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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 20, Iss. 14 — Jul. 2, 2012
  • pp: 15061–15070
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Effectively single-mode all-solid photonic bandgap fiber with large effective area and low bending loss for compact high-power all-fiber lasers

Masahiro Kashiwagi, Kunimasa Saitoh, Katsuhiro Takenaga, Shoji Tanigawa, Shoichiro Matsuo, and Munehisa Fujimaki  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 20, Issue 14, pp. 15061-15070 (2012)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.20.015061


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Abstract

An effectively single-mode all-solid photonic bandgap fiber with large effective area and low bending loss for compact high-power all-fiber lasers is fully investigated. The pitch dependencies of effective area, bending loss, and effectively single-mode operation are discussed numerically and experimentally. The calculation results indicate that an effectively single-mode all-solid photonic bandgap fiber with an effective area of more than 500 μm2 and a bending loss of less than 0.1 dB/m at a bending radius of 10 cm can be realized by choosing optimum fiber parameters. In a fabricated effectively single-mode all-solid photonic bandgap fiber with 48.0 μm core, the effective area of 712 μm2, the effectively single-mode operation, and the bending loss of less than 0.1 dB/m at a bending radius of 10 cm are achieved simultaneously at 1064 nm.

© 2012 OSA

1. Introduction

A high-power all-fiber laser with high beam quality is an attractive laser source. It has been applied to various application areas such as material processing, medicine and display. In such high-power all-fiber laser, the issue is nonlinear effects which are caused by high optical intensity in the core. The nonlinear effects limit laser output power. A good solution to the issue is using a large-mode-area (LMA) fiber in the high-power all-fiber laser. In the LMA fiber, optical intensity in the core becomes small. As a result, the nonlinear effects are suppressed.

A conventional LMA fiber is a step-index fiber with large core size and low core numerical aperture (NA). The increase of the core size leads to the enlargement of effective area directly. On the other hand, the core NA has to be decreased for single-mode operation. The single-mode operation is a requirement for the high beam quality. In standard fabrication methods such as the modified chemical vapor deposition, it is difficult to control a core NA of less than 0.06 precisely. The limits of the core diameter and the effective area are around 15 μm and 200 μm2, respectively [1

1. M.-J. Li, X. Chen, A. Liu, S. Gray, J. Wang, D. T. Walton, and L. A. Zenteno, “Effective area limit for large mode area laser fibers,” in Proc. OFC’08 (2008), paper OTuJ2.

].

A lower core NA is achieved by introducing small air holes around a silica core in a rod-type photonic crystal fiber (PCF) [2

2. J. Limpert, O. Schmidt, J. Rothhardt, F. Röser, T. Schreiber, A. Tünnermann, S. Ermeneux, P. Yvernault, and F. Salin, “Extended single-mode photonic crystal fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 14(7), 2715–2720 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 3

3. C. D. Brooks and F. D. Teodoro, “Multimegawatt peak-power, single-transverse-mode operation of a 100 μm core diameter, Yb-doped rodlike photonic crystal fiber amplifier,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(11), 111119 (2006). [CrossRef]

]. The core size is increased beyond the limit of the step-index LMA fiber. A rod-type PCF with a core diameter of 60 μm and an effective area of more than 1000 μm2 has been reported [2

2. J. Limpert, O. Schmidt, J. Rothhardt, F. Röser, T. Schreiber, A. Tünnermann, S. Ermeneux, P. Yvernault, and F. Salin, “Extended single-mode photonic crystal fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 14(7), 2715–2720 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The rod-type PCF with a fiber diameter of more than 1 mm is not bendable, which makes laser size larger. The bendable LMA fiber is preferred for realizing a high-power all-fiber laser in practical size.

Another promising approach for increasing the core size with maintenance of single-mode operation is to design a multi-mode fiber to operate as an effectively single-mode fiber. A chirally-coupled-core (CCC) fiber is one of the bendable and effectively single-mode LMA fibers [4

4. S. Huang, C. Zhu, C. Liu, X. Ma, C. Swan, and A. Galvanauskas, “Power scaling of CCC fiber based lasers,” in Proc. CLEO/QELS’08 (2008), paper CThGG1.

-7

7. S. Lefrancois, T. S. Sosnowski, C.-H. Liu, A. Galvanauskas, and F. W. Wise, “Energy scaling of mode-locked fiber lasers with chirally-coupled core fiber,” Opt. Express 19(4), 3464–3470 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The higher order mode (HOM) of a multi-mode central core is coupled to a side core helically wrapped around the central core and attenuated selectively. Effectively single-mode operation of a CCC fiber has been demonstrated in an Yb-doped fiber laser [7

7. S. Lefrancois, T. S. Sosnowski, C.-H. Liu, A. Galvanauskas, and F. W. Wise, “Energy scaling of mode-locked fiber lasers with chirally-coupled core fiber,” Opt. Express 19(4), 3464–3470 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. A CCC fiber with a core diameter of 35 μm has been reported [4

4. S. Huang, C. Zhu, C. Liu, X. Ma, C. Swan, and A. Galvanauskas, “Power scaling of CCC fiber based lasers,” in Proc. CLEO/QELS’08 (2008), paper CThGG1.

]. Another bendable and effectively single-mode LMA fiber is a Bragg fiber with a large low-index silica core and alternative high-index and low-index layers [8

8. S. Février, R. Jamier, J.-M. Blondy, S. L. Semjonov, M. E. Likhachev, M. M. Bubnov, E. M. Dianov, V. F. Khopin, M. Y. Salganskii, and A. N. Guryanov, “Low-loss singlemode large mode area all-silica photonic bandgap fiber,” Opt. Express 14(2), 562–569 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11

11. C. Lecaplain, A. Hideur, S. Février, and P. Roy, “Mode-locked Yb-doped Bragg fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 34(18), 2879–2881 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The attenuation coefficient of the HOM is larger than that of the fundamental mode (FM). Only the FM can be propagated effectively. Effectively single-mode operation of a Bragg fiber has been confirmed in an Yb-doped fiber laser [11

11. C. Lecaplain, A. Hideur, S. Février, and P. Roy, “Mode-locked Yb-doped Bragg fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 34(18), 2879–2881 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. A Bragg fiber with a core diameter of 40 μm and a mode field diameter of 27.2 μm has been reported [9

9. D. A. Gaponov, S. Février, M. Devautour, P. Roy, M. E. Likhachev, S. S. Aleshkina, M. Y. Salganskii, M. V. Yashkov, and A. N. Guryanov, “Management of the high-order mode content in large (40 microm) core photonic bandgap Bragg fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 35(13), 2233–2235 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Its effective area is estimated to be about 600 μm2. However, its bending loss is about 0.4 dB/m at a bending radius of 10 cm, which is not enough low for compact packaging. In general, the enlargement of effective area while maintaining effectively single-mode operation causes high bending sensitivity. In the LMA fiber, bending loss is also an important characteristic. A bending loss of less than 0.1 dB/m at a bending radius of 10 cm is required for compact packaging.

Recently, an effectively single-mode all-solid photonic bandgap fiber (AS-PBGF) with large effective area has attracted a great attention [12

12. O. N. Egorova, S. L. Semjonov, A. F. Kosolapov, A. N. Denisov, A. D. Pryamikov, D. A. Gaponov, A. S. Biriukov, E. M. Dianov, M. Y. Salganskii, V. F. Khopin, M. V. Yashkov, A. N. Gurianov, and D. V. Kuksenkov, “Single-mode all-silica photonic bandgap fiber with 20-microm mode-field diameter,” Opt. Express 16(16), 11735–11740 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15

15. M. Kashiwagi, K. Saitoh, K. Takenaga, S. Tanigawa, S. Matsuo, and M. Fujimaki, “Low bending loss and effectively single-mode all-solid photonic bandgap fiber with an effective area of 650 μm2.,” Opt. Lett. 37(8), 1292–1294 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The effectively single-mode AS-PBGF is a bendable LMA fiber. The HOM is suppressed selectively by the large bending loss difference between the FM and the HOM. It has been shown that the effectively single-mode AS-PBGF has a potential to achieve large effective area and low bending loss simultaneously [15

15. M. Kashiwagi, K. Saitoh, K. Takenaga, S. Tanigawa, S. Matsuo, and M. Fujimaki, “Low bending loss and effectively single-mode all-solid photonic bandgap fiber with an effective area of 650 μm2.,” Opt. Lett. 37(8), 1292–1294 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Larger effective area could be achieved while maintaining low bending loss for compact packaging by doing detailed analysis on the characteristics of the effectively single-mode AS-PBGF.

