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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 20, Iss. 14 — Jul. 2, 2012
  • pp: 15114–15120
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NbC/Si multilayer mirror for next generation EUV light sources

Mohammed H. Modi, S. K. Rai, Mourad Idir, F. Schaefers, and G. S. Lodha  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 20, Issue 14, pp. 15114-15120 (2012)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.20.015114


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Abstract

In the present study we report a new multilayer combination comprised of refracting layers of niobium carbide and spacer layers of silicon as a more stable and high reflecting combination for the 10 - 20 nm wavelength region. The reflectivity of the new combination is comparable to Mo/Si conventional mirrors. Annealing experiments carried out with NbC/Si multilayer at 600°C temperature showed a ~2.5% drop in the soft x-ray reflectivity along with a marginal contraction in the multilayer period length. The multilayer structure is found stable after the heat treatment. Crystallization of the niobium carbide and silicon layers is responsible for the compaction in the period length as revealed by the grazing incidence x-ray diffraction measurements. No signature of silicide formation or any other chemical species could be detected. The multilayer structures were grown by ion beam sputtering technique using a compound target of niobium carbide. Soft x-ray reflectivity measurements performed at the Indus-1 and BESSY-II synchrotron radiation sources are found in good agreement with the simulations.

© 2012 OSA

1. Introduction

Mo/Si multilayers are currently the most promising reflective coating for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography activity operating at 13.6 nm wavelength. It is a known combination for best reflectivity performance in the spectral region close to the Si L-edge. However, it has a severe drawback of poor thermal stability due to negative heat of mixing between the Mo and Si. Resultantly this structure undergoes interface degradation right after the deposition process. Different approaches have been adopted in the past to overcome the interdiffusion and thermal stability problem by inserting a barrier layer of boron carbide or pure carbon in between Mo and Si layers [1

1. H. Maury, P. Jonnard, J.-M. André, J. Gautier, M. Roulliay, F. Bridou, F. Delmotte, M.-F. Ravet, A. Jérome, and P. Holliger, “Non-destructive x-ray study of the interphases in Mo/Si and Mo/B4C/Si/B4C multilayers,” Thin Solid Films 514(1-2), 278–286 (2006). [CrossRef]

]. However, all these efforts lead to significant compromise in the reflectivity performance.

Rapid development of free electron laser (FEL) sources [2

2. E. Allaria, C. Callegari, D. Cocco, W. M. Fawley, M. Kiskinova, C. Masciovecchio, and F. Parmigiani, “The FERMI@Elettra free-electron-laser source for coherent x-ray physics: photon properties, beam transport system and applications,” New J. Phys. 12(7), 075002 (2010). [CrossRef]

, 3

3. W. Ackermann, G. Asova, V. Ayvazyan, A. Azima, N. Baboi, J. Bahr, V. Balandin, B. Beutner, A. Brandt, A. Bolzmann, R. Brinkmann, O. I. Brovko, M. Castellano, P. Castro, L. Catani, E. Chiadroni, S. Choroba, A. Cianchi, J. T. Costello, D. Cubaynes, J. Dardis, W. Decking, H. Delsim Hashemi, A. Delserieys, G. Di Pirro, M. Dohlus, S. Dusterer, A. Eckhardt, H. T. Edwards, B. Faatz, J. Feldhaus, K. Flottmann, J. Frisch, L. Frohlich, T. Garvey, U. Gensch, C. Gerth, M. Gorler, N. Golubeva, H. J. Grabosch, M. Grecki, O. Grimm, K. Hacker, U. Hahn, J. H. Han, K. Honkavaara, T. Hott, M. Huning, Y. Ivanisenko, E. Jaeschke, W. Jalmuzna, T. Jezynski, R. Kammering, V. Katalev, K. Kavanagh, E. T. Kennedy, S. Khodyachykh, K. Klose, V. Kocharyan, M. Korfer, M. Kollewe, W. Koprek, S. Korepanov, D. Kostin, M. Krassilnikov, G. Kube, M. Kuhlmann, C. L. S. Lewis, L. Lilje, T. Limberg, D. Lipka, F. Lohl, H. Luna, M. Luong, M. Martins, M. Meyer, P. Michelato, V. Miltchev, W. D. Moller, L. Monaco, W. F. O. Muller, O. Napieralski, O. Napoly, P. Nicolosi, D. Nolle, T. Nunez, A. Oppelt, C. Pagani, R. Paparella, N. Pchalek, J. Pedregosa Gutierrez, B. Petersen, B. Petrosyan, G. Petrosyan, L. Petrosyan, J. Pfluger, E. Plonjes, L. Poletto, K. Pozniak, E. Prat, D. Proch, P. Pucyk, P. Radcliffe, H. Redlin, K. Rehlich, M. Richter, M. Roehrs, J. Roensch, R. Romaniuk, M. Ross, J. Rossbach, V. Rybnikov, M. Sachwitz, E. L. Saldin, W. Sandner, H. Schlarb, B. Schmidt, M. Schmitz, P. Schmuser, J. R. Schneider, E. A. Schneidmiller, S. Schnepp, S. Schreiber, M. Seidel, D. Sertore, A. V. Shabunov, C. Simon, S. Simrock, E. Sombrowski, A. A. Sorokin, P. Spanknebel, R. Spesyvtsev, L. Staykov, B. Steffen, F. Stephan, F. Stulle, H. Thom, K. Tiedtke, M. Tischer, S. Toleikis, R. Treusch, D. Trines, I. Tsakov, E. Vogel, T. Weiland, H. Weise, M. Wellhofer, M. Wendt, I. Will, A. Winter, K. Wittenburg, W. Wurth, P. Yeates, M. V. Yurkov, I. Zagorodnov, and K. Zapfe, “Operation of a free-electron laser from the extreme ultraviolet to the water window,” Nat. Photonics 1(6), 336–342 (2007). [CrossRef]

] generating ultra short EUV pulses have posed a new challenge for the optics. X-ray pulses of very high intensity induce radiation damage in optical components [4

4. A. R. Khorsand, R. Sobierajski, E. Louis, S. Bruijn, E. D. van Hattum, R. W. E. van de Kruijs, M. Jurek, D. Klinger, J. B. Pelka, L. Juha, T. Burian, J. Chalupsky, J. Cihelka, V. Hajkova, L. Vysin, U. Jastrow, N. Stojanovic, S. Toleikis, H. Wabnitz, K. Tiedtke, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, U. Shymanovich, J. Krzywinski, S. Hau-Riege, R. London, A. Gleeson, E. M. Gullikson, and F. Bijkerk, “Single shot damage mechanism of Mo/Si multilayer optics under intense pulsed XUV-exposure,” Opt. Express 18(2), 700–712 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 5

5. F. Barkusky, A. Bayer, S. Döring, P. Grossmann, and K. Mann, “Damage threshold measurements on EUV optics using focused radiation from a table-top laser produced plasma source,” Opt. Express 18(5), 4346–4355 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The emerging technology requires improved optical components. Numerous research work is being carried out to find a high stability and high reflectivity multilayer mirrors [6

6. R. Sobierajski, S. Bruijn, A. R. Khorsand, E. Louis, R. W. E. van de Kruijs, T. Burian, J. Chalupsky, J. Cihelka, A. Gleeson, J. Grzonka, E. M. Gullikson, V. Hajkova, S. Hau-Riege, L. Juha, M. Jurek, D. Klinger, J. Krzywinski, R. London, J. B. Pelka, T. Płociński, M. Rasiński, K. Tiedtke, S. Toleikis, L. Vysin, H. Wabnitz, and F. Bijkerk, “Damage mechanisms of MoN/SiN multilayer optics for next-generation pulsed XUV light sources,” Opt. Express 19(1), 193–205 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 7

7. M. Barthelmess and S. Bajt, “Thermal and stress studies of normal incidence Mo/B4C multilayers for a 6.7 nm wavelength,” Appl. Opt. 50(11), 1610–1619 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

In present study, the NbC/Si multilayers are deposited on Si substrate to carry out high temperature annealing studies. The carbide layers of niobium are deposited using a commercial sputtering target of NbC in an ion beam sputtering system. Both soft x-ray and grazing incidence x-ray reflectivity (GIXR) measurements performed after the annealing experiments suggest that the multilayer structure is highly stable. The soft x-ray reflectivity measurements carried out at the Indus-I and BESSY-II synchrotron sources are found in good agreement with the simulations based on structural parameters derived from the GIXR analysis.

2. Experimental

The NbC/Si multilayers were deposited on silicon (100) substrate using an ion beam sputtering system. A base pressure of ~1 × 10−7 mbar was created before purging the high purity Argon gas at constant 4.5 SCCM flow rate. High purity commercial targets were used to deposit the NbC and Si layers. The film thickness was controlled by keeping the deposition time fixed for each layer. To study the thermal stability of the multilayers, one sample was annealed up to 700°C in steps of 100°C for 40 minutes at each step. Other sample was directly annealed at 600°C for 1h in a vacuum of < 1 × 10−6 mbar.

GIXR measurements were performed using Cu Kα (λ = 0.154 nm) radiation at a homemade reflectometer in 0 to 3° angular range with step resolution of 0.005°. The reflected beam was analyzed by a multilayer monochromator followed by a NaI scintillation detector over a six order of dynamic range. Grazing incidence x-ray diffraction (GIXRD) spectra were recorded using a Philips X’Pert Pro diffractometer. GIXRD measurements were performed at a fixed glancing angle of 0.27° to limit the penetration of the beam into the film. GIXRD data were recorder in 30 - 75° range in step of 0.05° and 10 sec acquisition time.

The soft x-ray reflectivity measurements were performed at the Indus-1 and BESSY-II storage ring facilities. Normal incidence reflectivity near 87° incidence angle was measured at the BESSY-II optics beamline. At Indus-1, wavelength v/s reflectivity measurements of as prepared and annealed sample were carried out at 70° incidence angle using the reflectivity beamline [10

10. R. V. Nandedkar, K. J. S. Sawhney, G. S. Lodha, A. Verma, V. K. Raghuvanshi, A. K Sinha, M. H. Modi, and M. Nayak, “First results on reflectometry beamline on Indus-1,” Curr. Sci. 82, 298–304 (2002).

]. Details of the experimental station on Indus-1 reflectivity beamline are given in Ref [11

11. G. S. Lodha, M. H. Modi, V. K. Raghuvanshi, K. J. S. Sawhney, and R. V. Nandedkar, “Soft x-ray reflectometer on Indus-1,” Synchrotron Radiat. News 17, 33–35 (2004). [CrossRef]

].

The reflectivity data were analyzed using the Parratt formalism [12

12. L. G. Parratt, “Surface studies of solids by total refiection of x-rays,” Phys. Rev. 95(2), 359–369 (1954). [CrossRef]

]. The reflected field intensity was calculated with a grazing incidence angle θ as an independent parameter. The effect of interfacial roughness was considered using the Nevot-Croce model [13

13. L. Nevot and P. Croce, “Caractérisation des surfaces par réflexion rasante de rayons X. Application à l'étude du polissage de quelques verres silicates,” Rev. Phys. Appl. (Paris) 15(3), 761–779 (1980). [CrossRef]

]. In a least square refinement procedure, thicknesses, densities and interface roughness were optimized using a LabVIEW simulator [14

14. M. H. Modi, G. S. Lodha, P. Mercere, and M. Idir, “Live simulator and data analysis tool for multilayer reflectivity using LabVIEW,” Presented at The 9th International Conference on the Physics of X-Ray Multilayer Structures, Big Sky Resort USA 3–7 February 2008.

].

3. Results and discussion

In order to find a stable multilayer structure for 10-20 nm wavelength range we tried a new multilayer combination comprised of refracting layers of niobium carbide with spacer layers of silicon. Using the atomic scattering database of Henke et al. [15

15. B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50–30000 eV, Z = 1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54(2), 181–342 (1993), http://www-cxro.lbl.gov/optical constants/. [CrossRef]

] it is found that the NbC compound gives a similar refractive index contrast with Si as one obtains using the Mo in the 10 - 20 nm wavelength region. Optical constants of NbC, Mo and Si are plotted in the Fig. 1
Fig. 1 A comparison of the optical constants of NbC, Mo and Si in the10-20 nm wavelength region.
. The reflectivity calculations carried out for NbC/Si and Mo/Si using identical structural parameters (d = 6.3 nm, N = 51 layer lairs, Γ = 0.428, roughness σ = 0.3 nm for all interfaces) shows that the calculated reflectivity of Mo/Si (73.1%) and NbC/Si (70.6%) are very close. The results of calculations are plotted in the Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Calculated soft x-ray reflectivity profile of Mo/Si and NbC/Si multilayers with identical structural parameters (d = 6.3 nm, Γ = 0.428, σ = 0.3 nm, N = 51 layer pairs). At 85.0° incidence angle, the peak reflectivity of two multilayers is slightly different by ~2.5%.
. It is found that the theoretical reflectivity for any other identical structure of Mo/Si and NbC/Si remains close with each other.

In order to experimentally test the reflectivity performance of NbC/Si multilayer at elevated temperatures, a sample of d = 8.0 nm, Γ = 0.5, N = 10 layer pairs is annealed up to 700°C in steps of 100°C for 40 minutes at each step. The GIXR results suggest that upon annealing at 700°C the multilayer structure remains intact. A marginal contraction in the period length from as deposited value of 8.14 ± 0.01 nm to 7.93 ± 0.01 nm is found. The reflectivity at λ = 0.154 nm is reduced from 56% to 53%. Results of GIXR measurements along with the best fit are shown in the Fig. 3
Fig. 3 GIXR results of the NbC/Si multilayer annealed up to 700°C for 40 minutes are shown. The open circles represent measured data whereas best fit is shown by the continuous line. After the annealing, Bragg peaks shift to higher angle indicating a contraction in the period length as marked by the vertical dashed line. All features in the reflectivity curve persist after the annealing which suggests the multilayer structure is intact. In the inset, a comparison of the first Bragg peak of as deposited sample with that of 500°C and 700°C annealed sample is shown.
. In the inset, a comparison of the first Bragg peak of as-prepared, 500°C and 700°C annealed samples indicate that the multilayer performance is marginally changed at high temperatures.

The contraction in the multilayer period is probably due to inter atomic rearrangement caused by the annealing as indicated by the change in density of the NbC and Si layers. The GIXR results revealed that the density of the Si is 2.2 ( ± 0.036) g/cm3 for as prepared sample which increases to 2.37 ( ± 0.04) g/cm3 after the annealing at 700°C. Similarly, for as prepared sample the density of the NbC layer is 6.87 ( ± 0.11) g/cm3 which reduces to 6.57 ( ± 0.11) g/cm3. After the annealing, a net increase of 7.7% in density of the Si layer and a net decrease of 4.6% in density of the NbC layer is found. There is a net increase in the multilayer density of 3.3%. This density change should have caused a period contraction from 8.14 nm to 7.87 nm. However the period thickness after 700°C is found to be 7.93 nm instead of 7.87 nm. This difference of ~0.06 nm may be due to roughness convolution effects during the analysis. In the as prepared sample, the roughness of Si-on-NbC interface and NbC-on-Si interface is 0.3 nm and 0.84 nm respectively. After 700°C annealing these two roughness values are slightly changed to 0.4 nm and 0.82 nm respectively for Si-on-NbC and NbC-on-Si interfaces.

In the present study, the NbC/Si multilayers used were grown by ion beam sputtering process. In these multilayers the density of the NbC layer is found to be lower than its bulk value 7.8 g/cm3. In thin film process it is common to have a reduced density with respect to the bulk value because of variation in the packing density. Presence of voids in between inter atomic spaces is the main cause of the reduced density which has been observed in the simulation of deposition process [16

16. K. H. Müller, “Dependence of thin‐film microstructure on deposition rate by means of a computer simulation,” J. Appl. Phys. 58(7), 2573–2576 (1985). [CrossRef]

]. In the present case, difference in density of the NbC layer with respect to its bulk value is attributed to variation in stoichiometry and presence of unsaturated carbon atoms in the film [8

8. M. Y. Liao, Y. Gotoh, H. Tsuji, and J. Ishikawa, “Compound-target sputtering for niobium carbide thin film deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22(5), L24–L27 (2004). [CrossRef]

].

Figure 5
Fig. 5 Soft x-ray reflectivity at near normal incidence angle is measured at the BESSY-II synchrotron facility. The circles represent measured data whereas the continuous line is a best fit obtained with the parameters shown in the figure.
shows a soft x-ray reflectivity spectrum of a NbC/Si multilayer with period d = (6.54 nm, Γ = 0.49) × 10 with an extra NbC layer on top as measured at BESSY-II at 87.0° near-normal incidence angle. The measured reflectivity is 11%, whereas the expected reflectivity was 20% if the NbC layer had a density close to the bulk value.

A 30 layer pair sample with d = 7.0 nm (Γ = 0.3) has given a peak reflectivity of 42.45% at 13.0 nm wavelength as shown in the Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Measured and fitted soft x-ray reflectivity spectra of as deposited and 600°C annealed sample. After annealing the Bragg peak shifts towards lower wavelength due to period contraction from 7.0 nm of as deposited value to 6.86 nm after the 1h annealing.
. In this sample, roughness of the Si and NbC layers are found to be 0.9 nm and 0.8 nm respectively. The higher roughness of this sample is attributed to the lower thickness of the NbC layer. The soft x-ray reflectivity performance of the same multilayer measured after 600°C annealing for 1h is also shown in the Fig. 6. After the annealing the Bragg peak shifts towards the lower wavelength side due to contraction in the multilayer period from 7.0 nm to 6.86 nm. The multilayer reflectivity is reduced from 42.45% to 40%. After annealing, roughness of both Si and NbC layers are found 0.8 nm.

The annealing experiments carried out upto 700°C on different samples of NbC/Si multilayer showed a high thermal stability and a marginal change in reflectivity performance. Whereas, in case of Mo/Si multilayer it is earlier reported that the chemical mixing and structural degradation starts from 150°C only [17

17. T. Bӧttger, D. C. Meyer, P. Paufler, S. Braun, M. Moss, H. Mai, and E. Beyer, “Thermal stability of Mo/Si multilayers with boron carbide interlayers,” Thin Solid Films 444(1-2), 165–173 (2003). [CrossRef]

]. Incorporation of B4C barrier layer in between the Mo and Si has increased its thermal stability upto ~400°C. The present study suggests that, the NbC/Si multilayer has a potential to emerge as a high reflectivity mirror for the 10 - 20 nm wavelength range. The new combination can be used for high thermal load applications. The clean interface profile comprised of two-layer structure with no chemical degradation is an important merit function for the NbC/Si structure. NbC/Si multilayer has a potential to replace the conventional Mo/Si mirrors from high reflectivity normal incidence applications.

Efforts are underway to produce a high quality NbC/Si multilayer to get best possible reflectivity as predicted from the simulation.

4. Conclusions

References and links

1.

H. Maury, P. Jonnard, J.-M. André, J. Gautier, M. Roulliay, F. Bridou, F. Delmotte, M.-F. Ravet, A. Jérome, and P. Holliger, “Non-destructive x-ray study of the interphases in Mo/Si and Mo/B4C/Si/B4C multilayers,” Thin Solid Films 514(1-2), 278–286 (2006). [CrossRef]

2.

E. Allaria, C. Callegari, D. Cocco, W. M. Fawley, M. Kiskinova, C. Masciovecchio, and F. Parmigiani, “The FERMI@Elettra free-electron-laser source for coherent x-ray physics: photon properties, beam transport system and applications,” New J. Phys. 12(7), 075002 (2010). [CrossRef]

3.

