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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 20, Iss. 13 — Jun. 18, 2012
  • pp: 14604–14613
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Self-focusing length in highly multimode ultra-large-mode-area fibers

Huang Zhihua, Wang Jianjun, Lin Honghuan, Xu Dangpeng, Zhang Rui, Li Mingzhong, and Wei Xiaofeng  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 20, Issue 13, pp. 14604-14613 (2012)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.20.014604


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Abstract

Recent theoretical researches reveal that the self-focusing critical power in the fiber waveguide is identical to that in the bulk medium. However, the delivery of peak power much higher than the self-focusing critical power has been demonstrated experimentally in ultra-large-mode-area fiber (ULMAF). And no experimental observation of self-focusing effect has been reported in recent pulsed fiber laser system whose peak power has reached or even exceeded the critical power. In this paper, we try to address this issue by studying the self-focusing length theoretically in the ULMAF which is highly multimode. Nonlinear beam propagation method employing PÁDE(2,2) approximation is applied in the numerical simulation. The results show that the self-focusing length of the fundamental mode is typically a few millimeters which is almost identical to that in the bulk medium. However, the self-focusing length of the summation of numerous modes can be as long as a few meters.

© 2012 OSA

1. Introduction

In the last decades, high power fiber laser technologies developed rapidly driven by the demands in industry, scientific research and defense [1

1. D. J. Richardson, J. Nilsson, and W. A. Clarkson, “High power fiber lasers: current status and future perspectives [Invited],” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27(11), B63–B92 (2010). [CrossRef]

]. The output average power has reached 10kW [2

2. E. Stiles, “New developments in IPG fiber laser technology,” in Proceedings of the 5th International Workshop on Fiber Lasers, 2009.

] with diffraction limited beam quality, while the output peak power can be as high as a few MWs [3

3. A. Galvanauskas, M.-Y. Cheng, K.-C. Hou, and K.-H. Liao, “High peak power pulse amplification in large-core Yb-doped fiber amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 559–566 (2007). [CrossRef]

]. To suppress the nonlinearities in the fiber laser which are the limiting factors for further power scaling, large-mode-area fiber (LMAF) is applied to reduce the intensity. For typical step-index LMAF, single-mode operation can be achieved by applying mode filtering methods such as bending [4

4. L. Ming-Jun, C. Xin, L. Anping, S. Gray, W. Ji, D. T. Walton, and L. A. Zenteno, “Limit of effective area for single-mode operation in step-index large mode area laser fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(15), 3010–3016 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. However, the core scaling of the ultra-large-mode-area fiber (ULMAF) is not acceptable because of the large bending loss [4

4. L. Ming-Jun, C. Xin, L. Anping, S. Gray, W. Ji, D. T. Walton, and L. A. Zenteno, “Limit of effective area for single-mode operation in step-index large mode area laser fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(15), 3010–3016 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. The mode-field-diameter (MFD) can be further scaled by applying photonic crystal fiber (PCF) which can work in single-mode operation for core diameter up to 80μm [5

5. J. Boullet, Y. Zaouter, R. Desmarchelier, M. Cazaux, F. Salin, J. Saby, R. Bello-Doua, and E. Cormier, “High power ytterbium-doped rod-type three-level photonic crystal fiber laser,” Opt. Express 16(22), 17891–17902 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The ultimate power limit in ULMAF is believed to be the self-focusing (SF) effect [6

6. A. V. Smith, B. T. Do, G. R. Hadley, and R. L. Farrow, “Optical damage limits to pulse energy from fibers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(1), 153–158 (2009). [CrossRef]

] whose critical power is independent of the mode field size [7

7. R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics, 3rd ed. (Academic Press, 2008).

].

As is pointed out by A. V. Smith et al. [6

6. A. V. Smith, B. T. Do, G. R. Hadley, and R. L. Farrow, “Optical damage limits to pulse energy from fibers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(1), 153–158 (2009). [CrossRef]

], for MFD smaller than 50μm, the bulk damage critical intensity is reached under the SF critical power. On the contrary, for MFD larger than that, SF will be the ultimate limitation. Recent theoretical researches [8

8. G. Fibich and A. L. Gaeta, “Critical power for self-focusing in bulk media and in hollow waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 25(5), 335–337 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] [9

9. R. L. Farrow, D. A. V. Kliner, G. R. Hadley, and A. V. Smith, “Peak-power limits on fiber amplifiers imposed by self-focusing,” Opt. Lett. 31(23), 3423–3425 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] reveal that the SF critical power in the fiber waveguide is almost the same with that in the bulk. For higher order mode (HOM) which has multiple lobes, the lobes will rotate and merge into a single one after a distance of propagation without enhancing the SF critical power [10

10. G. R. Hadley and A. V. Smith, “Self-focusing in high-power optical fibers,” Proc. SPIE 6475, 64750G, 64750G-11 (2007). [CrossRef]

]. In experimental researches, A. Galvanauskas et al. [3

3. A. Galvanauskas, M.-Y. Cheng, K.-C. Hou, and K.-H. Liao, “High peak power pulse amplification in large-core Yb-doped fiber amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 559–566 (2007). [CrossRef]

] achieve output peak power of 6MW@0.11ns in UMLAF in a 80μm-core fiber and 4.5MW@0.5ns in a 200μm-core fiber [11

11. M.-Y. Cheng, Y.-C. Chang, A. Galvanauskas, P. Mamidipudi, R. Changkakoti, and P. Gatchell, “High-energy and high-peak-power nanosecond pulse generation with beam quality control in 200-microm core highly multimode Yb-doped fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Lett. 30(4), 358–360 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Fabio Di Teodoro et al. achieve 4.5MW@0.45ns in a 140μm-core fiber [12

12. F. Di Teodoro and C. D. Brooks, “Multistage Yb-doped fiber amplifier generating megawatt peak-power, subnanosecond pulses,” Opt. Lett. 30(24), 3299–3301 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Actually, earlier experiments have demonstrated power delivery of 10MW [13

13. B. Richou, I. Schertz, I. Gobin, and J. Richou, “Delivery of 10-MW Nd:YAG laser pulses by large-core optical fibers: dependence of the laser-intensity profile on beam propagation,” Appl. Opt. 36(7), 1610–1614 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and 20MW [14

14. T. Schmidt-Uhlig, P. Karlitschek, G. Marowsky, and Y. Sano, “New simplified coupling scheme for the delivery of 20 MW Nd:YAG laser pulses by large core optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. B 72(2), 183–186 (2001). [CrossRef]

] in ULMAF system. Why there is no obvious SF effect observed in these laser systems employing ULMAF? A simple but convincing answer is that the SF length is longer than the length of the fiber. We try to explain this problem by studying the self-focusing length (SFL) in the fiber waveguide. Nonlinear beam propagation method (NBPM) is applied for the numerical simulation. The results show that, the SFL of the fundamental mode in the fiber waveguide is similar to that in the bulk. However, for the HOMs and the summation of numerous modes, SF length can be increased substantially.

2. Nonlinear beam propagation method

For the weak waveguide we are interested in, the propagation of the field can be described by the scalar wave equation given as [15

15. K. Okamoto, Fundamentals of Optical Waveguides (Adademic Press, 2000).

]
2ik0nrϕz=2ϕz2+1sxx(1sxϕx)+1syy(1syϕy)+k02(n2nr2)ϕ
(1)
where (x,y,z) is the Cartesian coordinate system, z is the direction of the propagation. ϕ(x,y,z) is the field distribution. i=1 is the imaginary unity. k0=2π/λ is wavenumber in vacuum, and λ is the central wavelength in vacuum. nr is the reference refractive index which is set to be equal to the core refractive index in our simulation. n(x,y,z) is the refractive index profile which is typically z-invariant in linear waveguide. sx,y is introduced to apply the perfect-matching-layer (PML) boundary condition [16

16. W. P. Huang, C. L. Xu, W. Lui, and K. Yokoyama, “The perfectly matched layer (PML) boundary condition for the beam propagation method,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8(5), 649–651 (1996). [CrossRef]

]
si={11j(m+1)λ4πdnL(rd)qln(1R)outsidePMLinsidePML
(2)
where i=x,y, d and q are the thickness and order of the PML, respectively. r=x2+y2 is the radial distance from the origin. R is a preset boundary reflectivity.