In this paper, an effectively single-mode AS-PBGF with an effective area of more than 500 μm2 and a bending loss of less than 0.1 dB/m at a bending radius of 10 cm is investigated numerically and experimentally. In section II, a fiber structure is explained. Leakage loss, bending loss, and effective area are numerically estimated for various fiber parameters. In section III, the measurement results of fabricated effectively single-mode AS-PBGFs with different fiber parameters are shown. The effectively single-mode operations, the allowable bending radius ranges, and the effective areas of the fabricated effectively single-mode AS-PBGFs are discussed.

2. Fiber design and concept of proposed effectively single-mode AS-PBGF

Figure 1(a)
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic cross-sectional view of effectively single-mode AS-PBGF with seven-cell core and five high-index rod rings and (b) calculated leakage losses of effectively single-mode AS-PBGF with different Δs as a function of normalized frequency V for Λ = 12.0 μm calculated by using finite element method.
shows the schematic cross-sectional view of a proposed effectively single-mode AS-PBGF. The periodically arranged high-index rods are embedded in the low-index background. The seven high-index rods at the center of the fiber are removed to form the low-index core (seven-cell core). The seven-cell core is surrounded by the five high-index rod rings. Light is confined into the seven-cell core thanks to photonic bandgap effect. Large core size and low leakage loss is expected by employing this cross-sectional structure.

The leakage loss of the proposed effectively single-mode AS-PBGF was calculated by using the finite element method [14

14. K. Saitoh, T. Murao, L. Rosa, and M. Koshiba, “Effective area limit of large-mode-area solid-core photonic bandgap fibers for fiber laser applications,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 16(6), 409–418 (2010). [CrossRef]

]. Figure 1(b) shows the calculated leakage losses as a function of the normalized frequency. The normalized frequency V is represented as,
V=πdλn12n22,
(1)
where d is the diameter of the high-index rods, λ is the wavelength, n1 is the refractive index of the high-index rods, n2 is the refractive index of the low-index background. The Δ is the relative refractive index difference between the high-index rods and the low-index background. The pitch between adjacent high-index rods Λ was 12.0 μm, which corresponds to a core diameter of 48.0 μm. The bandwidth of the first photonic bandgap was wider than those of the second and third photonic bandgaps. The leakage loss at the center frequency V = 1.6 of the first photonic bandgap for Δ = 2.0% was around 10−12 dB/m. The second photonic bandgap was not affected by varying the Δ. The lowest leakage loss of the second photonic bandgap was around 10−4 dB/m. The leakage loss around the center frequency V = 4.65 of the third photonic bandgap decreases with increasing the Δ. The lowest leakage loss of the third photonic bandgap reached to 10−10 dB/km for Δ = 2.5%. The large core diameter of around 50 μm and low leakage loss of less than 10−10 dB/m can be achieved simultaneously in the proposed effectively single-mode AS-PBGF with the seven-cell core and the five high-index rod rings.

Figure 2
Fig. 2 Calculated bending losses of the FM and the HOM as a function of bending radius for V = 1.6 (first photonic bandgap), Δ = 2.0%, and λ = 1064 nm: (a) Λ = 10 μm, (b) Λ = 11 μm, and (c) Λ = 12 μm.
shows the calculated bending losses of the FM and the HOM at the center frequency V = 1.6 of the first photonic bandgap as a function of the bending radius for Δ = 2.0% and λ = 1064 nm. For the bending loss calculation, the geometrical deformation and the change of the refractive index due to the elasto-optic effect were taken into account [16

