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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 20, Iss. 13 — Jun. 18, 2012
  • pp: 14714–14721
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Silicon-based current-injected light emitting diodes with Ge self-assembled quantum dots embedded in photonic crystal nanocavities

Xuejun Xu, Toshiki Tsuboi, Taichi Chiba, Noritaka Usami, Takuya Maruizumi, and Yasuhiro Shiraki  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 20, Issue 13, pp. 14714-14721 (2012)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.20.014714


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Abstract

Room temperature light emission from Ge self-assembled quantum dots (QDs) embedded in L3-type photonic crystal (PhC) nanocavity is successfully demonstrated under current injection through a lateral PIN diode structure. The Ge QDs are grown on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer by solid-source molecular beam epitaxy (SS-MBE), and the PIN diode is fabricated by selective ion implantation around the PhC cavity. Under an injected current larger than 0.5 mA, strong resonant electroluminescence (EL) around 1.3–1.5 μm wavelength corresponding to the PhC cavity modes is observed. A sharp peak with a quality factor up to 260 is obtained in the EL spectrum. These results show a possible way to realize practical silicon-based light emitting devices.

© 2012 OSA

1. Introduction

Silicon-based optical interconnection is now considered as one of the most attractive solutions to overcome the problems of bandwidth and power consumption in electronic integrated circuits [1

1. G. T. ReedSilicon Photonics: The State of the Art (J. Wiley & Sons, 2008). [CrossRef]

,2

2. L. Tsybeskov, D. J. Lockwood, and M. Ichikawa“Silicon Photonics: CMOS Going Optical,” Proc. IEEE 97, 1161–1165 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. So far, almost all of the photonic components have been realized with high performances on silicon-compatible platform, except the light emitting devices. This is due to the inherent property of indirect band gap of silicon. Numerous approaches have been proposed to solve this problem, including silicon nanocrystals [3

3. L. Pavesi, L. Dal Negro, C. Mazzoleni, G. Franzo, and F. Priolo, “Optical gain in silicon nanocrystals,” Nature (London) 408, 440–444 (2000). [CrossRef]

], SiGe nanostructures [4

4. D. K. Nayak, N. Usami, S. Fukatsu, and Y. Shiraki, “Band-edge photoluminescence of SiGe/strained-Si/SiGe type-II quantum wells on Si (100),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 3509–3511 (1993). [CrossRef]

, 5

5. R. Apetz, L. Vescan, A. Hartmann, C. Dieker, and H. Luth, “Photoluminescence and electroluminescence of SiGe dots fabricated by island growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 445–447 (1995). [CrossRef]

], erbium doping in silicon and SiN [6

6. H.-S. Han, S.-Y. Seo, and J. H. Shin, “Optical gain at 1.54 μm in erbium-doped silicon nanocluster sensitized waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 4568–4570 (2001). [CrossRef]

], silicon Raman lasers [7

7. H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “An all-silicon Raman laser,” Nature (London) 433, 292–294 (2005). [CrossRef]

], and so on. Among these, Ge self-assembled quantum dots (QDs) [8

8. S. Fukatsu, H. Sunamura, Y. Shiraki, and S. Komiyama, “Phononless radiative recombination of indirect excitons in a Si/Ge type-II quantum dot,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 258–260 (1997). [CrossRef]

, 9

9. T. Brunhes, P. Boucaud, S. Sauvage, F. Aniel, J.-M. Lourtioz, C. Hemandez, Y. Campidelli, O. Kermarrec, D. Bensahel, G. Faini, and I. Sagnes, “Electroluminescence of Ge/Si self-assembled quantum dots grown by chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1822–1824 (2000). [CrossRef]

] is a promising solution due to its advantages of compatibility to CMOS technology and light emission in the telecommunication band.