To take the Kerr effect into account, the local modification of the refractive index according to the intensity should be employed [7

7. R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics, 3rd ed. (Academic Press, 2008).

]
n=nL+nNL=nL+γ|ϕ|2
(3)
where nL is the linear refractive index. The parameter γ=2ε0cnLn2 and n2 is the nonlinear coefficient. ε0 and c are the permittivity and light velocity in the free space, respectively.

3. Self-focusing length of the fundamental mode

For weak waveguide where the cladding diameter is much larger than the core diameter, the field distribution of the linear polarized (LP) mode is given as follows [15

15. K. Okamoto, Fundamentals of Optical Waveguides (Adademic Press, 2000).

]
ϕlm(r,θ)={A×Jm(ur)×f(lθ)B×Km(vr)×f(lθ)rara
(5)
where l,m denote the order of the mode. (r,θ) is the polar coordinate system. J and K are the first kind and the second kind Bessel function, respectively. The parameters u and v are k02ncore2βlm2 and βlm2k02nclad2, respectively. ncore and nclad are the refractive index of the core and cladding, respectively. βlm corresponds to the propagation constant of LPlm mode. f(lθ) equals to sin(lθ) for odd mode and cos(lθ) for even mode, respectively.

Two types of fibers are used in our simulation, whose core diameters are 80μm and 200μm, respectively. The parameters of the fibers and numerical simulation are listed in Table 1

Table 1. Parameters of the Fibers and the Numerical Simulation

table-icon
View This Table
. The normalized frequency is defined as V=k0×a×NA, where a is the core radius and NA is the numerical aperture. The values of V for the 80μm-core and 200μm-core fiber are 14.2 and 35.4, which can support around 100 and 630 guided modes, respectively.

Theoretical researches [8

8. G. Fibich and A. L. Gaeta, “Critical power for self-focusing in bulk media and in hollow waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 25(5), 335–337 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,9

9. R. L. Farrow, D. A. V. Kliner, G. R. Hadley, and A. V. Smith, “Peak-power limits on fiber amplifiers imposed by self-focusing,” Opt. Lett. 31(23), 3423–3425 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] reveal that the SF critical power of the fundamental mode in fiber waveguide is the same with the that in the bulk. The critical power for linearly polarized light in the bulk is given as [7

7. R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics, 3rd ed. (Academic Press, 2008).

]
Pcr=π(0.61)2λ28nLn2
(6)
For λ=1064nm, nL=1.453 and n2=2.76×1016cm2/W, the SF critical power is 4.1MW. For sub-nanosecond pulse, the electrostriction contribution to n2 vanishes. The value of n2 reduces to 2.23×1016cm2/W [19

19. A. Melloni, M. Frasca, A. Garavaglia, A. Tonini, and M. Martinelli, “Direct measurement of electrostriction in optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 23(9), 691–693 (1998). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] which corresponds to a critical power of 5.1MW. The value of 2.76×1016cm2/W is used in the computation. For circularly polarized light, the value of n2 reduces to 2/3 of that for the linearly polarized light [7

7. R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics, 3rd ed. (Academic Press, 2008).

]. For beam power higher than Pcr, catastrophic SF will happen after a propagation length which is denoted as self-focusing length (Lsf). In the bulk medium, the SFL is given as [7

7. R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics, 3rd ed. (Academic Press, 2008).

]
Lsf=2nLw2λ1P/Pcr1
(7)
where P is the beam power larger than Pcr. w is the beam radius. The SFL is proportional to the square of beam radius and inversely proportional to the quadratic root of the ratio P/Pcr. In current inertial confinement fusion laser driver facilities where high power large-aperture bulk laser system is applied, the optical power through a single aperture is much larger than the SF critical power [20

20. C. A. Haynam, R. A. Sacks, P. J. Wegner, M. W. Bowers, S. N. Dixit, G. V. Erbert, G. M. Heestand, M. A. Henesian, M. R. Hermann, K. S. Jancaitis, K. R. Manes, C. D. Marshall, N. C. Mehta, J. Menapace, M. C. Nostrand, C. D. Orth, M. J. Shaw, S. B. Sutton, W. H. Williams, C. C. Widmayer, R. K. White, S. T. Yang, and B. M. V. Wonterghem, “The National Ignition Facility 2007 laser performance status,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 112(3), 032004 (2008). [CrossRef]