16. K. Nagano, S. Kawakami, and S. Nishida, “Change of the refractive index in an optical fiber due to external forces,” Appl. Opt. 17(13), 2080–2085 (1978). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The equivalent refractive index profile of the fiber bent in the x-direction neq(x,y) is expressed as,
neq(x,y)=n(x,y)(1+xρR),
(2)
where n(x, y) is the refractive index profile of the straight fiber, ρ is the correction factor of the elasto-optic effect, R is the bending radius. The ρ was fixed to 1.25 since a large part of the cross-section area of the effectively single-mode AS-PBGF is pure silica [16

16. K. Nagano, S. Kawakami, and S. Nishida, “Change of the refractive index in an optical fiber due to external forces,” Appl. Opt. 17(13), 2080–2085 (1978). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The bending losses of the FM and the HOM increased with the increment of the Λ. In general, the acceptable bending loss of the FM is 0.1 dB/m or below. For Λ = 12.0 μm, the minimum bending radius Rmin was around 10 cm, which is small enough for compact packaging. When the bending loss of the HOM is more than 10 dB/m, the HOM is eliminated selectively thanks to the large bending loss difference between the FM and the HOM. Therefore, effectively single-mode operation is achieved. The maximum bending radius Rmax was around 14 cm for Λ = 12.0 μm. As a result, allowable bending radius range for Λ = 12.0 μm was from 10 cm to 14 cm. The large bending loss difference between the FM and the HOM leads to the wide allowable bending radius range. Figure 3
Fig. 3 Calculated bending losses of the FM and the HOM as a function of bending radius for V = 4.65 (third photonic bandgap), Δ = 2.0%, and λ = 1064 nm: (a) Λ = 10 μm, (b) Λ = 11 μm, and (c) Λ = 12 μm.
shows the calculated bending losses of the FM and the HOM at the center frequency V = 4.65 of the third photonic bandgap as a function of the bending radius. The bending losses of the FM were less than 0.1 dB/m at a bending radius of 10 cm. However, the bending loss difference between the FM and the HOM was small. The HOM is not suppressed selectively. Effectively single-mode operation is not achieved. There is no allowable bending radius range. From these results, we could say that it is preferred to employ the first photonic bandgap for simultaneous achievement of the low bending loss of the FM and the effectively single-mode operation.

Figure 4
Fig. 4 Calculated effective area of the FM with different Λs as a function of bending radius for V = 1.6, Δ = 2.0%, and λ = 1064 nm.
shows the calculated effective area of the FM at the center frequency V = 1.6 of the first photonic bandgap as a function of the bending radius for Δ = 2.0% and λ = 1064 nm. The effective area Aeff is expressed as
Aeff=[SI(x,y)dxdy]2/SI2(x,y)dxdy,
(3)
where I(x, y) is the intensity distribution at near field region and S is the whole fiber cross section. The effective area increased with increasing the bending radius and the Λ. For Λ = 12.0 μm, the effective area was around 600 μm2 in the allowable bending radius range from 10 cm to 14 cm. There is the peak at a bending radius of about 6.5 cm (Λ = 12.0 μm), which is caused by coupling the FM to cladding radiation modes. The above-mentioned numerical simulations show that the effectively single-mode AS-PBGF with an effective area of more than 500 μm2, effectively single-mode operation, and a bending loss of less than 0.1 dB/m at a bending radius of 10 cm can be realized.

3. Characteristics of fabricated effectively single-mode AS-PBGFs

Three effectively single-mode AS-PBGSs (Fiber A, Fiber B and Fiber C) were fabricated by the stack-and-draw technique. The fiber parameters of the fabricated effectively single-mode AS-PBGFs are summarized in Table 1

Table 1. Fiber Parameters of Fabricated Effectively Single-mode AS-PBGFs

table-icon
View This Table
. The Δs and the d/Λs of the effectively single-mode AS-PBGFs were the almost same. The Vs at 1064 nm were slightly different. The Λs of the effectively single-mode AS-PBGFs were 10.6 μm (Fiber A), 11.2 μm (Fiber B), and 12.0 μm (Fiber C), respectively. The core diameter of the fiber C reached to 48 μm. Figure 5
Fig. 5 Cross-sectional photo of fabricated effectively single-mode AS-PBGF with seven-cell core and five high-index rod rings (Fiber C).
shows the cross-sectional photo of the fiber C. The Ge-doped silica rods were precisely arranged in the silica cladding. The Ge-doped silica rods were slightly graded-index profile. The cross-sectional structure with the seven-cell core and the five high-index rod rings was fully realized. Figure 6(a)
Fig. 6 (a) Measured transmission spectra of effectively single-mode AS-PBGFs with a length of 1 m and (b) measured transmission losses of effectively single-mode AS-PBGFs in the wavelength range from 1000 nm to 1300 nm.
shows the measured transmission spectra of the effectively single-mode AS-PBGFs with a fiber length of 1 m. The effectively single-mode AS-PBGFs had the wide transmission bands which correspond to the first photonic bandgap. The 10 dB bandwidths of the transmission bands are estimated to be more than 1000 nm. The shift of the transmission band was observed since the effectively single-mode AS-PBGFs had the different ds. The Vs of the effectively single-mode AS-PBGFs with different ds were not the same as shown in Table 1. Only short wavelength edge of the first photonic bandgap of the fiber C was observed. The short wavelength bandgap edge of the fiber C was shifted to longer wavelength by bending the fiber. Figure 6(b) shows the measured transmission losses of the FM of the effectively single-mode AS-PBGFs in the wavelength range from 1000 nm to 1300 nm. The cut-back method was used. The cut length was 10 m. The input part of the effectively single-mode AS-PBGFs was coiled to eliminate the HOM. The transmission losses were less than 60 dB/km in the measurement wavelength range. The transmission loss at 1064 nm of the fiber C was 25 dB/km. The minimum transmission loss of the fiber C was 5.6 dB/km around 1270 nm.

Figure 7(a)
Fig. 7 (a) Measured bending losses at 1064 nm of effectively single-mode AS-PBGFs as a function of bending radius and (b) measured transmission spectra around 1064 nm and near field patterns at 1064 nm for coiled fiber C with different bending radii
shows the measured bending losses at 1064 nm of the effectively single-mode AS-PBGFs as a function of the bending radius. The calculated bending losses are also plotted for comparison. The bending loss increased with increasing the Λ. As the acceptable bending loss is 0.1 dB/m, the minimum bending radii of the effectively single-mode AS-PBGFs were 5 cm (Fiber A), 7 cm (Fiber B), and 10 cm (Fiber C), which are small enough for compact packaging. The effectively single-mode operations of the effectively single-mode AS-PBGFs were investigated by offset-launching technique. Figure 7(b) shows the transmission spectra around 1064 nm and the near field patterns at 1064 nm for the coiled fiber C with different bending radii. The length of the fiber C was 1.5 m. The end of the fiber C was set to be straight. The spectral beating by the mode interference between the FM and the HOM was observed at a bending radius of 15 cm. The near field pattern at a bending radius of 15 cm was not Gaussian shape because of the existence of the HOM. The content of the HOM is estimated to be about 0.5% from the amplitude of the spectral beating. On the other hand, no spectral beating was generated at a bending radius of 14 cm. The near field pattern at a bending radius of 14 cm was nearly Gaussian shape. A measured M-squared factor of output light was 1.05. In the calculations, the bending loss of the HOM of the 1.5-m fiber C at a bending radius of 14 cm was about 10 dB higher than that at a bending radius of 15 cm. The content of the HOM would be decreased to about 0.05%. As a result, spectral beating was not observed at a bending radius of 14 cm. The effectively single-mode operation of the fiber C was clearly confirmed. In the fiber A and the fiber B, the effectively single-mode operations were also confirmed by the same method. The maximum bending radii of the effectively single-mode AS-PBGFs were 7.5 cm (Fiber A), 10 cm (Fiber B), and 14 cm (Fiber C), respectively.