Compared with microdisks, PhC nanocavites are more promising due to their potential for higher Q-factor and smaller mode volume. On the other hand, it is difficult to inject and confine carriers into such small cavities. One of the most common ways is to use a vertical PIN junction with heavily doped area on top of the cavity [15

15. H. G. Park, S. H. Kim, S. H. Kwon, Y. G. Ju, J. K. Yang, J. H. Baek, S. B. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, “Electrically driven single-cell photonic crystal laser,” Science 305, 1444–1447 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. However, in this structure, most part of the current passes through the PhC area, instead of the cavity. Moreover, a large additional loss is introduced by the heavily doped region and metal contact just on top of the cavity. Although we have already realized room temperature EL from PhC cavity with this vertical PIN structure, the resonant peaks are not obvious and the Q-factor is very low [16

16. T. Tsuboi, X. Xu, J. Xia, N. Usami, T. Maruizumi, and Y. Shiraki, “Room temperature electroluminescence from Ge quantum dots embedded in photonic crystal microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Express 5, 052101 (2012). [CrossRef]

]. On the other hand, a lateral PIN junction provides an excellent solution for the injection and confinement of the carriers, while making very few changes to the cavity structure. Several groups have already used the lateral PIN diode structure in III–V material-based PhC cavities and realized ultralow threshold lasers [17

17. B. Ellis, M. A. Mayer, G. Shambat, T. Sarmiento, J. Harris, E. E. Haller, and J. Vuckovic, “Ultralow-threshold electrically pumped quantum-dot photonic-crystal nanocavity laser,” Nat. Photon. 5, 297–300 (2011). [CrossRef]

, 18

18. S. Matsuo, K. Takeda, T. Sato, M. Notomi, A. Shinya, K. Nozaki, H. Taniyama, K. Hasebe, and T. Kakitsuka, “Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of lateral current injection wavelength-scale embedded active-region photonic-crystal laser,” Opt. Express 20, 3773–3780 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

In this paper, we report the fabrication and characterization of lateral PIN junction PhC nanocavity light emitting diodes with Ge self-assembled QDs, in which the junction is fabricated by selective ion implantation into the PhC region. Strong resonant EL is successfully observed at room temperature.

2. Device structure and fabrication

Figure 1 shows the schematic diagram of our current-injected light emitting diode, together with the cross-section of the PhC cavity area. A lateral PIN diode is integrated on the PhC slab in order to inject carriers into the cavity.

Fig. 1 (a) Three-dimensional schematic diagram and (b) cross-section of the lateral PIN current-injected PhC cavity light emitting diode.

We started the device fabrication from silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer with 160 nm-thick Si top layer and 2 μm-thick BOX layer. The Si layer was first thinned down to ∼50 nm through thermal oxidation and HF wet etching. The active layers were then grown on this wafer by solid-source molecular beam epitaxy (SS-MBE) at 700 °C: First 40 nm-thick Si buffer, then three layers of Ge self-assembled QDs separated by 20nm-thick Si spacers, and at last 40 nm Si cap layer.

The PIN junction was firstly fabricated by selective BF2 and As ions implantation. In order to realize uniform doping concentration along the depth direction and high surface concentration simultaneously, ion implantation with multiple energies and doses was performed. For BF2, we used implantation energies of 25KeV, 50KeV, and 75KeV, and doses of 2×1014 cm−2, 5×1014 cm−2, and 3×1014 cm−2, respectively. For As, implantation energies of 25KeV, 50KeV, and 100KeV, and doses of 2×1014 cm−2, 5×1014 cm−2, and 5×1014 cm−2 were used respectively. After that, a rapid thermal anneal of 10 seconds at 1000 °C was performed to activate the dopant. The PhC cavity was then fabricated by electron beam lithography and inductively-coupled reactive ion dry etching. At last, silver metal was evaporated and lifted-off to form the electrodes. Figure 2 shows the scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of the fabricated device, together with the zoomed area of the PhC cavity. The cavity is a common L3-type, with designed lattice constant of a = 420 nm and hole radius of r = 0.24a. Based on the SRIM simulation [19

19. J. ZieglerSRIM The Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter, Version 2008.03, http://www.srim.org.

] of ion distribution and Hall effect measurement [20

20. A. Mokhberi, P. B. Griffin, J. D. Plummer, E. Paton, S. McCoy, and K. Elliot, “A comparative study of dopant activation in Boron, BF2, Arsenic, and Phosphorus implanted silicon,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 49, 1183–1191 (2002). [CrossRef]

], we estimate the maximum p-type doping concentration to be about 0.8×1020 cm−3 and the maximum n-type doping concentration to be about 1.0×1020 cm−3. The width of the intrinsic region of the PIN junction is designed to be 900 nm in the doping layout, and shrunk to about 860 nm due to the lateral diffusion after activation anneal.

Fig. 2 (a) SEM image of a fabricated lateral PIN current-injected PhC cavity light emitting diode, together with (b) the zoomed area of the L3-type PhC nanocavity.

The fabricated devices were characterized by micro-photoluminescence at room temperature. The excitation was done either by a diode-pumped solid-state (DPSS) laser of 532 nm wavelength (for PL) or a DC current source (for EL). The light emission signal was collected by an objective lens (100×, NA = 0.50), and then dispersed by a monochromator with a 320 mm focus length and detected by a liquid-nitrogen-cooled InGaAs detector array.

3. Experimental results and discussion

The current-voltage (I–V) property of the fabricated device was first characterized by a semiconductor parameter analyzer. As shown in Fig. 3, a typical diode characteristic is obtained, verifying the electrical performance of our devices. The reverse leakage current is about 18 μA for a negative bias of −5 V. A rather high current density in the cavity region, about 19 kA/cm2 at an applied voltage of 1.5 V, is obtained from the I–V curve. A series resistance of about 975 Ω is extracted through fitting the I–V curve to the ideal diode equation.

Fig. 3 Current-voltage curve of the fabricated light emitting diode.

Fig. 4 (a) EL spectra of the device under different injected currents. The top panel shows the calculated peak positions of the PhC cavity modes; (b) Lorentz fitting of the strongest peak in the EL spectrum under 0.5mA injected current.

As one may notice, the resonant peak corresponding to the fundamental cavity mode (with longest wavelength) is not seen in the EL spectra. In order to understand the reason for this, we performed PL measurement for the device under optical pumping with two types of objective lens, one is with an NA of 0.50 and the other is 0.95. The PL spectra, together with the EL spectrum under 2 mA injected current, are shown in Fig. 5. The fundamental cavity mode around 1.54 μm is observed in the PL spectrum with NA = 0.95, but becomes very weak in the PL spectrum with NA = 0.50. The intensity reduction of this peak can be therefore attributed to the low collection efficiency of the collection optics. Compared with that of the fourth-order mode, the far-field pattern of the fundamental mode is much more dispersive [24

24. S. Nakayama, S. Ishida, S. Iwamoto, and Y. Arakawa, “Effect of cavity mode volume on the photoluminescence from silicon photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 171102 (2011). [CrossRef]

]. Moreover, due to the vertical asymmetry, the optical confinement of SiO2-cladding side is weaker than that of air-cladding side, and the upward radiation from the cavity becomes weaker than the downward radiation. In total, only very small portion of the light emission of the fundamental mode is collected by the optics with NA = 0.50 (with collection angle of 30°), so as the case in EL measurement. This problem can be solved by using free-standing structure and optimizing the far-field pattern by applying a double-period perturbation to the cavity [25

25. N. Tran, S. Combrie, P. Colman, A. D. Rossi, and T. Mei, “Vertical high emission in photonic crystal nanocavities by band-folding design,” Phys. Rev. B 82, 075120 (2010). [CrossRef]

].

Fig. 5 PL spectra under optical pumping by using objective lens with different NAs, and EL spectrum under 2 mA injected current.

As the injected current increased, the luminescence intensity and peak wavelengths were seen to vary. Figure 6(a) shows the dependence of the resonant wavelength, Q-factor of the fourth-order cavity mode on the injected current. It is reasonable that the peak wavelength shows red shift as the current increases. This is due to the thermo-optic effect induced by the injected current and the refractive index of silicon is increased by heating. A linear relationship between the changes of the peak wavelength Δλ and the refractive index Δn is obtained as Δλ = 0.29Δn through numerical simulation. The peak wavelength and the corresponding refractive index change against electrical power are then plotted in Fig. 6(b). By considering that the thermo-optic coefficient of silicon is 1.94×10−4 around 1.3 μm wavelength at room-temperature [26

26. B. J. Frey, D. B. Leviton, and T. J. Madison, “Temperature-dependent refractive index of silicon and germanium,” Proc. SPIE 6273, 62732J (2006). [CrossRef]

], the temperature increase is about 12 K/mW against electrical power. The nonlinear increase of the refractive index at high electrical power can be attributed to the increased thermo-optic coefficient of silicon at high temperature [26

26. B. J. Frey, D. B. Leviton, and T. J. Madison, “Temperature-dependent refractive index of silicon and germanium,” Proc. SPIE 6273, 62732J (2006). [CrossRef]

]. On the other hand, the Q-factor reduction with the current increase is mainly due to the free-carrier absorption. At high injection level, a large amount of carriers cannot be recombined radiatively in the Ge QDs, which leads to absorption of the emitted light.

Fig. 6 (a) The dependence of the resonant wavelength and Q-factor of the fourth-order cavity mode on the injected current; (b) The dependence of the resonant wavelength and refractive index change on the electrical power. The refractive index change is calculated from the corresponding resonant wavelength shift, and the electrical power is obtained from data in the I–V curve shown in Fig. 3.

Fig. 7 The relationship between the emission intensity of the fourth-order cavity mode and the injected current. The dependence can be modeled by different nonlinear exponents at different current injection levels.

4. Conclusion

Silicon-based current-injected light emitting diodes were realized with Ge self-assembled quantum dots embedded inside L3-type photonic crystal nanocavities. By using a lateral PIN diode structure, the carriers could be injected into the cavity efficiently. Strong resonant electroluminescence corresponding to the PhC cavity modes were successfully observed at room temperature when the injected current was larger than 0.5 mA. A record Q-factor of 260 was obtained in this device. We believe that a much higher Q-factor and emission intensity can be achieved by optimizing the PhC cavity design and using free-standing structure. The resonant wavelength, Q-factor and mode intensity were found to be dependent on the injected current. These results provide us a reliable approach towards practical electrically-driven silicon-based light sources for optical interconnection application.

Acknowledgments

This work was partly supported by project for strategic advancement of research infrastructure for private universities, 2009–2013, and by Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (A) (Grant No. 21246003) from MEXT, Japan. The authors would like to thank Y. Hoshi, K. Sawano, and S. Taguchi for the discussion and help in the experiments.

References and links

1.

G. T. ReedSilicon Photonics: The State of the Art (J. Wiley & Sons, 2008). [CrossRef]

2.

L. Tsybeskov, D. J. Lockwood, and M. Ichikawa“Silicon Photonics: CMOS Going Optical,” Proc. IEEE 97, 1161–1165 (2009). [CrossRef]

3.

L. Pavesi, L. Dal Negro, C. Mazzoleni, G. Franzo, and F. Priolo, “Optical gain in silicon nanocrystals,” Nature (London) 408, 440–444 (2000). [CrossRef]

4.

D. K. Nayak, N. Usami, S. Fukatsu, and Y. Shiraki, “Band-edge photoluminescence of SiGe/strained-Si/SiGe type-II quantum wells on Si (100),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 3509–3511 (1993). [CrossRef]

5.

R. Apetz, L. Vescan, A. Hartmann, C. Dieker, and H. Luth, “Photoluminescence and electroluminescence of SiGe dots fabricated by island growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 445–447 (1995). [CrossRef]

6.