W. Ackermann, G. Asova, V. Ayvazyan, A. Azima, N. Baboi, J. Bahr, V. Balandin, B. Beutner, A. Brandt, A. Bolzmann, R. Brinkmann, O. I. Brovko, M. Castellano, P. Castro, L. Catani, E. Chiadroni, S. Choroba, A. Cianchi, J. T. Costello, D. Cubaynes, J. Dardis, W. Decking, H. Delsim Hashemi, A. Delserieys, G. Di Pirro, M. Dohlus, S. Dusterer, A. Eckhardt, H. T. Edwards, B. Faatz, J. Feldhaus, K. Flottmann, J. Frisch, L. Frohlich, T. Garvey, U. Gensch, C. Gerth, M. Gorler, N. Golubeva, H. J. Grabosch, M. Grecki, O. Grimm, K. Hacker, U. Hahn, J. H. Han, K. Honkavaara, T. Hott, M. Huning, Y. Ivanisenko, E. Jaeschke, W. Jalmuzna, T. Jezynski, R. Kammering, V. Katalev, K. Kavanagh, E. T. Kennedy, S. Khodyachykh, K. Klose, V. Kocharyan, M. Korfer, M. Kollewe, W. Koprek, S. Korepanov, D. Kostin, M. Krassilnikov, G. Kube, M. Kuhlmann, C. L. S. Lewis, L. Lilje, T. Limberg, D. Lipka, F. Lohl, H. Luna, M. Luong, M. Martins, M. Meyer, P. Michelato, V. Miltchev, W. D. Moller, L. Monaco, W. F. O. Muller, O. Napieralski, O. Napoly, P. Nicolosi, D. Nolle, T. Nunez, A. Oppelt, C. Pagani, R. Paparella, N. Pchalek, J. Pedregosa Gutierrez, B. Petersen, B. Petrosyan, G. Petrosyan, L. Petrosyan, J. Pfluger, E. Plonjes, L. Poletto, K. Pozniak, E. Prat, D. Proch, P. Pucyk, P. Radcliffe, H. Redlin, K. Rehlich, M. Richter, M. Roehrs, J. Roensch, R. Romaniuk, M. Ross, J. Rossbach, V. Rybnikov, M. Sachwitz, E. L. Saldin, W. Sandner, H. Schlarb, B. Schmidt, M. Schmitz, P. Schmuser, J. R. Schneider, E. A. Schneidmiller, S. Schnepp, S. Schreiber, M. Seidel, D. Sertore, A. V. Shabunov, C. Simon, S. Simrock, E. Sombrowski, A. A. Sorokin, P. Spanknebel, R. Spesyvtsev, L. Staykov, B. Steffen, F. Stephan, F. Stulle, H. Thom, K. Tiedtke, M. Tischer, S. Toleikis, R. Treusch, D. Trines, I. Tsakov, E. Vogel, T. Weiland, H. Weise, M. Wellhofer, M. Wendt, I. Will, A. Winter, K. Wittenburg, W. Wurth, P. Yeates, M. V. Yurkov, I. Zagorodnov, and K. Zapfe, “Operation of a free-electron laser from the extreme ultraviolet to the water window,” Nat. Photonics 1(6), 336–342 (2007). [CrossRef]

4.

A. R. Khorsand, R. Sobierajski, E. Louis, S. Bruijn, E. D. van Hattum, R. W. E. van de Kruijs, M. Jurek, D. Klinger, J. B. Pelka, L. Juha, T. Burian, J. Chalupsky, J. Cihelka, V. Hajkova, L. Vysin, U. Jastrow, N. Stojanovic, S. Toleikis, H. Wabnitz, K. Tiedtke, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, U. Shymanovich, J. Krzywinski, S. Hau-Riege, R. London, A. Gleeson, E. M. Gullikson, and F. Bijkerk, “Single shot damage mechanism of Mo/Si multilayer optics under intense pulsed XUV-exposure,” Opt. Express 18(2), 700–712 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