The effective areas of the fabricated effectively single-mode AS-PBGFs were evaluated by far field scanning technique. The end of the fiber under test was set to be straight. The fiber under test was coiled for effectively single-mode operation. Figure 8
Fig. 8 Measured and calculated effective areas at 1064 nm of the FM for the effectively single-mode AS-PBGFs under effectively single-mode condition.
shows the measured effective areas at 1064 nm of the FM of the effectively single-mode AS-PBGFs as a function of the Λ. The effective areas calculated from the fiber parameters of the effectively single-mode AS-PBGFs are also plotted in Fig. 8. The effective area of the fiber A with the smallest Λ was more than 500 μm2. The effective area of the FM increased with the increment of the Λ. The effective area of the fiber C with the largest Λ reached to 712 μm2. The measurement results were slightly smaller than the calculation results. The end of the fiber under test would not be perfectly straight.

The allowable bending radius range affects laser size and output power. The minimum bending radius of the allowable bending radius range Rmin is determined by the condition of low bending loss of the FM (0.1 dB/m). The maximum bending radius of the allowable bending radius range Rmax is also determined by the condition of effectively single-mode operation. Figure 9
Fig. 9 Measured and calculated allowable bending radius ranges as a function of the Λ.
shows the measured minimum bending radius and maximum bending radius as a function of the Λ. The calculated minimum bending radius and maximum bending radius are also plotted in Fig. 9. The allowable bending radius range of the fiber A with the smallest Λ was from 5 cm to 7.5 cm, which make highly compact deployment possible. The allowable bending radius range increased with increasing the Λ. The measurement results are similar to the calculation results. The allowable bending radius of the fiber C with the largest Λ was from 10 cm to 14 cm, which is still small enough for compact packaging. The optimum Λ has to be chosen to realize required fiber laser size and output power.

4. Conclusions

An effectively single-mode AS-PBGF with large effective area and low bending loss has been fully investigated. The effectively single-mode AS-PBGF having the seven-cell core and the five high-index rod rings can achieve an effective area of more than 500 μm2, effectively single-mode operation, and a bending loss of less than 0.1 dB/m at a bending radius of 10 cm simultaneously. In the fabricated effectively single-mode AS-PBGF with a core diameter of 48.0 μm, the effective area of 712 μm2 was successfully achieved while maintaining the bending loss of less than 0.1 dB/m at a bending radius of 10 cm. The effectively single-mode operation was confirmed at a bending radius of 14 cm. The near field pattern was nearly Gaussian shape. The M-square factor of output light was 1.05. The allowable bending radius range was from 10 cm to 14 cm. The proposed effectively single-mode AS-PBGF provides the compact deployment and the strong suppression of the nonlinear effects.

References and links

1.

M.-J. Li, X. Chen, A. Liu, S. Gray, J. Wang, D. T. Walton, and L. A. Zenteno, “Effective area limit for large mode area laser fibers,” in Proc. OFC’08 (2008), paper OTuJ2.

2.

J. Limpert, O. Schmidt, J. Rothhardt, F. Röser, T. Schreiber, A. Tünnermann, S. Ermeneux, P. Yvernault, and F. Salin, “Extended single-mode photonic crystal fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 14(7), 2715–2720 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3.

C. D. Brooks and F. D. Teodoro, “Multimegawatt peak-power, single-transverse-mode operation of a 100 μm core diameter, Yb-doped rodlike photonic crystal fiber amplifier,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(11), 111119 (2006). [CrossRef]

4.

S. Huang, C. Zhu, C. Liu, X. Ma, C. Swan, and A. Galvanauskas, “Power scaling of CCC fiber based lasers,” in Proc. CLEO/QELS’08 (2008), paper CThGG1.

5.

C. Liu, G. Chang, N. Litchinitser, D. Guertin, N. Jacobsen, K. Tankala, and A. Galvanauskas, “Chirally coupled core fibers at 1550-nm and 1064-nm for effectively single-mode core size scaling,” in Proc. CLEO/QELS’07 (2007), paper CTuBB3.

6.

A. Galvanauskas, M. C. Swan, and C. Liu, “Effectively-single-mode large core passive and active fibers with chirally-coupled-core structures,” in Proc. CLEO/QELS’08 (2008), paper CMB1.