H.-S. Han, S.-Y. Seo, and J. H. Shin, “Optical gain at 1.54 μm in erbium-doped silicon nanocluster sensitized waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 4568–4570 (2001). [CrossRef]

7.

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “An all-silicon Raman laser,” Nature (London) 433, 292–294 (2005). [CrossRef]

8.

S. Fukatsu, H. Sunamura, Y. Shiraki, and S. Komiyama, “Phononless radiative recombination of indirect excitons in a Si/Ge type-II quantum dot,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 258–260 (1997). [CrossRef]

9.

T. Brunhes, P. Boucaud, S. Sauvage, F. Aniel, J.-M. Lourtioz, C. Hemandez, Y. Campidelli, O. Kermarrec, D. Bensahel, G. Faini, and I. Sagnes, “Electroluminescence of Ge/Si self-assembled quantum dots grown by chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1822–1824 (2000). [CrossRef]

10.

E. M. Purcell, “Spontaneous emission probabilities at radio frequencies,” Phys. Rev. 69, 681 (1946).

11.

J. S. Xia, Y. Ikegami, Y. Shiraki, N. Usami, and Y. Nakata, “Strong resonant luminescence from Ge quantum dots in photonic crystal microcavity at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 201102 (2006). [CrossRef]

12.

J. S. Xia, K. Nemoto, Y. Ikegami, Y. Shiraki, and N. Usami, “Silicon-based light emitters fabricated by embedding Ge self-assembled quantum dots in microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 011104 (2007). [CrossRef]

13.

M. E. Kurdi, X. Checoury, S. David, T. P. Ngo, N. Zerounian, O. Kermarrec, Y. Campidelli, and D. Bensahel, “Quality factor of Si-based photonic crystal L3 nanocavities probed with an internal source,” Opt. Express 16, 207–210 (2008).

14.

J. Xia, Y. Takeda, N. Usami, and T. Maruizumi, “Room-temperature electroluminescence from Si microdisks with Ge quantum dots,” Opt. Express 18, 13945–13950 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15.

H. G. Park, S. H. Kim, S. H. Kwon, Y. G. Ju, J. K. Yang, J. H. Baek, S. B. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, “Electrically driven single-cell photonic crystal laser,” Science 305, 1444–1447 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

16.

T. Tsuboi, X. Xu, J. Xia, N. Usami, T. Maruizumi, and Y. Shiraki, “Room temperature electroluminescence from Ge quantum dots embedded in photonic crystal microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Express 5, 052101 (2012). [CrossRef]

17.

B. Ellis, M. A. Mayer, G. Shambat, T. Sarmiento, J. Harris, E. E. Haller, and J. Vuckovic, “Ultralow-threshold electrically pumped quantum-dot photonic-crystal nanocavity laser,” Nat. Photon. 5, 297–300 (2011). [CrossRef]

18.

S. Matsuo, K. Takeda, T. Sato, M. Notomi, A. Shinya, K. Nozaki, H. Taniyama, K. Hasebe, and T. Kakitsuka, “Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of lateral current injection wavelength-scale embedded active-region photonic-crystal laser,” Opt. Express 20, 3773–3780 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

19.

J. ZieglerSRIM The Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter, Version 2008.03, http://www.srim.org.

20.

A. Mokhberi, P. B. Griffin, J. D. Plummer, E. Paton, S. McCoy, and K. Elliot, “A comparative study of dopant activation in Boron, BF2, Arsenic, and Phosphorus implanted silicon,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 49, 1183–1191 (2002). [CrossRef]

21.

RSoft FullWAVE, RSoft Design Group, Inc., http://www.rsoftdesign.com.

22.

Y. Tanaka, T. Asano, R. Hatsuta, and S. Noda, “Investigation of point-defect cavity formed in two-dimensional photonic crystal slab with one-sided dielectric cladding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 011112 (2006). [CrossRef]

23.

S. Iwamoto, Y. Arakawa, and A. Gomyo, “Observation of enhanced photoluminescence from silicon photonic crystal nanocavity at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 211104 (2007). [CrossRef]

24.

S. Nakayama, S. Ishida, S. Iwamoto, and Y. Arakawa, “Effect of cavity mode volume on the photoluminescence from silicon photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 171102 (2011). [CrossRef]

25.

N. Tran, S. Combrie, P. Colman, A. D. Rossi, and T. Mei, “Vertical high emission in photonic crystal nanocavities by band-folding design,” Phys. Rev. B 82, 075120 (2010). [CrossRef]

26.

B. J. Frey, D. B. Leviton, and T. J. Madison, “Temperature-dependent refractive index of silicon and germanium,” Proc. SPIE 6273, 62732J (2006). [CrossRef]

27.

S. Cheng, J. Lu, G. Shambat, H. Yu, K. Saraswat, J. Vuckovic, and Y. Nishi, “Room temperature 1.6 μm electroluminescence from Ge light emitting diode on Si substrate,” Opt. Express 17, 10019–10024 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

28.

M. El Kurdi, S. David, P. Boucaud, C. Kammerer, X. Li, V. Le Thanh, S. Sauvage, and J.-M. Lourtioz, “Strong 1.3-1.5 μm luminescence from Ge/Si self-assembled islands in highly confining microcavities on silicon on insulator,” J. Appl. Phys. 96, 997–1000 (2004). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(230.3670) Optical devices : Light-emitting diodes
(230.5590) Optical devices : Quantum-well, -wire and -dot devices
(140.3948) Lasers and laser optics : Microcavity devices
(350.4238) Other areas of optics : Nanophotonics and photonic crystals

ToC Category:
Optical Devices

History
Original Manuscript: March 13, 2012
Revised Manuscript: May 7, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: May 30, 2012
Published: June 15, 2012

Citation
Xuejun Xu, Toshiki Tsuboi, Taichi Chiba, Noritaka Usami, Takuya Maruizumi, and Yasuhiro Shiraki, "Silicon-based current-injected light emitting diodes with Ge self-assembled quantum dots embedded in photonic crystal nanocavities," Opt. Express 20, 14714-14721 (2012)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-20-13-14714


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References

  1. G. T. ReedSilicon Photonics: The State of the Art (J. Wiley & Sons, 2008). [CrossRef]
  2. L. Tsybeskov, D. J. Lockwood, and M. Ichikawa“Silicon Photonics: CMOS Going Optical,” Proc. IEEE97, 1161–1165 (2009). [CrossRef]
  3. L. Pavesi, L. Dal Negro, C. Mazzoleni, G. Franzo, and F. Priolo, “Optical gain in silicon nanocrystals,” Nature (London)408, 440–444 (2000). [CrossRef]
  4. D. K. Nayak, N. Usami, S. Fukatsu, and Y. Shiraki, “Band-edge photoluminescence of SiGe/strained-Si/SiGe type-II quantum wells on Si (100),” Appl. Phys. Lett.63, 3509–3511 (1993). [CrossRef]
  5. R. Apetz, L. Vescan, A. Hartmann, C. Dieker, and H. Luth, “Photoluminescence and electroluminescence of SiGe dots fabricated by island growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett.66, 445–447 (1995). [CrossRef]
  6. H.-S. Han, S.-Y. Seo, and J. H. Shin, “Optical gain at 1.54 μm in erbium-doped silicon nanocluster sensitized waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79, 4568–4570 (2001). [CrossRef]
  7. H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “An all-silicon Raman laser,” Nature (London)433, 292–294 (2005). [CrossRef]
  8. S. Fukatsu, H. Sunamura, Y. Shiraki, and S. Komiyama, “Phononless radiative recombination of indirect excitons in a Si/Ge type-II quantum dot,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71, 258–260 (1997). [CrossRef]
  9. T. Brunhes, P. Boucaud, S. Sauvage, F. Aniel, J.-M. Lourtioz, C. Hemandez, Y. Campidelli, O. Kermarrec, D. Bensahel, G. Faini, and I. Sagnes, “Electroluminescence of Ge/Si self-assembled quantum dots grown by chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.77, 1822–1824 (2000). [CrossRef]
  10. E. M. Purcell, “Spontaneous emission probabilities at radio frequencies,” Phys. Rev.69, 681 (1946).
  11. J. S. Xia, Y. Ikegami, Y. Shiraki, N. Usami, and Y. Nakata, “Strong resonant luminescence from Ge quantum dots in photonic crystal microcavity at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89, 201102 (2006). [CrossRef]
  12. J. S. Xia, K. Nemoto, Y. Ikegami, Y. Shiraki, and N. Usami, “Silicon-based light emitters fabricated by embedding Ge self-assembled quantum dots in microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91, 011104 (2007). [CrossRef]
  13. M. E. Kurdi, X. Checoury, S. David, T. P. Ngo, N. Zerounian, O. Kermarrec, Y. Campidelli, and D. Bensahel, “Quality factor of Si-based photonic crystal L3 nanocavities probed with an internal source,” Opt. Express16, 207–210 (2008).
  14. J. Xia, Y. Takeda, N. Usami, and T. Maruizumi, “Room-temperature electroluminescence from Si microdisks with Ge quantum dots,” Opt. Express18, 13945–13950 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. H. G. Park, S. H. Kim, S. H. Kwon, Y. G. Ju, J. K. Yang, J. H. Baek, S. B. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, “Electrically driven single-cell photonic crystal laser,” Science305, 1444–1447 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. T. Tsuboi, X. Xu, J. Xia, N. Usami, T. Maruizumi, and Y. Shiraki, “Room temperature electroluminescence from Ge quantum dots embedded in photonic crystal microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Express5, 052101 (2012). [CrossRef]
  17. B. Ellis, M. A. Mayer, G. Shambat, T. Sarmiento, J. Harris, E. E. Haller, and J. Vuckovic, “Ultralow-threshold electrically pumped quantum-dot photonic-crystal nanocavity laser,” Nat. Photon.5, 297–300 (2011). [CrossRef]
  18. S. Matsuo, K. Takeda, T. Sato, M. Notomi, A. Shinya, K. Nozaki, H. Taniyama, K. Hasebe, and T. Kakitsuka, “Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of lateral current injection wavelength-scale embedded active-region photonic-crystal laser,” Opt. Express20, 3773–3780 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. J. ZieglerSRIM The Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter, Version 2008.03, http://www.srim.org .
  20. A. Mokhberi, P. B. Griffin, J. D. Plummer, E. Paton, S. McCoy, and K. Elliot, “A comparative study of dopant activation in Boron, BF2, Arsenic, and Phosphorus implanted silicon,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev.49, 1183–1191 (2002). [CrossRef]
  21. RSoft FullWAVE, RSoft Design Group, Inc., http://www.rsoftdesign.com .
  22. Y. Tanaka, T. Asano, R. Hatsuta, and S. Noda, “Investigation of point-defect cavity formed in two-dimensional photonic crystal slab with one-sided dielectric cladding,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88, 011112 (2006). [CrossRef]
  23. S. Iwamoto, Y. Arakawa, and A. Gomyo, “Observation of enhanced photoluminescence from silicon photonic crystal nanocavity at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91, 211104 (2007). [CrossRef]
  24. S. Nakayama, S. Ishida, S. Iwamoto, and Y. Arakawa, “Effect of cavity mode volume on the photoluminescence from silicon photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98, 171102 (2011). [CrossRef]
  25. N. Tran, S. Combrie, P. Colman, A. D. Rossi, and T. Mei, “Vertical high emission in photonic crystal nanocavities by band-folding design,” Phys. Rev. B82, 075120 (2010). [CrossRef]
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