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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 20, Iss. 13 — Jun. 18, 2012
  • pp: 14428–14436
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Bandwidth efficient bidirectional 5 Gb/s overlapped-SCM WDM PON with electronic equalization and forward-error correction

Jonathan M. Buset, Ziad A. El-Sahn, and David V. Plant  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 20, Issue 13, pp. 14428-14436 (2012)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.20.014428


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Abstract

We demonstrate an improved overlapped-subcarrier multiplexed (O-SCM) WDM PON architecture transmitting over a single feeder using cost sensitive intensity modulation/direct detection transceivers, data re-modulation and simple electronics. Incorporating electronic equalization and Reed-Solomon forward-error correction codes helps to overcome the bandwidth limitation of a remotely seeded reflective semiconductor optical amplifier (RSOA)-based ONU transmitter. The O-SCM architecture yields greater spectral efficiency and higher bit rates than many other SCM techniques while maintaining resilience to upstream impairments. We demonstrate full-duplex 5 Gb/s transmission over 20 km and analyze BER performance as a function of transmitted and received power. The architecture provides flexibility to network operators by relaxing common design constraints and enabling full-duplex operation at BER ∼ 10−10 over a wide range of OLT launch powers from 3.5 to 8 dBm.

© 2012 OSA

1. Introduction

The demand for Internet bandwidth is growing at an unprecedented rate, with global IP traffic expected to increase fourfold between 2010 and 2015 [1

1. “Cisco Visual Networking Index: Forecast and Methodology, 2010–2015,” Tech. rep., Cisco Inc. (2011).

]. One driving force is the rapidly increasing consumer appetite for high-bandwidth applications such as 3-D television, high-definition video-on-demand services, video conferencing and cloud-based services. Indeed, by 2015 the traffic generated by Internet video delivered to television is expected to increase 17-fold and approximately 90% of global consumer traffic is expected to be consumed by various Internet video services [1

1. “Cisco Visual Networking Index: Forecast and Methodology, 2010–2015,” Tech. rep., Cisco Inc. (2011).

].

The consumer demand for these data intensive services will drive the need for greater capacity on access networks, upwards of 1 Gb/s per user, motivating the adoption and deployment of fiber-to-the-home (FTTH) networks by carriers. Currently deployed passive optical networks (PONs), such as gigabit-capable PON (G-PON) and Ethernet PON (EPON), share the aggregate bandwidth by using time-division multiple-access (TDMA) which effectively limits subscribers to peak bandwidths less than 100 Mbit/s. New standards such as 10G-EPON and XG-PON will provide an upgrade pathway for operators to increase the total shared bandwidth available to users, but scaling these TDMA networks beyond 10 Gb/s is expected to be difficult [2

2. D. Breuer, C. Lange, E. Weis, M. Eiselt, M. Roppelt, K. Grobe, J.-P. Elbers, S. Dahlfort, F. Cavaliere, and D. Hood, “Requirements and solutions for next-generation access,” in ITG Symposium on Photonic Networks, (IEEE, 2011), paper 12.

].

Wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM), where each user is assigned a dedicated wavelength, is considered the most promising step for next-generation PONs in green-field deployments. Although limited primarily by economic factors, WDM PONs aim to provide higher capacity and security compared to current systems. A single feeder fiber will be required to provide an upgrade path for the existing infrastructure. Colourless optical network units (ONUs) will ensure the success of WDM on PONs by reducing the cost and complexity of transceivers at the customer premises [3

3. G.-K. Chang, A. Chowdhury, Z. Jia, H.-C. Chien, M.-F. Huang, J. Yu, and G. Ellinas, “Key technologies of WDM-PON for future converged optical broadband access networks [invited],” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 1, C35–C50 (2009). [CrossRef]

, 4

4. J.-i. Kani, “Enabling technologies for future scalable and flexible WDM-PON and WDM/TDM-PON systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 16, 1290–1297 (2010). [CrossRef]

]. The reflective semiconductor optical amplifier (RSOA) is one of the most investigated candidates for this purpose, boasting a low manufacturing cost, easy integration, small form factor and wide wavelength operating range [5

5. C. Arellano, C. Bock, J. Prat, and K.-D. Langer, “RSOA-based optical network units for WDM-PON,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper OTuC1. [CrossRef]

].

The primary drawback of RSOAs as ONU transmitters is that their modulation bandwidth is limited to ∼ 2GHz by packaging electronics and the carrier lifetime of the gain medium [6

6. K. Y. Cho, Y. Takushima, and Y. C. Chung, “10-Gb/s operation of RSOA for WDM PON,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1533–1535 (2008). [CrossRef]

]. A number of techniques have proven successful at further increasing the transmission bit rate, such as the use of higher order modulation formats, delay interferometers, narrow optical filters, device structure and packaging optimization, integrated modulators, and electronic equalization [6

6. K. Y. Cho, Y. Takushima, and Y. C. Chung, “10-Gb/s operation of RSOA for WDM PON,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1533–1535 (2008). [CrossRef]

13

13. Q. T. Nguyen, G. Vaudel, O. Vaudel, L. Bramerie, P. Besnard, A. Garreau, C. Kazmierski, A. Shen, G. H. Duan, P. Chanclou, and J. C. Simon, “Multi-functional R-EAM-SOA for 10-Gb/s WDM access,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper OThG7.

]. Employing some of these techniques has enabled the direct modulation of a RSOA at 25.78 Gb/s [12

12. K. Y. Cho, B. S. Choi, Y. Takushima, and Y. C. Chung, “25.78-Gb/s operation of RSOA for next-generation optical access networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 495–497 (2011). [CrossRef]

].

2. Overlapped-subcarrier multiplexing WDM PON

2.1. Physical architecture

Fig. 1 (a) Experimental setup of the proposed O-SCM WDM PON. Measurements and illustrations of the received (b) up-converted downstream and (c) baseband upstream signal spectra, where the dashed vertical lines indicate that the measurement bandwidth was limited to 9 GHz and 4 GHz respectively. Δϕ: electrical phase delay, AMP: RF amplifier, AWG: arrayed waveguide grating (100 GHz), EDFA: erbium-doped fiber amplifier, EML: electro-absorption modulated laser (CyOptics E4560), fSC: subcarrier frequency, Mixers: Marki Microwave (M1-0412MP), OBPF: 0.25nm optical band-pass filter, OLT: optical line terminal, ONU: optical network unit, PD: p-i-n photoreceiver (10 GHz bandwidth), PTx: OLT transmitted power, PSD: power spectral density, RSOA: reflective semiconductor optical amplifier (CIP SOA-RL-OEC-1550), T: RF bias-tee, VOA: variable optical attenuator.

Following the EML, an EDFA and a VOA controlled the launch power for the subsequent measurements. In a realistic deployment this EDFA would be used to simultaneously amplify many user wavelengths, sharing the investment costs among the customer base. The optical distribution network (ODN) comprises a 20.35 km feeder of standard single mode fiber (SMF-28e+) and a 100 GHz arrayed waveguide grating (AWG).

2.2. Data frame structure

The data sequences transmitted by the pulse pattern generator (PPG) were created offline using a custom frame-based data structure, illustrated in Fig. 2. At onset, a standard PRBS pattern (downstream: 215 − 1, upstream: 223 − 1) was generated and encoded with RS(255,239) FEC which is compatible with current G-PON deployments [28

28. “G.984.3: Gigabit-capable passive optical networks (G-PON): Transmission convergence layer specification,” Recommendation, ITU-T (2008).

] and has previously been shown to provide an optimized level of redundancy for bandwidth limited RSOAs [29

29. K. Y. Cho, A. Agata, Y. Takushima, and Y. C. Chung, “Performance of forward-error correction code in 10-Gb/s RSOA-based WDM PON,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 57–59 (2010). [CrossRef]

].

Fig. 2 Illustration of the data structure transmitted at 5 Gb/s. The sequence begins with a 104 bit training sequence (TS) followed by a series of N data frames. Each frame is composed of a 760 bit preamble (PA) and a 624240 bit RS(255,239) FEC encoded payload.

The encoded sequence was then segmented into 624240 bit frames. A 760 bit preamble was appended to the beginning of each frame to provide a unique signature for processing at the receiver, adding a negligible ∼ 0.1% to the total overhead. This results in 625000 bit frames, which at 5 Gb/s are compatible with the 125 μs upstream frame duration in existing G-PON standards [28

28. “G.984.3: Gigabit-capable passive optical networks (G-PON): Transmission convergence layer specification,” Recommendation, ITU-T (2008).

]. The total overhead for this system is ∼ 6.4% including the data frame preamble and RS(255,239) parity bits. The 104 bit training sequence (TS) placed before the data frames was only used to initialize the equalizer taps at the OLT receiver on system start-up and therefore is not considered to be part of the operating overhead.

This frame-based technique provides three main advantages: (1) each frame is uniquely identifiable and extractable from the received data sequence to facilitate training symbols during equalization and bit error rate (BER) calculations; (2) each frame’s start can be resynchronized to account for sampling drift, analogous to clock-synchronization in deployed G-PON systems; (3) frame equalization can be efficiently computed in parallel.

Using these techniques, the BER can be reasonably calculated down to 10−6 because of the ∼ 4.5 × 106 bit capture length. Although the oscilloscope was capable of recording longer sequences, this length was found to be sufficient to achieve the desired BER level while remaining computationally feasible for the analysis.

2.3. Offline analysis & electronic equalization

Prior to analysis, cross-correlation techniques were used to extract the data frames from the recorded sequence. The 760 bit preambles along with any incomplete frames were then removed to maintain the statistical integrity of the PRBS payload. The BER of the unequalized data was found by optimizing the sampling time and decision threshold level to minimize the error count.

The smooth roll-off of the RSOA’s frequency response (approximately −10dB/decade from 0 to 5 GHz) coupled with its linear modulation response make it ideal for use with a combination of feed-forward (FFE) and decision-feedback equalizers (DFE) at the OLT receiver [6

6. K. Y. Cho, Y. Takushima, and Y. C. Chung, “10-Gb/s operation of RSOA for WDM PON,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1533–1535 (2008). [CrossRef]

,30

30. J. G. Proakis and M. Salehi, Digital Communications (McGraw-Hill, New York, 2008), chap. 9, 5th ed.

]. The taps were first trained using a 104 bit TS before the frames were equalized in parallel, where their values were dynamically adjusted for each frame using the least-mean squared (LMS) adaptive algorithm [30

30. J. G. Proakis and M. Salehi, Digital Communications (McGraw-Hill, New York, 2008), chap. 9, 5th ed.

]. The BER was again calculated before and after FEC decoding by comparing the transmitted data frames with the hard decision output of the DFE.

3. 5 Gb/s Symmetric Transmission over 20 km

3.1. Downlink

A real-time oscilloscope (Agilent Infiniium DSCX93204A) facilitated the offline processing of the data, capturing the bit sequences at 20 GSa/s (4 Sa/bit) to a memory depth of 20.5 MSa. The oscilloscope’s acquisition bandwidth was set to 4 GHz, acting as a sharp low pass filter and reducing the effects of out-of-band noise and clock leakage from the RF mixers.

Fig. 3 BER performance as a function of OLT transmitted power in (a) downlink and (b) uplink directions for 5 Gb/s symmetric transmission over 20 km. The inset eye diagrams are of the raw data captured at PTx = 5dBm. (c) The corresponding received uplink and downlink power versus transmitted power for the optimum 60/40 coupler.

The BER calculated prior to decoding (○) drops below the FEC threshold (1.8 × 10−4) at PTx = 3dBm and continues to decrease until it reaches below 10−6 at 7dBm. After decoding (•), the BER quickly reaches the waterfall region where the last error was calculated at PTx = 1dBm.

3.2. Uplink

3.3. Operating zone & reflection tolerance

Comparing the BER waterfall curves for both transmission directions, we define an operating zone as the range of OLT transmission powers over which the analytical FEC curves from Eq. (1) cross below the BER threshold of 10−10 and no errors were calculated.

Fig. 4 Illustration of the downlink noise tolerance for (a) this O-SCM WDM PON and (b) a conventional asymmetric SCM PON. The dashed vertical line represents the cutoff frequency for the receiver’s electrical low pass filter.

It is well known that increasing the transmission power in WDM PONs using re-moduation does not necessarily provide better performance [16

16. C. Arellano, K. Langer, and J. Prat, “Reflections and multiple Rayleigh backscattering in WDM single-fiber loopback access networks,” J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 12–18 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. This O-SCM architecture relaxes this launch power design constraint to a 4.5 dB range by providing enhanced resilience to RB and reflections while maintaining efficient use of modulation bandwidth and enabling higher transmission rates. Thus operators are supplied with additional flexibility to help manage network variations in real-world deployments.

4. Conclusion

References and links

1.

“Cisco Visual Networking Index: Forecast and Methodology, 2010–2015,” Tech. rep., Cisco Inc. (2011).

2.

D. Breuer, C. Lange, E. Weis, M. Eiselt, M. Roppelt, K. Grobe, J.-P. Elbers, S. Dahlfort, F. Cavaliere, and D. Hood, “Requirements and solutions for next-generation access,” in ITG Symposium on Photonic Networks, (IEEE, 2011), paper 12.

3.

G.-K. Chang, A. Chowdhury, Z. Jia, H.-C. Chien, M.-F. Huang, J. Yu, and G. Ellinas, “Key technologies of WDM-PON for future converged optical broadband access networks [invited],” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 1, C35–C50 (2009). [CrossRef]

4.

J.-i. Kani, “Enabling technologies for future scalable and flexible WDM-PON and WDM/TDM-PON systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 16, 1290–1297 (2010). [CrossRef]

5.

C. Arellano, C. Bock, J. Prat, and K.-D. Langer, “RSOA-based optical network units for WDM-PON,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper OTuC1. [CrossRef]

6.

K. Y. Cho, Y. Takushima, and Y. C. Chung, “10-Gb/s operation of RSOA for WDM PON,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1533–1535 (2008). [CrossRef]

7.

J. L. Wei, A. Hamie, R. P. Gidding, E. Hugues-Salas, X. Zheng, S. Mansoor, and J. M. Tang, “Adaptively modulated optical OFDM modems utilizing RSOAs as intensity modulators in IMDD SMF transmission systems,” Opt. Express 18, 8556–8573 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

M.-K. Hong, N. Tran, Y. Shi, J. M. Joo, E. Tangdiongga, S. K. Han, and A. M. J. Koonen, “10-Gb/s transmission over 20-km single fiber link using 1-GHz RSOA by discrete multitone with multiple access,” Opt. Express 19, B486–B495 (2011). [CrossRef]

9.

H. Kim, “10-Gb/s operation of RSOA using a delay interferometer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1379–1381 (2010). [CrossRef]

10.

M. Omella, I. Papagiannakis, D. Klonidis, J. Lázaro, A. Birbas, J. Kikidis, I. Tomkos, and J. Prat, “Design optimization for 10Gb/s full-duplex transmission using RSOA-based ONU with electrical and optical filtering and equalization,” in European Conference on Optical Communication, (IEEE, 2009), paper 7.5.5.

11.

G. de Valicourt and R. Brenot, “10 Gbit/s modulation of reflective SOA without any electronic processing,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper OThT2.

12.

K. Y. Cho, B. S. Choi, Y. Takushima, and Y. C. Chung, “25.78-Gb/s operation of RSOA for next-generation optical access networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 495–497 (2011). [CrossRef]

13.

Q. T. Nguyen, G. Vaudel, O. Vaudel, L. Bramerie, P. Besnard, A. Garreau, C. Kazmierski, A. Shen, G. H. Duan, P. Chanclou, and J. C. Simon, “Multi-functional R-EAM-SOA for 10-Gb/s WDM access,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper OThG7.

14.

M. Fujiwara, J.-i. Kani, H. Suzuki, and K. Iwatsuki, “Impact of backreflection on upstream transmission in WDM single-fiber loopback access networks,” J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 740–746 (2006). [CrossRef]

15.

G. Talli, D. Cotter, and P. Townsend, “Rayleigh backscattering impairments in access networks with centralised light source,” Electron. Lett. 42, 877–878 (2006). [CrossRef]

16.

C. Arellano, K. Langer, and J. Prat, “Reflections and multiple Rayleigh backscattering in WDM single-fiber loopback access networks,” J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 12–18 (2009). [CrossRef]

17.

M. Omella, I. Papagiannakis, B. Schrenk, D. Klonidis, J. A. Lázaro, A. N. Birbas, J. Kikidis, J. Prat, and I. Tomkos, “10 Gb/s full-duplex bidirectional transmission with RSOA-based ONU using detuned optical filtering and decision feedback equalization,” Opt. Express 17, 5008–5013 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18.

A. Chiuchiarelli, M. Presi, R. Proietti, G. Contestabile, P. Choudhury, L. Giorgi, and E. Ciaramella, “Enhancing resilience to Rayleigh crosstalk by means of line coding and electrical filtering,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 85–87 (2010). [CrossRef]

19.

Q. Guo and A. Tran, “Reduction of backscattering noise in 2.5 and 10 Gbit/s RSOA-based WDM-PON,” Electron. Lett. 47, 1333–1335 (2011). [CrossRef]

20.

J. Prat, “Rayleigh back-scattering reduction by means of quantized feedback equalization in WDM-PONs,” in European Conference on Optical Communication, (IEEE, 2010), paper Th.10.B.3. [CrossRef]

21.

J. M. Fabrega, A. E. Mardini, V. Polo, J. A. Lázaro, E. T. Lopez, R. Soila, and J. Prat, “Deployment analysis of TDM/WDM single fiber PON with colourless ONU operating at 2.5 Gbps subcarrier multiplexed downstream and 1.25 Gbps upstream,” in National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper NWB5.

22.

J. M. Fabrega, E. T. Lopez, J. A. Lázaro, M. Zuhdi, and J. Prat, “Demonstration of a full duplex PON featuring 2.5 Gbps sub carrier multiplexing downstream and 1.25 Gbps upstream with colourless ONU and simple optics,” in European Conference on Optical Communication, (IEEE, 2008), paper We.1.F.6. [CrossRef]

23.

K. Y. Cho, A. Murakami, Y. J. Lee, A. Agata, Y. Takushima, and Y. C. Chung, “Demonstration of RSOA-based WDM PON operating at symmetric rate of 1.25 Gb/s with high reflection tolerance,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper OTuH4.

24.

Z. Al-Qazwini and H. Kim, “10-Gbps single-feeder, full-duplex WDM-PON using directly modulated laser and RSOA,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper OTh1F.5.

25.

J.-M. Kang and S.-K. Han, “A novel hybrid WDM/SCM-PON sharing wavelength for up- and down-link using reflective semiconductor optical amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 502–504 (2006). [CrossRef]

26.