7.

S. Lefrancois, T. S. Sosnowski, C.-H. Liu, A. Galvanauskas, and F. W. Wise, “Energy scaling of mode-locked fiber lasers with chirally-coupled core fiber,” Opt. Express 19(4), 3464–3470 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

S. Février, R. Jamier, J.-M. Blondy, S. L. Semjonov, M. E. Likhachev, M. M. Bubnov, E. M. Dianov, V. F. Khopin, M. Y. Salganskii, and A. N. Guryanov, “Low-loss singlemode large mode area all-silica photonic bandgap fiber,” Opt. Express 14(2), 562–569 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

D. A. Gaponov, S. Février, M. Devautour, P. Roy, M. E. Likhachev, S. S. Aleshkina, M. Y. Salganskii, M. V. Yashkov, and A. N. Guryanov, “Management of the high-order mode content in large (40 microm) core photonic bandgap Bragg fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 35(13), 2233–2235 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

S. Fevrier, D. A. Gaponov, P. Roy, M. E. Likhachev, E. M. Dianov, M. Y. Salganskii, M. V. Yashkov, A. N. Guryanov, L. Daniault, M. Hanna, F. Druon, and P. Georges, “All-Silica Photonic Bandgap Fiber Oscillators and Amplifiers,” in Proc. OFC’11 (2011), paper OTuC4.

11.

C. Lecaplain, A. Hideur, S. Février, and P. Roy, “Mode-locked Yb-doped Bragg fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 34(18), 2879–2881 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

O. N. Egorova, S. L. Semjonov, A. F. Kosolapov, A. N. Denisov, A. D. Pryamikov, D. A. Gaponov, A. S. Biriukov, E. M. Dianov, M. Y. Salganskii, V. F. Khopin, M. V. Yashkov, A. N. Gurianov, and D. V. Kuksenkov, “Single-mode all-silica photonic bandgap fiber with 20-microm mode-field diameter,” Opt. Express 16(16), 11735–11740 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

O. N. Egorova, D. A. Gaponov, N. A. Harchenko, A. F. Kosolapov, S. A. Letunov, A. D. Pryamikov, S. L. Semjonov, E. M. Dianov, V. F. Khopin, M. Y. Salganskii, A. N. Guryanov, and D. V. Kuksenkov, “All-Solid Photonic Bandgap Fiber with Large Mode Area and High Order Modes Suppression,” in Proc. CLEO/QELS’08 (2008), paper CTuMM3.

14.

K. Saitoh, T. Murao, L. Rosa, and M. Koshiba, “Effective area limit of large-mode-area solid-core photonic bandgap fibers for fiber laser applications,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 16(6), 409–418 (2010). [CrossRef]

15.

M. Kashiwagi, K. Saitoh, K. Takenaga, S. Tanigawa, S. Matsuo, and M. Fujimaki, “Low bending loss and effectively single-mode all-solid photonic bandgap fiber with an effective area of 650 μm2.,” Opt. Lett. 37(8), 1292–1294 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

16.

K. Nagano, S. Kawakami, and S. Nishida, “Change of the refractive index in an optical fiber due to external forces,” Appl. Opt. 17(13), 2080–2085 (1978). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

OCIS Codes
(060.2280) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber design and fabrication
(060.4005) Fiber optics and optical communications : Microstructured fibers
(060.3510) Fiber optics and optical communications : Lasers, fiber

ToC Category:
Fiber Optics and Optical Communications

History
Original Manuscript: April 26, 2012
Revised Manuscript: June 11, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: June 12, 2012
Published: June 20, 2012

Virtual Issues
August 31, 2012 Spotlight on Optics

Citation
Masahiro Kashiwagi, Kunimasa Saitoh, Katsuhiro Takenaga, Shoji Tanigawa, Shoichiro Matsuo, and Munehisa Fujimaki, "Effectively single-mode all-solid photonic bandgap fiber with large effective area and low bending loss for compact high-power all-fiber lasers," Opt. Express 20, 15061-15070 (2012)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-20-14-15061


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References

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