]. However, due to the aperture diameter as large as 400mm, the SFL is a few kilometers long which is much longer than the thickness of the nonlinear media used in the facility. Small scale self-focusing [7

7. R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics, 3rd ed. (Academic Press, 2008).

] instead of the whole beam self-focusing dominates in this case and a limit of B integral, which is the accumulated phase shift due to the Kerr nonlinearity, is introduced to guarantee that this nonlinearity doesn’t degrade the beam quality too much. Similar to the case in the bulk medium, we think that the SFL is an important parameter for the nonlinear propagation of the beam with peak power higher than the critical power. In this section, we will study the nonlinear propagation of the LP01 mode which is required in many applications in the ULMAF and compare the SFL in the waveguide with that in the bulk.

The intensity distributions of the LP01 mode in the 80μm-core and 200μm-core fiber are shown in Fig. 1(a)
Fig. 1 Normalized intensity profiles of the LP01 mode and its Gaussian fit in the (a) 80μm-core and (b) 200μm-core fiber.
and 1(b), respectively. The mode field is basically confined in the core region, while the leaky field is almost negligible. The Gaussian fit of the field profile is also shown in Fig. 1, whose radii (1/e2 intensity) of the 80μm-core and 200μm-core fiber are 35μm and 82μm, respectively. The Gaussian fit profile coincides with the LP01 profile well within the full-width-half-magnitude region. But the Gaussian fit profile extends to the cladding. The effective radii of the LP01 mode in 80μm-core and 200μm-core fiber are 29.5μm and 71.0μm which are obviously smaller than that of the Gaussian fit beam.

In Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The evolution of the peak intensity along the propagation direction for Gaussian fit beam in the bulk (black), LP01 mode in the bulk (blue) and LP01 mode in the waveguide (red) in the (a) 80μm-core and (b) 200μm-core fiber.
, the evolution of the peak intensity along the propagation direction is given under the power of 2Pcr for Gaussian fit beam in the bulk, LP01 mode in the bulk and LP01 mode in the waveguide. The peak intensity goes through a few oscillations and the position of the first peak characterizes the SFL [21

21. R. W. Boyd, S. G. Lukishova, and Y. R. Shen, Self-Focusing: Past and Present. (Springer, 2009).

]. In the 80μm-core fiber, the SFLs of the Gaussian fit beam in the bulk, LP01 mode in the bulk and LP01 mode in the waveguide are 3.37mm, 2.28mm and 2.36mm, respectively. In 200μm-core fiber, the SFLs of the Gaussian fit beam in the bulk, LP01 mode in the bulk and LP01 mode in the waveguide are 18.4mm, 13.1mm and 13.6mm, respectively. The results of the Gaussian fit beam in the bulk coincide well with the prediction of Eq. (7) by substituting the fitting radius into the formula. The SFL for the LP01 mode in the bulk is slightly smaller than that in the waveguide. The ratio of the SFL of the Gaussian fit beam to that of the LP01 mode (both in the bulk and in the waveguide) is close to the ratio of the square of the beam radius which is around 1.41 for the 80μm-core fiber and 1.33 for 200μm-core fiber.

As is shown in Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The SFLs for LP01 mode in the bulk (blue diamond) and the waveguide (red square) in the (a) 80μm-core and (b) 200μm-core fiber.
, SFL decreases with the increasing power. The SFL in the bulk is close to that in the waveguide for different beam power. By substituting the effective radius of LP01 mode into Eq. (7), the numerical simulation coincides with the theoretical fit perfectly. According to these results, a few conclusions can be drawn as follows: 1) the self-focusing behavior of the LP01 mode in the bulk is similar to that in the waveguide which also implies a same critical power in both media; 2) Eq. (7) can be applied to predict the SFL in the waveguide provided that the effective radius is used; 3) for beam power larger than 2Pcr, the SFL is only a few millimeters in the ULMAF.

4. Self-focusing length of the higher order mode

It’s difficult to realize single-mode operation in ULMAF when hundreds of guided modes can be supported. Therefore, it’s important to study the self-focusing behavior of the HOM. According to the symmetry of the LP modes, we can divide them into two categories, i.e. LP0m mode and LPlm mode (l1). For LP0m mode, the peak intensity locates at the center. There are m-1 rings outside of the central lobe. Because the self-focusing effect is due to the nonlinear refractive index proportional to the intensity profile, the central lobe is critical for the self-focusing evolution. As is shown in Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The radius of the central lobe (blue) and ratio of the peak intensity (green) of LP0m mode to that of the LP01 mode under the same power versus the order m in the (a) 80μm-core and (b) 200μm-core fiber.
, the ratio of the peak intensity increases almost linearly with the order m. On the contrary, the radius of the central lobe decreases with m.

As is shown in Fig. 5(a)
Fig. 5 Nonlinear propagation of LP0m mode in ULMAFs under beam power of 2Pcr. x-z intensity cross section for (a) LP02 mode in 80μm-core fiber, (b) LP02 mode in 200μm-core fiber, (c) LP04 mode in 80μm-core fiber and (d) LP04 mode in 200μm-core fiber.
and 5(b), the SFLs of the LP02 mode under 2Pcr in the 80μm-core and 200μm-core fiber are 1.65mm and 14.0mm, respectively, which are still comparable to that of the LP01 mode. The central lobe dominates the self-focusing process. As is shown in Fig. 5(c) and 5(d), the SFLs of the LP04 mode under 2Pcr in the 80μm-core and 200μm-core fiber are 9.50mm and 40.0mm, respectively, which are much larger than that of the LP01 mode. For LP0m modes, the decrease of the central lobe radius and increase of the peak intensity tend to reduce the SFL. However, the ring-type nonlinear refractive index due to the intensity ring tends to enlarge the mode field which will also increase the SFL. For small m, these two effects are comparable, which makes the SFL comparable to that of the LP01 mode. For larger m, the latter effect dominates which leads to a larger SFL.

For LPlm modes (l1), there are separate lobes. A. V. Smith et al. [10

10. G. R. Hadley and A. V. Smith, “Self-focusing in high-power optical fibers,” Proc. SPIE 6475, 64750G, 64750G-11 (2007). [CrossRef]

] pointed out that the two lobes of the LP11 mode in a 25μm-core fiber will rotate and merge into a single lobe in a few millimeters. However, according to Ref [6

6. A. V. Smith, B. T. Do, G. R. Hadley, and R. L. Farrow, “Optical damage limits to pulse energy from fibers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(1), 153–158 (2009). [CrossRef]

], the fiber with this core diameter cannot deliver power higher than Pcr. In the ULMAF, the separation between the two lobes is larger and their interaction becomes weak. As is shown in Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Nonlinear propagation of the LP11 mode under the power of 2Pcr in the (a) 80μm-core and (b)200μm-core fiber.
, in both of the 80μm-core and the 200μm-core fiber, the two lobes of the LP11 mode evolves almost independently. The corresponding SFLs under the power of 2Pcr in the 80μm-core and the 200μm-core fiber are 3.80mm and 19.0mm, respectively, which are 1.6 and 1.4 times of that of the fundamental mode under the same power.

5. Self-focusing length of the summation of numerous modes

The practical laser system employing ULMAF usually works in multimode operation. The output beam quality degrades because of the excitation of HOMs. The beam quality can be calculated with the methods reported in Ref [22

22. H. Yoda, P. Polynkin, and M. Mansuripur, “Beam quality factor of higher order modes in a step-index fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(3), 1350–1355 (2006). [CrossRef]

]. The summation of N LP modes can be written as
ϕ(r,z=0)=j=1N|cj|exp(iφj)ϕj(r)
(8)
where ϕj(r) is the j-th normalized mode field. |cj|2 and φj are the power proportion and phase of j-th mode, respectively. For simulation of the highly multimode ULMAF, we set |cj|2=1/N where N equals to 50 and 300 for the 80μm-core fiber and the 200μm-core fiber, respectively. The phase φj is set to be a random number of uniform distribution within the range [0,2π).

The nonlinear propagation of the summation of multimode in the 80μm-core fiber is shown in Fig. 7
Fig. 7 The summation of multimode in the 80μm-core fiber under the power of (a) 2Pcr and (c) 6MW. The x-z intensity cross sections in the 80μm-core fiber under the power of (b) 2Pcr and (d) 6MW.
under power of 2Pcr and 6MW. Due to the interference of the numerous modes, obvious speckles pattern is shown in the input field. For power of 2Pcr, catastrophic self-focusing happens after a propagation distance of 432mm. On the contrary, for power of 6MW, no catastrophic self-focusing happens within 1m propagation although the speckles seem to merge into larger ones after 600mm propagation. Because of the difference in propagation constants for various LP modes, the speckle pattern changes rapidly during the propagation which means the nonlinear refractive index cross section is not stable. The variation of the refractive index interrupts the self-focusing process which leads to a much larger SFL.

The nonlinear propagation of the summation of multimode in the 200μm-core fiber is shown in Fig. 8
Fig. 8 The nonlinear beam propagation in 200μm-core fiber under the power 2Pcr. (a) input field, (b) output field, (c) beam power, (d) peak intensity, (e) beam quality factor, (f) x-z intensity cross section.
under power of 2Pcr. No catastrophic self-focusing happens after a propagation of 2m. The speckles of the input field merge into hotter ones (red speckles) in the output field. The beam power reduces by around 0.7MW due to the leakage of radiation mode during the nonlinear propagation. The peak intensity oscillates randomly but the maximum does not exceeds twice of the mean value which is slightly larger than 2kW/µm2. The beam quality factors in both x direction and y direction are larger than 10 although they reduce slightly by 3. As is revealed by the simulation, the 200μm-core fiber can deliver optical power larger than Pcr safely for a fiber length which can be applied in practical fiber system provided that the numerous modes are excited in the fiber.

5. Conclusions and discussions

Nonlinear beam propagation method employing PÁDE(2,2) approximation is applied to study the SFL in the ULMAF. The self-focusing process of the LP01 mode in the bulk and waveguide are similar and the SFL can be characterized by the effective beam radius. In large aperture bulk laser driver systems, flat-top beam shape is applied to increase the spatial duty cycle and relieve the whole beam self-focusing. However, the flat-top beam cannot maintain its shape during the propagation in the multimode fiber if it’s a summation of the numerous modes. The SFL of the HOM can be lengthened substantially under the same power compared to that of the fundamental mode. The varying speckle pattern due to the multimode interference interrupts the self-focusing process which makes the delivery of optical power much higher than Pcr in the long ULMAF possible. Linear polarization and continuous wave or long pulse are assumed in the computation, which means that the critical power can be further enhanced by injecting circularly polarized light or ultrashort pulse. For applications where near single-mode operation is required, Pcr is the ultimate power limit and only a few millimeters propagation is allowed for beam power higher than Pcr. On the contrary, for applications where the beam quality requirement is low, much higher power can be delivered by exciting numerous modes in the fiber. If the fiber is divided into segments shorter than the SFL and the self-focusing process is interrupted in the joint of neighboring segments, e.g. by expanding the core, the effective SFL may be increased further.

Acknowledgments

This research is supported by Foundation of Science and Technology of Plasma Physics Laboratory under grant 9140C6803010905 and National Natural Science Foundation of China under grant 60878058.

References and links

1.

D. J. Richardson, J. Nilsson, and W. A. Clarkson, “High power fiber lasers: current status and future perspectives [Invited],” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27(11), B63–B92 (2010). [CrossRef]

2.

E. Stiles, “New developments in IPG fiber laser technology,” in Proceedings of the 5th International Workshop on Fiber Lasers, 2009.

3.

A. Galvanauskas, M.-Y. Cheng, K.-C. Hou, and K.-H. Liao, “High peak power pulse amplification in large-core Yb-doped fiber amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 559–566 (2007). [CrossRef]

4.

L. Ming-Jun, C. Xin, L. Anping, S. Gray, W. Ji, D. T. Walton, and L. A. Zenteno, “Limit of effective area for single-mode operation in step-index large mode area laser fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(15), 3010–3016 (2009). [CrossRef]

5.

J. Boullet, Y. Zaouter, R. Desmarchelier, M. Cazaux, F. Salin, J. Saby, R. Bello-Doua, and E. Cormier, “High power ytterbium-doped rod-type three-level photonic crystal fiber laser,” Opt. Express 16(22), 17891–17902 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

A. V. Smith, B. T. Do, G. R. Hadley, and R. L. Farrow, “Optical damage limits to pulse energy from fibers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(1), 153–158 (2009). [CrossRef]

7.

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics, 3rd ed. (Academic Press, 2008).

8.

G. Fibich and A. L. Gaeta, “Critical power for self-focusing in bulk media and in hollow waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 25(5), 335–337 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

R. L. Farrow, D. A. V. Kliner, G. R. Hadley, and A. V. Smith, “Peak-power limits on fiber amplifiers imposed by self-focusing,” Opt. Lett. 31(23), 3423–3425 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

G. R. Hadley and A. V. Smith, “Self-focusing in high-power optical fibers,” Proc. SPIE 6475, 64750G, 64750G-11 (2007). [CrossRef]

11.

M.-Y. Cheng, Y.-C. Chang, A. Galvanauskas, P. Mamidipudi, R. Changkakoti, and P. Gatchell, “High-energy and high-peak-power nanosecond pulse generation with beam quality control in 200-microm core highly multimode Yb-doped fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Lett. 30(4), 358–360 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

F. Di Teodoro and C. D. Brooks, “Multistage Yb-doped fiber amplifier generating megawatt peak-power, subnanosecond pulses,” Opt. Lett. 30(24), 3299–3301 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

B. Richou, I. Schertz, I. Gobin, and J. Richou, “Delivery of 10-MW Nd:YAG laser pulses by large-core optical fibers: dependence of the laser-intensity profile on beam propagation,” Appl. Opt. 36(7), 1610–1614 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

T. Schmidt-Uhlig, P. Karlitschek, G. Marowsky, and Y. Sano, “New simplified coupling scheme for the delivery of 20 MW Nd:YAG laser pulses by large core optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. B 72(2), 183–186 (2001). [CrossRef]

15.

K. Okamoto, Fundamentals of Optical Waveguides (Adademic Press, 2000).

16.

W. P. Huang, C. L. Xu, W. Lui, and K. Yokoyama, “The perfectly matched layer (PML) boundary condition for the beam propagation method,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8(5), 649–651 (1996). [CrossRef]

17.

G. R. Hadley, “Wide-angle beam propagation using Padé approximant operators,” Opt. Lett. 17(20), 1426–1428 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18.

P. Vandersteegen, B. Maes, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Using the complex Jacobi method to simulate Kerr non-linear photonic components,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 38(1-3), 35–44 (2006). [CrossRef]

19.

A. Melloni, M. Frasca, A. Garavaglia, A. Tonini, and M. Martinelli, “Direct measurement of electrostriction in optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 23(9), 691–693 (1998). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

20.

C. A. Haynam, R. A. Sacks, P. J. Wegner, M. W. Bowers, S. N. Dixit, G. V. Erbert, G. M. Heestand, M. A. Henesian, M. R. Hermann, K. S. Jancaitis, K. R. Manes, C. D. Marshall, N. C. Mehta, J. Menapace, M. C. Nostrand, C. D. Orth, M. J. Shaw, S. B. Sutton, W. H. Williams, C. C. Widmayer, R. K. White, S. T. Yang, and B. M. V. Wonterghem, “The National Ignition Facility 2007 laser performance status,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 112(3), 032004 (2008). [CrossRef]

21.

R. W. Boyd, S. G. Lukishova, and Y. R. Shen, Self-Focusing: Past and Present. (Springer, 2009).

22.

