, M. Shinagawa, and K. Ochiai, “Principles and Demonstration of Intrabody Communication with a Sensitive Electrooptic Sensor,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 58(2), 457–466 (2009). [CrossRef]

7.

K. Hachisuka, A. Nakata, T. Takeda, K. Shiba, K. Sasaki, H. Hosaka, and K. Itao, “Development of wearable intra-body communication devices,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 105(1), 109–115 (2003). [CrossRef]

8.

A. Sasaki and M. Shinagawa, “Principle and Application of a Sensitive Handy Electrooptic Probe for Sub-100-MHz Frequency Range Signal Measurements,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 57(5), 1005–1013 (2008). [CrossRef]

9.

C. E. Rogers 3rd, J. L. Carini, J. A. Pechkis, and P. L. Gould, “Characterization and compensation of the residual chirp in a Mach-Zehnder-type electro-optical intensity modulator,” Opt. Express 18(2), 1166–1176 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

J. M. Brosi, C. Koos, L. C. Andreani, M. Waldow, J. Leuthold, and W. Freude, “High-speed low-voltage electro-optic modulator with a polymer-infiltrated silicon photonic crystal waveguide,” Opt. Express 16(6), 4177–4191 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

J. William, M. J. Green, M. J. Rooks, L. Sekaric, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Ultra-compact, low RF power, 10 Gb/s silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” Opt. Express 15, 17107–17113 (2007).

12.

R. W. Boyd, “Electrooptic Modulators,” in Nonlinear Optics (Academic, Rochester, New York, 2008).

13.

G. N. Lu and G. Sou, “A CMOS Op Amp using a regulated-cascade transimpedance building block for high-gain, low-voltage achievement,” in Proceedings of 1997 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (Hong Kong,1997).165–168.

14.

H. J. Zhu, R. Y. Xu, and J. Yuan, “High Speed Intra-Body Communication for Personal Health Care,” in Proceedings of 31st Annual International Conference of the IEEE EMBS Minneapolis (Minnesota, 2009), 709–712.

15.

D. L. Zhang, Q. Z. Yang, P. R. Hua, H. L. Liu, Y. M. Cui, L. Sun, Y. H. Xu, and E. Y. B. Pun, “Sellmeier equation for doubly Er/Mg-doped congruent LiNbO3 crystals,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26, 620–626 (2009).

OCIS Codes
(120.1880) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Detection
(120.7000) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Transmission
(170.3890) Medical optics and biotechnology : Medical optics instrumentation
(230.2090) Optical devices : Electro-optical devices

ToC Category:
Medical Optics and Biotechnology

History
Original Manuscript: March 14, 2012
Revised Manuscript: May 24, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: May 26, 2012
Published: May 31, 2012

Citation
Yong Song, Kai Zhang, Qun Hao, and Jannick P. Rolland, "Modeling and characterization of the electrostatic coupling intra-body communication based on Mach-Zehnder electro-optical modulation," Opt. Express 20, 13488-13500 (2012)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-20-12-13488


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. T. G. Zimmerman, Personal Area Networks (PAN): Near-Field Intra-Body Communication, in Media Art and Science. Master Thesis: Massachusetts Institute of Technology (1995).
  2. M. S. Wegmueller, M. Oberle, N. Felber, N. Kuster, and W. Fichtner, “Signal Transmission by Galvanic Coupling Through the Human Body,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas.59(4), 963–969 (2010). [CrossRef]
  3. M. Shinagawa, M. Fukumoto, K. Ochiai, and H. Kyuragi, “A Near-Field-Sensing Transceiver for Intrabody Communication Based on the Electrooptic Effect,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas.53(6), 1533–1538 (2004). [CrossRef]
  4. M. S. Wegmueller, S. Huclova, J. Froehlich, M. Oberle, N. Felber, N. Kuster, and W. Fichtner, “Galvanic Coupling Enabling Wireless Implant Communications,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas.58(8), 2618–2625 (2009). [CrossRef]
  5. Y. Song, Q. Hao, K. Zhang, M. Wang, Y. Chu, and B. Kang, “The Simulation Method of the Galvanic Coupling Intra-body Communication with Different Signal Transmission Paths,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas.60(4), 1257–1266 (2011). [CrossRef]
  6. A. Sasaki, M. Shinagawa, and K. Ochiai, “Principles and Demonstration of Intrabody Communication with a Sensitive Electrooptic Sensor,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas.58(2), 457–466 (2009). [CrossRef]
  7. K. Hachisuka, A. Nakata, T. Takeda, K. Shiba, K. Sasaki, H. Hosaka, and K. Itao, “Development of wearable intra-body communication devices,” Sens. Actuators A Phys.105(1), 109–115 (2003). [CrossRef]
  8. A. Sasaki and M. Shinagawa, “Principle and Application of a Sensitive Handy Electrooptic Probe for Sub-100-MHz Frequency Range Signal Measurements,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas.57(5), 1005–1013 (2008). [CrossRef]
  9. C. E. Rogers, J. L. Carini, J. A. Pechkis, and P. L. Gould, “Characterization and compensation of the residual chirp in a Mach-Zehnder-type electro-optical intensity modulator,” Opt. Express18(2), 1166–1176 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J. M. Brosi, C. Koos, L. C. Andreani, M. Waldow, J. Leuthold, and W. Freude, “High-speed low-voltage electro-optic modulator with a polymer-infiltrated silicon photonic crystal waveguide,” Opt. Express16(6), 4177–4191 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. J. William, M. J. Green, M. J. Rooks, L. Sekaric, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Ultra-compact, low RF power, 10 Gb/s silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” Opt. Express15, 17107–17113 (2007).
  12. R. W. Boyd, “Electrooptic Modulators,” in Nonlinear Optics (Academic, Rochester, New York, 2008).
  13. G. N. Lu and G. Sou, “A CMOS Op Amp using a regulated-cascade transimpedance building block for high-gain, low-voltage achievement,” in Proceedings of 1997 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (Hong Kong,1997).165–168.
  14. H. J. Zhu, R. Y. Xu, and J. Yuan, “High Speed Intra-Body Communication for Personal Health Care,” in Proceedings of 31st Annual International Conference of the IEEE EMBS Minneapolis (Minnesota, 2009), 709–712.
  15. D. L. Zhang, Q. Z. Yang, P. R. Hua, H. L. Liu, Y. M. Cui, L. Sun, Y. H. Xu, and E. Y. B. Pun, “Sellmeier equation for doubly Er/Mg-doped congruent LiNbO3 crystals,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B26, 620–626 (2009).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited