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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 20, Iss. 14 — Jul. 2, 2012
  • pp: 14825–14832
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Experimental demonstration of non-iterative interpolation-based partial ICI compensation in100G RGI-DP-CO-OFDM transport systems

Mohammad E. Mousa-Pasandi, Qunbi Zhuge, Xian Xu, Mohamed M. Osman, Ziad A. El-Sahn, Mathieu Chagnon, and David V. Plant  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 20, Issue 14, pp. 14825-14832 (2012)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.20.014825


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Abstract

We experimentally investigate the performance of a low-complexity non-iterative phase noise induced inter-carrier interference (ICI) compensation algorithm in reduced-guard-interval dual-polarization coherent-optical orthogonal-frequency-division-multiplexing (RGI-DP-CO-OFDM) transport systems. This interpolation-based ICI compensator estimates the time-domain phase noise samples by a linear interpolation between the CPE estimates of the consecutive OFDM symbols. We experimentally study the performance of this scheme for a 28 Gbaud QPSK RGI-DP-CO-OFDM employing a low cost distributed feedback (DFB) laser. Experimental results using a DFB laser with the linewidth of 2.6 MHz demonstrate 24% and 13% improvement in transmission reach with respect to the conventional equalizer (CE) in presence of weak and strong dispersion-enhanced-phase-noise (DEPN), respectively. A brief analysis of the computational complexity of this scheme in terms of the number of required complex multiplications is provided. This practical approach does not suffer from error propagation while enjoying low computational complexity.

© 2012 OSA

1. Introduction

Coherent optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (CO-OFDM) transmission systems have been intensively investigated as a promising candidate for Ethernet transport at 100 Gb/s and beyond [1

1. W. Shieh, H. Bao, and Y. Tang, “Coherent optical OFDM: theory and design,” Opt. Express 16(2), 841–859 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3

3. F. Buchali, R. Dischler, and X. Liu, “Optical OFDM: a promising high-speed optical transport technology,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 14, 127–148 (2009).

]. Although OFDM was originally designed for wireless transmission, recently, it has received a great deal of attention in optical communications. This is because of its ease of equalization and therefore, robustness with respect to the fiber transmission impairments such as chromatic dispersion (CD) and polarization mode dispersion (PMD) [1

1. W. Shieh, H. Bao, and Y. Tang, “Coherent optical OFDM: theory and design,” Opt. Express 16(2), 841–859 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,4

4. S. L. Jansen, B. Spinnler, I. Morita, S. Randel, and H. Tanaka, “100GbE: QPSK versus OFDM,” J. Opt. Fiber Technol. 15(5-6), 407–413 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. OFDM transmits high-speed serial information through multiple lower-speed sub-channels. This reduction in the baud-rate leads to a reduction in inter-symbol interference (ISI) and therefore a simplification of the equalization process at the receiver. However, the performance of coherent transmission systems are known to suffer from laser phase noise and in the case of CO-OFDM systems, the degradation is more pronounced considering the relatively longer symbol duration with respect to single carrier (SC) schemes. This ultimately would limit the transmission reach and consequently make the use of low linewidth laser sources inevitable.

In CO-OFDM, laser phase noise degrades the received signal quality in two ways— the common phase error (CPE), which is an identical phase rotation for all subcarriers, and the inter-carrier interference (ICI), which is due to the loss of orthogonality between subcarriers. In optical communication transmission systems, laser phase noise compensation schemes may use RF-pilot enabled [5

5. S. L. Jansen, I. Morita, T. Schenk, N. Takeda, and H. Tankada, “Coherent optical 25.8-Gb/s OFDM transmission over 4160-km SSMF,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(1), 6–15 (2008). [CrossRef]

], pilot subcarrier (PSC) enabled [1

1. W. Shieh, H. Bao, and Y. Tang, “Coherent optical OFDM: theory and design,” Opt. Express 16(2), 841–859 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3

3. F. Buchali, R. Dischler, and X. Liu, “Optical OFDM: a promising high-speed optical transport technology,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 14, 127–148 (2009).

], decision-directed and maximum likelihood (ML) algorithms [1

1. W. Shieh, H. Bao, and Y. Tang, “Coherent optical OFDM: theory and design,” Opt. Express 16(2), 841–859 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,6

6. M. E. Mousa-Pasandi and D. V. Plant, “Zero-overhead phase noise compensation via decision-directed phase equalizer for coherent optical OFDM,” Opt. Express 18(20), 20651–20660 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] in which except for the RF-pilot enabled algorithm, all could only mitigate the CPE. However, for relatively large laser linewidths and/or longer symbol durations the degradation due to ICI becomes pronounced and needs to be compensated. In [7

7. C. Yang, F. Yang, and Z. Wang, “Orthogonal basis expansion-based phase noise estimation and suppression for CO-OFDM systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(1), 51–53 (2010). [CrossRef]

], the authors adopted an orthogonal basis expansion-based technique to suppress both CPE and ICI in CO-OFDM systems. In wireless, the effect of ICI on the performance of OFDM systems due to the local oscillator (LO) phase noise has been extensively investigated and several iterative algorithms have been proposed to jointly estimate the data and the phase noise vector [8

8. Q. Zou, A. Tarighat, and A. H. Sayed, “Compensation of phase noise in OFDM wireless systems,” IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 55(11), 5407–5424 (2007). [CrossRef]

10

10. Y. Mostofi and D. C. Cox, “ICI mitigation for pilot-aided OFDM mobile systems,” IEEE Trans. Wirel. Comm. 4(2), 765–774 (2005). [CrossRef]

]. Nevertheless, since ICI mitigation requires de-convolving the phase noise spectral components from unknown data subcarriers, such iterative schemes suffer from large latency and high implementation complexity making them unsuitable for long-haul ultra high-speed optical transmission applications.

On the other hand, unlike conventional CO-OFDM systems, reduced-guard-interval CO-OFDM (RGI-CO-OFDM) systems experience dispersion-enhanced-phase-noise (DEPN) due to the LO as the CD induced walk-off becomes comparable to the OFDM symbol length. Therefore, as shown in [11

11. Q. Zhuge, C. Chen, and D. V. Plant, “Dispersion-enhanced phase noise effects on reduced-guard-interval CO-OFDM transmission,” Opt. Express 19(5), 4472–4484 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], the same induced phase noise process would degrade the signal quality more if applied at the receiver as the LO. The grouped-maximum-likelihood (GML) phase estimation approach is known to partially mitigate the DEPN impairment [11

11. Q. Zhuge, C. Chen, and D. V. Plant, “Dispersion-enhanced phase noise effects on reduced-guard-interval CO-OFDM transmission,” Opt. Express 19(5), 4472–4484 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

Recently in [12

12. M. E. Mousa-Pasandi and D. V. Plant, “Non-iterative interpolation-based partial phase noise ICI mitigation for CO-OFDM transport systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(21), 1594–1596 (2011). [CrossRef]

,13

13. M. E. Mousa Pasandi and D. V. Plant, “Non-iterative interpolation-based phase noise ICI mitigation for CO-OFDM transport systems,” in Signal Processing in Photonic Communications, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper SPMB6.

], we numerically investigated the feasibility of a partial ICI compensation scheme based on a linear interpolation between the CPE estimates of consecutive OFDM symbols for CO-OFDM transport systems. It is shown in [14

14. P. Rabiei, W. Namgoong, and N. Al-Dhahir, “A non-iterative technique for phase noise ICI mitigation in packet-based OFDM systems,” IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 58(11), 5945–5950 (2010). [CrossRef]

] that this approach can minimize the mean square error (MSE) of the estimated interpolation of the time-domain phase noise samples. In this paper, we experimentally investigate the performance of the interpolation-based ICI compensator in a 112 Gb/s reduced-guard-interval dual-polarization coherent-optical orthogonal-frequency-division-multiplexing (RGI-DP-CO-OFDM) transmission systems, employing a low-cost distributed feedback (DFB) laser. To study the performance of the interpolation-based ICI compensator, two different scenarios are considered: a) a DFB laser with the linewidth of 2.6 MHz at the transmitter and an external-cavity-laser (ECL) with the linewidth of less than 100 kHz at the receiver, emulating weak DEPN; and b) the ECL at the transmitter and the DFB laser at the receiver, emulating strong DEPN. Considering a bit error rate (BER) value of 1 × 10−3 as the forward error correction (FEC) threshold, for the case with weak DEPN, a transmission distance of 2300 km over single mode fiber (SMF) was achieved demonstrating a 24% increase in transmission reach with respect to a system employing a conventional equalizer (CE). In the presence of strong DEPN, a reach of 2300 km was achieved when our ICI compensator was combined with a grouped-maximum-likelihood algorithm [14

14. P. Rabiei, W. Namgoong, and N. Al-Dhahir, “A non-iterative technique for phase noise ICI mitigation in packet-based OFDM systems,” IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 58(11), 5945–5950 (2010). [CrossRef]

], representing a 13% improvement compared to a system without ICI compensation. Moreover, we provide a brief comparison of the computational complexity of the proposed ICI compensation scheme and the CE in terms of the number of complex multiplications. The computational complexity for the case of the parameters of our experiment in this paper is only 25% in terms of the number of complex multiplications compared to the CE.

This paper is structured as follows. We briefly explain the principle of the interpolation-based ICI compensation in section 2. In section 3, we review our RGI-DP-CO-OFDM experimental setup and study the performance of interpolation-based ICI compensator. In section 4, the complexity of this algorithm is studied and section 5 concludes the paper.

2. The concept of interpolation-based ICI compensation

Step1. Similar to the CE, scattered pilot subcarriers are used to estimate the CPE in every OFDM data symbol as
CPEm=p0m=angle{rkm×conj(hkxkm)}kPSC
(2)
This estimated CPE value is set equal to the phase noise corresponding to the middle time-domain sample of the same data symbol.

Step 3. After the time-domain phase noise vector is approximated by a linear interpolation between consecutive OFDM symbols in step 2, we can derive the spectral components of phase noise estimation by the Fourier transform operation. Then, the received symbol can be equalized as
x^km=(l=Q/2Q/2conj(p^li)×rklm)/h^k
(3)
where the notion of ^ indicates that the corresponding parameter is based on an estimation. p^ represents the spectral components of estimated phase noise in which the total number of spectral components that are taken into account is controlled by the parameter Q. As Eq. (3) indicates, instead of de-rotating the OFDM samples in time-domain, the receiver can simply convolve the received symbol by the spectral components of the estimated phase noise followed by a one-tap frequency-domain equalizer. Since laser phase noise can be approximately expressed as a Wiener process and most of the energy of a Wiener process is concentrated in the first few harmonics, a small value for Q can be adopted to reduce the required number of complex multiplications in Eq. (3).

3. Performance of interpolation-based ICI compensator in RGI-DP-CO-OFDM systems

The linewidth of the ECL was less than 100 kHz. For the DFB laser used in the experiment, we measured the laser phase noise variance σφ2 using a coherent detection algorithm as described in [15

15. K. Kikuchi and K. Igarashi, “Characterization of semiconductor-laser phase noise with digital coherent receivers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper OML3.

,16

16. X. Chen, A. Al Amin, and W. Shieh, “Characterization and monitoring of laser linewidths in coherent systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29(17), 2533–2537 (2011). [CrossRef]

] with an averaging window of 50 symbols and a relative delay of 50 symbols. The measured data was then converted to linewidth ∆f using Δf=σφ2/2πT where T represents the symbol duration, assuming the laser phase noise as a Wiener process [15

15. K. Kikuchi and K. Igarashi, “Characterization of semiconductor-laser phase noise with digital coherent receivers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper OML3.

,16

16. X. Chen, A. Al Amin, and W. Shieh, “Characterization and monitoring of laser linewidths in coherent systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29(17), 2533–2537 (2011). [CrossRef]

].

Figure 2
Fig. 2 BER versus OSNR for different ICI estimation harmonics. The DFB laser is employed at the transmitter.
and Fig. 3
Fig. 3 BER versus OSNR for different ICI estimation harmonics. The DFB laser is employed at the receiver.
study the BER performance of the interpolation-based ICI compensator versus optical-signal-to-noise-ratio (OSNR) at optical back-to-back (B2B) for a different number of estimated phase noise spectral components (harmonics). In Fig. 2, the DFB laser is employed at the transmitter and in Fig. 3, the DFB laser is used at the receiver. The performance of the ICI compensator would improve by increasing the number of estimated phase noise spectral components. Nevertheless, considering that most of the energy of the phase noise process is concentrated in the first few harmonics, the major signal quality improvement is observed for the first few harmonics. As one can see, the higher the OSNR, the more effective the ICI compensator performs. The ICI compensator always provides a better signal quality than CE (or similar for lower OSNR) across the received OSNR range of study. This confirms that it does not suffer from error propagation even in noisy scenarios. We choose a harmonic number of 8 for further studies in the rest of this paper. Furthermore, Fig. 2 and Fig. 3 show very similar performances as DEPN does not exist in case of B2B (no dispersion).

Figure 4
Fig. 4 BER versus distance where the DFB laser is employed at the transmitter (weak DEPN).
compares the BER performance of the interpolation-based ICI compensator and the CE versus transmission distance in the presence of weak DEPN. The DFB laser and the ECL were used at the transmitter and the receiver, respectively. Blue and red curves correspond to the equalization without and with ICI compensation, respectively. As one can see, the ICI compensator, red curve, shows a better performance than the CE, blue curve, achieving a transmission reach of 2300 km at the BER threshold of 1 × 10−3, demonstrating a transmission reach improvement of 24%. In Fig. 5
Fig. 5 BER versus distance where the DFB laser is employed at the receiver (strong DEPN).
, we again study the BER performance of the ICI compensator and the CE versus transmission distance however, this time, the ECL is used at transmitter and the DFB laser is employed at receiver, stimulating the strong DEPN effect. Blue and red curves correspond to the equalization without and with ICI compensation, respectively. Comparing Fig. 4 and Fig. 5, a significant degradation in the transmission reach is observed due to the strong DEPN effect. However, the ICI compensator, red curve, still provides a better performance than the CE, blue curve, achieving a transmission reach of 1800 km at the BER threshold of 1 × 10−3, demonstrating a transmission reach improvement of 13%.

In [11

11. Q. Zhuge, C. Chen, and D. V. Plant, “Dispersion-enhanced phase noise effects on reduced-guard-interval CO-OFDM transmission,” Opt. Express 19(5), 4472–4484 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,17

17. Q. Zhuge, M. E. Mousa-Pasandi, M. Morsy-Osman, X. Xu, M. Chagnon, and Z. A. El-Sahn,‎ and D. V. Plant, “Demonstration of dispersion-enhanced phase noise in RGI CO-OFDM systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. ((submitted to).

], the GML algorithm was proposed to compensate for the DEPN impairment. We applied the ICI compensation scheme in conjunction with the GML algorithm to further study its behavior. Green and black curves correspond to the GML equalization without and with ICI compensation, respectively. As can be seen in Fig. 5, the ICI compensator in conjunction with the GML algorithm, black curve, improves the transmission reach by 13%, providing 2300 km reach.

4. System complexity

Considering the fact that a small value can be adopted as the parameter Q, as we have seen in Fig. 2 and Fig. 3, the overall complexity of the interpolation-based ICI compensator can be quite low. For the case of this experiment and considering 8 harmonics and a 4Q-point FFT for ICI compensation, we observe a complexity of 25% in terms of the number of complex multiplications.

5. Conclusion

Acknowledgments

The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support from the Canadian Foundation for Innovation (CFI) and NSERC/Bell Canada Industrial Research Chair. Authors would like to thank Benoît Châtelain, Zhaoyi Pan and Jonathan Buset for their fruitful help. The VEGA DACs were supplied by Micram.