H. Yoda, P. Polynkin, and M. Mansuripur, “Beam quality factor of higher order modes in a step-index fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(3), 1350–1355 (2006). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(190.4370) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics, fibers
(260.5950) Physical optics : Self-focusing
(060.3510) Fiber optics and optical communications : Lasers, fiber

ToC Category:
Nonlinear Optics

History
Original Manuscript: May 7, 2012
Revised Manuscript: May 30, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: May 31, 2012
Published: June 15, 2012

Citation
Huang Zhihua, Wang Jianjun, Lin Honghuan, Xu Dangpeng, Zhang Rui, Li Mingzhong, and Wei Xiaofeng, "Self-focusing length in highly multimode ultra-large-mode-area fibers," Opt. Express 20, 14604-14613 (2012)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-20-13-14604


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References

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  4. L. Ming-Jun, C. Xin, L. Anping, S. Gray, W. Ji, D. T. Walton, and L. A. Zenteno, “Limit of effective area for single-mode operation in step-index large mode area laser fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol.27(15), 3010–3016 (2009). [CrossRef]
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  7. R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics, 3rd ed. (Academic Press, 2008).
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  9. R. L. Farrow, D. A. V. Kliner, G. R. Hadley, and A. V. Smith, “Peak-power limits on fiber amplifiers imposed by self-focusing,” Opt. Lett.31(23), 3423–3425 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. G. R. Hadley and A. V. Smith, “Self-focusing in high-power optical fibers,” Proc. SPIE6475, 64750G, 64750G-11 (2007). [CrossRef]
  11. M.-Y. Cheng, Y.-C. Chang, A. Galvanauskas, P. Mamidipudi, R. Changkakoti, and P. Gatchell, “High-energy and high-peak-power nanosecond pulse generation with beam quality control in 200-microm core highly multimode Yb-doped fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Lett.30(4), 358–360 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. F. Di Teodoro and C. D. Brooks, “Multistage Yb-doped fiber amplifier generating megawatt peak-power, subnanosecond pulses,” Opt. Lett.30(24), 3299–3301 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. B. Richou, I. Schertz, I. Gobin, and J. Richou, “Delivery of 10-MW Nd:YAG laser pulses by large-core optical fibers: dependence of the laser-intensity profile on beam propagation,” Appl. Opt.36(7), 1610–1614 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. T. Schmidt-Uhlig, P. Karlitschek, G. Marowsky, and Y. Sano, “New simplified coupling scheme for the delivery of 20 MW Nd:YAG laser pulses by large core optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. B72(2), 183–186 (2001). [CrossRef]
  15. K. Okamoto, Fundamentals of Optical Waveguides (Adademic Press, 2000).
  16. W. P. Huang, C. L. Xu, W. Lui, and K. Yokoyama, “The perfectly matched layer (PML) boundary condition for the beam propagation method,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.8(5), 649–651 (1996). [CrossRef]
  17. G. R. Hadley, “Wide-angle beam propagation using Padé approximant operators,” Opt. Lett.17(20), 1426–1428 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. P. Vandersteegen, B. Maes, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Using the complex Jacobi method to simulate Kerr non-linear photonic components,” Opt. Quantum Electron.38(1-3), 35–44 (2006). [CrossRef]
  19. A. Melloni, M. Frasca, A. Garavaglia, A. Tonini, and M. Martinelli, “Direct measurement of electrostriction in optical fibers,” Opt. Lett.23(9), 691–693 (1998). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. C. A. Haynam, R. A. Sacks, P. J. Wegner, M. W. Bowers, S. N. Dixit, G. V. Erbert, G. M. Heestand, M. A. Henesian, M. R. Hermann, K. S. Jancaitis, K. R. Manes, C. D. Marshall, N. C. Mehta, J. Menapace, M. C. Nostrand, C. D. Orth, M. J. Shaw, S. B. Sutton, W. H. Williams, C. C. Widmayer, R. K. White, S. T. Yang, and B. M. V. Wonterghem, “The National Ignition Facility 2007 laser performance status,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser.112(3), 032004 (2008). [CrossRef]
  21. R. W. Boyd, S. G. Lukishova, and Y. R. Shen, Self-Focusing: Past and Present. (Springer, 2009).
  22. H. Yoda, P. Polynkin, and M. Mansuripur, “Beam quality factor of higher order modes in a step-index fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol.24(3), 1350–1355 (2006). [CrossRef]

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