Z. A. El-Sahn, J. M. Buset, and D. V. Plant, “Overlapped-subcarrier multiplexing for WDM passive optical networks: Experimental verification and mathematical analysis,” J. Lightw. Technol. 30, 754–763 (2012). [CrossRef]

27.

Z. A. El-Sahn, J. M. Buset, and D. V. Plant, “Bidirectional WDM PON enabled by reflective ONUs and a novel overlapped-subcarrier multiplexing technique,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper OMP7.

28.

“G.984.3: Gigabit-capable passive optical networks (G-PON): Transmission convergence layer specification,” Recommendation, ITU-T (2008).

29.

K. Y. Cho, A. Agata, Y. Takushima, and Y. C. Chung, “Performance of forward-error correction code in 10-Gb/s RSOA-based WDM PON,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 57–59 (2010). [CrossRef]

30.

J. G. Proakis and M. Salehi, Digital Communications (McGraw-Hill, New York, 2008), chap. 9, 5th ed.

31.

B. Sklar, Digital Communications: Fundamentals and Applications (Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, 2001), 2nd ed.

OCIS Codes
(060.0060) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics and optical communications
(060.2330) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics communications
(060.2360) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics links and subsystems
(060.4510) Fiber optics and optical communications : Optical communications

ToC Category:
Fiber Optics and Optical Communications

History
Original Manuscript: April 12, 2012
Revised Manuscript: May 7, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: May 16, 2012
Published: June 13, 2012

Citation
Jonathan M. Buset, Ziad A. El-Sahn, and David V. Plant, "Bandwidth efficient bidirectional 5 Gb/s overlapped-SCM WDM PON with electronic equalization and forward-error correction," Opt. Express 20, 14428-14436 (2012)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-20-13-14428