References and links

1.

W. Shieh, H. Bao, and Y. Tang, “Coherent optical OFDM: theory and design,” Opt. Express 16(2), 841–859 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2.

X. Liu and F. Buchali, “Intra-symbol frequency-domain averaging based channel estimation for coherent optical OFDM,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21944–21957 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3.

F. Buchali, R. Dischler, and X. Liu, “Optical OFDM: a promising high-speed optical transport technology,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 14, 127–148 (2009).

4.

S. L. Jansen, B. Spinnler, I. Morita, S. Randel, and H. Tanaka, “100GbE: QPSK versus OFDM,” J. Opt. Fiber Technol. 15(5-6), 407–413 (2009). [CrossRef]

5.

S. L. Jansen, I. Morita, T. Schenk, N. Takeda, and H. Tankada, “Coherent optical 25.8-Gb/s OFDM transmission over 4160-km SSMF,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(1), 6–15 (2008). [CrossRef]

6.

M. E. Mousa-Pasandi and D. V. Plant, “Zero-overhead phase noise compensation via decision-directed phase equalizer for coherent optical OFDM,” Opt. Express 18(20), 20651–20660 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

C. Yang, F. Yang, and Z. Wang, “Orthogonal basis expansion-based phase noise estimation and suppression for CO-OFDM systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(1), 51–53 (2010). [CrossRef]

8.

Q. Zou, A. Tarighat, and A. H. Sayed, “Compensation of phase noise in OFDM wireless systems,” IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 55(11), 5407–5424 (2007). [CrossRef]

9.

L. Tomba, “On the effect of Wiener phase noise in OFDM systems,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 46(5), 580–583 (1998). [CrossRef]

10.

Y. Mostofi and D. C. Cox, “ICI mitigation for pilot-aided OFDM mobile systems,” IEEE Trans. Wirel. Comm. 4(2), 765–774 (2005). [CrossRef]

11.

Q. Zhuge, C. Chen, and D. V. Plant, “Dispersion-enhanced phase noise effects on reduced-guard-interval CO-OFDM transmission,” Opt. Express 19(5), 4472–4484 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

M. E. Mousa-Pasandi and D. V. Plant, “Non-iterative interpolation-based partial phase noise ICI mitigation for CO-OFDM transport systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(21), 1594–1596 (2011). [CrossRef]

13.

M. E. Mousa Pasandi and D. V. Plant, “Non-iterative interpolation-based phase noise ICI mitigation for CO-OFDM transport systems,” in Signal Processing in Photonic Communications, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper SPMB6.

14.

P. Rabiei, W. Namgoong, and N. Al-Dhahir, “A non-iterative technique for phase noise ICI mitigation in packet-based OFDM systems,” IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 58(11), 5945–5950 (2010). [CrossRef]

15.

K. Kikuchi and K. Igarashi, “Characterization of semiconductor-laser phase noise with digital coherent receivers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper OML3.

16.

X. Chen, A. Al Amin, and W. Shieh, “Characterization and monitoring of laser linewidths in coherent systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29(17), 2533–2537 (2011). [CrossRef]

17.

Q. Zhuge, M. E. Mousa-Pasandi, M. Morsy-Osman, X. Xu, M. Chagnon, and Z. A. El-Sahn,‎ and D. V. Plant, “Demonstration of dispersion-enhanced phase noise in RGI CO-OFDM systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. ((submitted to).

18.