F. Barkusky, A. Bayer, S. Döring, P. Grossmann, and K. Mann, “Damage threshold measurements on EUV optics using focused radiation from a table-top laser produced plasma source,” Opt. Express 18(5), 4346–4355 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

R. Sobierajski, S. Bruijn, A. R. Khorsand, E. Louis, R. W. E. van de Kruijs, T. Burian, J. Chalupsky, J. Cihelka, A. Gleeson, J. Grzonka, E. M. Gullikson, V. Hajkova, S. Hau-Riege, L. Juha, M. Jurek, D. Klinger, J. Krzywinski, R. London, J. B. Pelka, T. Płociński, M. Rasiński, K. Tiedtke, S. Toleikis, L. Vysin, H. Wabnitz, and F. Bijkerk, “Damage mechanisms of MoN/SiN multilayer optics for next-generation pulsed XUV light sources,” Opt. Express 19(1), 193–205 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

M. Barthelmess and S. Bajt, “Thermal and stress studies of normal incidence Mo/B4C multilayers for a 6.7 nm wavelength,” Appl. Opt. 50(11), 1610–1619 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

M. Y. Liao, Y. Gotoh, H. Tsuji, and J. Ishikawa, “Compound-target sputtering for niobium carbide thin film deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22(5), L24–L27 (2004). [CrossRef]

9.

S. Barzilai, M. Weiss, N. Frage, and A. Raveh, “Structure and composition of Nb and NbC layers on graphite,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 197(2-3), 208–214 (2005). [CrossRef]

10.

R. V. Nandedkar, K. J. S. Sawhney, G. S. Lodha, A. Verma, V. K. Raghuvanshi, A. K Sinha, M. H. Modi, and M. Nayak, “First results on reflectometry beamline on Indus-1,” Curr. Sci. 82, 298–304 (2002).

11.

G. S. Lodha, M. H. Modi, V. K. Raghuvanshi, K. J. S. Sawhney, and R. V. Nandedkar, “Soft x-ray reflectometer on Indus-1,” Synchrotron Radiat. News 17, 33–35 (2004). [CrossRef]

12.

L. G. Parratt, “Surface studies of solids by total refiection of x-rays,” Phys. Rev. 95(2), 359–369 (1954). [CrossRef]

13.

L. Nevot and P. Croce, “Caractérisation des surfaces par réflexion rasante de rayons X. Application à l'étude du polissage de quelques verres silicates,” Rev. Phys. Appl. (Paris) 15(3), 761–779 (1980). [CrossRef]

14.

M. H. Modi, G. S. Lodha, P. Mercere, and M. Idir, “Live simulator and data analysis tool for multilayer reflectivity using LabVIEW,” Presented at The 9th International Conference on the Physics of X-Ray Multilayer Structures, Big Sky Resort USA 3–7 February 2008.

15.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50–30000 eV, Z = 1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54(2), 181–342 (1993), http://www-cxro.lbl.gov/optical constants/. [CrossRef]

16.

K. H. Müller, “Dependence of thin‐film microstructure on deposition rate by means of a computer simulation,” J. Appl. Phys. 58(7), 2573–2576 (1985). [CrossRef]

17.

T. Bӧttger, D. C. Meyer, P. Paufler, S. Braun, M. Moss, H. Mai, and E. Beyer, “Thermal stability of Mo/Si multilayers with boron carbide interlayers,” Thin Solid Films 444(1-2), 165–173 (2003). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(230.4170) Optical devices : Multilayers
(310.1860) Thin films : Deposition and fabrication
(340.7470) X-ray optics : X-ray mirrors
(310.4165) Thin films : Multilayer design

ToC Category:
Thin Films

History
Original Manuscript: May 16, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: May 30, 2012
Published: June 20, 2012

Citation
Mohammed H. Modi, S. K. Rai, Mourad Idir, F. Schaefers, and G. S. Lodha, "NbC/Si multilayer mirror for next generation EUV light sources," Opt. Express 20, 15114-15120 (2012)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-20-14-15114


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