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References

  1. “Cisco Visual Networking Index: Forecast and Methodology, 2010–2015,” Tech. rep., Cisco Inc. (2011).
  2. D. Breuer, C. Lange, E. Weis, M. Eiselt, M. Roppelt, K. Grobe, J.-P. Elbers, S. Dahlfort, F. Cavaliere, and D. Hood, “Requirements and solutions for next-generation access,” in ITG Symposium on Photonic Networks, (IEEE, 2011), paper 12.
  3. G.-K. Chang, A. Chowdhury, Z. Jia, H.-C. Chien, M.-F. Huang, J. Yu, and G. Ellinas, “Key technologies of WDM-PON for future converged optical broadband access networks [invited],” J. Opt. Commun. Netw.1, C35–C50 (2009). [CrossRef]
  4. J.-i. Kani, “Enabling technologies for future scalable and flexible WDM-PON and WDM/TDM-PON systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron.16, 1290–1297 (2010). [CrossRef]
  5. C. Arellano, C. Bock, J. Prat, and K.-D. Langer, “RSOA-based optical network units for WDM-PON,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper OTuC1. [CrossRef]
  6. K. Y. Cho, Y. Takushima, and Y. C. Chung, “10-Gb/s operation of RSOA for WDM PON,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20, 1533–1535 (2008). [CrossRef]
  7. J. L. Wei, A. Hamie, R. P. Gidding, E. Hugues-Salas, X. Zheng, S. Mansoor, and J. M. Tang, “Adaptively modulated optical OFDM modems utilizing RSOAs as intensity modulators in IMDD SMF transmission systems,” Opt. Express18, 8556–8573 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M.-K. Hong, N. Tran, Y. Shi, J. M. Joo, E. Tangdiongga, S. K. Han, and A. M. J. Koonen, “10-Gb/s transmission over 20-km single fiber link using 1-GHz RSOA by discrete multitone with multiple access,” Opt. Express19, B486–B495 (2011). [CrossRef]
  9. H. Kim, “10-Gb/s operation of RSOA using a delay interferometer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22, 1379–1381 (2010). [CrossRef]
  10. M. Omella, I. Papagiannakis, D. Klonidis, J. Lázaro, A. Birbas, J. Kikidis, I. Tomkos, and J. Prat, “Design optimization for 10Gb/s full-duplex transmission using RSOA-based ONU with electrical and optical filtering and equalization,” in European Conference on Optical Communication, (IEEE, 2009), paper 7.5.5.
  11. G. de Valicourt and R. Brenot, “10 Gbit/s modulation of reflective SOA without any electronic processing,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper OThT2.
  12. K. Y. Cho, B. S. Choi, Y. Takushima, and Y. C. Chung, “25.78-Gb/s operation of RSOA for next-generation optical access networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23, 495–497 (2011). [CrossRef]
  13. Q. T. Nguyen, G. Vaudel, O. Vaudel, L. Bramerie, P. Besnard, A. Garreau, C. Kazmierski, A. Shen, G. H. Duan, P. Chanclou, and J. C. Simon, “Multi-functional R-EAM-SOA for 10-Gb/s WDM access,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper OThG7.
  14. M. Fujiwara, J.-i. Kani, H. Suzuki, and K. Iwatsuki, “Impact of backreflection on upstream transmission in WDM single-fiber loopback access networks,” J. Lightw. Technol.24, 740–746 (2006). [CrossRef]
  15. G. Talli, D. Cotter, and P. Townsend, “Rayleigh backscattering impairments in access networks with centralised light source,” Electron. Lett.42, 877–878 (2006). [CrossRef]
  16. C. Arellano, K. Langer, and J. Prat, “Reflections and multiple Rayleigh backscattering in WDM single-fiber loopback access networks,” J. Lightw. Technol.27, 12–18 (2009). [CrossRef]
  17. M. Omella, I. Papagiannakis, B. Schrenk, D. Klonidis, J. A. Lázaro, A. N. Birbas, J. Kikidis, J. Prat, and I. Tomkos, “10 Gb/s full-duplex bidirectional transmission with RSOA-based ONU using detuned optical filtering and decision feedback equalization,” Opt. Express17, 5008–5013 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. A. Chiuchiarelli, M. Presi, R. Proietti, G. Contestabile, P. Choudhury, L. Giorgi, and E. Ciaramella, “Enhancing resilience to Rayleigh crosstalk by means of line coding and electrical filtering,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22, 85–87 (2010). [CrossRef]
  19. Q. Guo and A. Tran, “Reduction of backscattering noise in 2.5 and 10 Gbit/s RSOA-based WDM-PON,” Electron. Lett.47, 1333–1335 (2011). [CrossRef]
  20. J. Prat, “Rayleigh back-scattering reduction by means of quantized feedback equalization in WDM-PONs,” in European Conference on Optical Communication, (IEEE, 2010), paper Th.10.B.3. [CrossRef]
  21. J. M. Fabrega, A. E. Mardini, V. Polo, J. A. Lázaro, E. T. Lopez, R. Soila, and J. Prat, “Deployment analysis of TDM/WDM single fiber PON with colourless ONU operating at 2.5 Gbps subcarrier multiplexed downstream and 1.25 Gbps upstream,” in National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper NWB5.
  22. J. M. Fabrega, E. T. Lopez, J. A. Lázaro, M. Zuhdi, and J. Prat, “Demonstration of a full duplex PON featuring 2.5 Gbps sub carrier multiplexing downstream and 1.25 Gbps upstream with colourless ONU and simple optics,” in European Conference on Optical Communication, (IEEE, 2008), paper We.1.F.6. [CrossRef]
  23. K. Y. Cho, A. Murakami, Y. J. Lee, A. Agata, Y. Takushima, and Y. C. Chung, “Demonstration of RSOA-based WDM PON operating at symmetric rate of 1.25 Gb/s with high reflection tolerance,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper OTuH4.
  24. Z. Al-Qazwini and H. Kim, “10-Gbps single-feeder, full-duplex WDM-PON using directly modulated laser and RSOA,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper OTh1F.5.
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