B. Spinnler, “Equalizer Design and Complexity for Digital Coherent Receivers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(5), 1180–1192 (2010). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(060.1660) Fiber optics and optical communications : Coherent communications
(060.4080) Fiber optics and optical communications : Modulation

ToC Category:
Fiber Optics and Optical Communications

History
Original Manuscript: May 1, 2012
Revised Manuscript: May 28, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: May 29, 2012
Published: June 18, 2012

Citation
Mohammad E. Mousa-Pasandi, Qunbi Zhuge, Xian Xu, Mohamed M. Osman, Ziad A. El-Sahn, Mathieu Chagnon, and David V. Plant, "Experimental demonstration of non-iterative interpolation-based partial ICI compensation in100G RGI-DP-CO-OFDM transport systems," Opt. Express 20, 14825-14832 (2012)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-20-14-14825


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References

  1. W. Shieh, H. Bao, and Y. Tang, “Coherent optical OFDM: theory and design,” Opt. Express16(2), 841–859 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. X. Liu and F. Buchali, “Intra-symbol frequency-domain averaging based channel estimation for coherent optical OFDM,” Opt. Express16(26), 21944–21957 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. F. Buchali, R. Dischler, and X. Liu, “Optical OFDM: a promising high-speed optical transport technology,” Bell Syst. Tech. J.14, 127–148 (2009).
  4. S. L. Jansen, B. Spinnler, I. Morita, S. Randel, and H. Tanaka, “100GbE: QPSK versus OFDM,” J. Opt. Fiber Technol.15(5-6), 407–413 (2009). [CrossRef]
  5. S. L. Jansen, I. Morita, T. Schenk, N. Takeda, and H. Tankada, “Coherent optical 25.8-Gb/s OFDM transmission over 4160-km SSMF,” J. Lightwave Technol.26(1), 6–15 (2008). [CrossRef]
  6. M. E. Mousa-Pasandi and D. V. Plant, “Zero-overhead phase noise compensation via decision-directed phase equalizer for coherent optical OFDM,” Opt. Express18(20), 20651–20660 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. C. Yang, F. Yang, and Z. Wang, “Orthogonal basis expansion-based phase noise estimation and suppression for CO-OFDM systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(1), 51–53 (2010). [CrossRef]
  8. Q. Zou, A. Tarighat, and A. H. Sayed, “Compensation of phase noise in OFDM wireless systems,” IEEE Trans. Signal Process.55(11), 5407–5424 (2007). [CrossRef]
  9. L. Tomba, “On the effect of Wiener phase noise in OFDM systems,” IEEE Trans. Commun.46(5), 580–583 (1998). [CrossRef]
  10. Y. Mostofi and D. C. Cox, “ICI mitigation for pilot-aided OFDM mobile systems,” IEEE Trans. Wirel. Comm.4(2), 765–774 (2005). [CrossRef]
  11. Q. Zhuge, C. Chen, and D. V. Plant, “Dispersion-enhanced phase noise effects on reduced-guard-interval CO-OFDM transmission,” Opt. Express19(5), 4472–4484 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. M. E. Mousa-Pasandi and D. V. Plant, “Non-iterative interpolation-based partial phase noise ICI mitigation for CO-OFDM transport systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(21), 1594–1596 (2011). [CrossRef]
  13. M. E. Mousa Pasandi and D. V. Plant, “Non-iterative interpolation-based phase noise ICI mitigation for CO-OFDM transport systems,” in Signal Processing in Photonic Communications, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper SPMB6.
  14. P. Rabiei, W. Namgoong, and N. Al-Dhahir, “A non-iterative technique for phase noise ICI mitigation in packet-based OFDM systems,” IEEE Trans. Signal Process.58(11), 5945–5950 (2010). [CrossRef]
  15. K. Kikuchi and K. Igarashi, “Characterization of semiconductor-laser phase noise with digital coherent receivers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper OML3.
  16. X. Chen, A. Al Amin, and W. Shieh, “Characterization and monitoring of laser linewidths in coherent systems,” J. Lightwave Technol.29(17), 2533–2537 (2011). [CrossRef]
  17. Q. Zhuge, M. E. Mousa-Pasandi, M. Morsy-Osman, X. Xu, M. Chagnon, and Z. A. El-Sahn,‎ and D. V. Plant, “Demonstration of dispersion-enhanced phase noise in RGI CO-OFDM systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. ((submitted to).
  18. B. Spinnler, “Equalizer Design and Complexity for Digital Coherent Receivers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(5), 1180–1192 (2010). [CrossRef]

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