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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 20, Iss. 14 — Jul. 2, 2012
  • pp: 15703–15709
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Tunable, high-energy, mid-infrared, picosecond optical parametric generator based on CdSiP2

S. Chaitanya Kumar, M. Jelínek, M. Baudisch, K. T. Zawilski, P. G. Schunemann, V. Kubeček, J. Biegert, and M. Ebrahim-Zadeh  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 20, Issue 14, pp. 15703-15709 (2012)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.20.015703


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Abstract

We report a tunable, high-energy, single-pass optical parametric generator (OPG) based on the nonlinear material, cadmium silicon phosphide, CdSiP2. The OPG is pumped by a cavity-dumped, passively mode-locked, diode-pumped Nd:YAG oscillator, providing 25 µJ pulses in 20 ps at 5 Hz. The pump energy is further boosted by a flashlamp-pumped Nd:YAG amplifier to 2.5 mJ. The OPG is temperature tunable over 1263–1286 nm (23 nm) in the signal and 6153–6731 nm (578 nm) in the idler. Using the single-pass OPG configuration, we have generated signal pulse energy as high as 636 µJ at 1283 nm, together with idler pulse energy of 33 µJ at 6234 nm, for 2.1 mJ of input pump pulse energy. The generated signal pulses have durations of 24 ps with a FWHM spectral bandwidth of 10.4 nm at central wavelength of 1276 nm. The corresponding idler spectrum has a FWHM bandwidth of 140 nm centered at 6404 nm.

© 2012 OSA

1. Introduction

The newly developed mid-IR nonlinear crystal, cadmium silicon phosphide, CdSiP2 (CSP), is a negative uniaxial chalcopyrite semiconductor belonging to the space group4¯2m, with practical transparency extending from 1 to 6.5 µm [9

9. K. T. Zawilski, P. G. Schunemann, T. C. Pollak, D. E. Zelmon, N. C. Fernelius, and F. K. Hopkins, “Growth and characterization of large CdSiP2 single crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(8), 1127–1132 (2010). [CrossRef]

]. Uniquely and importantly, the linear and nonlinear optical properties of CSP permit parametric generation under noncritical phase-matching (NCPM) with a large effective nonlinearity (deff~84 pm/V), providing mid-IR idler radiation near 6 µm when pumped at 1064 nm [10

10. V. Petrov, F. Noack, I. Tunchev, P. Schunemann, and K. Zawilski, “The nonlinear coefficient d36 of CdSiP2,” Proc. SPIE 7197, 71970M, 71970M-8 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. Its nonlinear figure ofmerit, F =deff2/n3, with n~3.1, is nearly ten times greater than MgO:PPLN. Further, CSP has a small, but finite, thermal dependence of the refractive indices, enabling temperature tuning. Thepossibility of pumping CSP at the well-established Nd:YAG wavelength of 1.064 μm togenerate mid-IR radiation at mid-IR wavelengths as far as 6 µm in a simple and robust OPG scheme is one of the most important features of this new nonlinear material.

Earlier reports of parametric devices based on CSP pumped near 1 μm include nanosecond OPOs [11

11. V. Petrov, P. G. Schunemann, K. T. Zawilski, and T. M. Pollak, “Noncritical singly resonant optical parametric oscillator operation near 6.2 microm based on a CdSiP2 crystal pumped at 1064 nm,” Opt. Lett. 34(16), 2399–2401 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,12

12. V. Petrov, G. Marchev, P. G. Schunemann, A. Tyazhev, K. T. Zawilski, and T. M. Pollak, “Subnanosecond, 1 kHz, temperature-tuned, noncritical mid-infrared optical parametric oscillator based on CdSiP2 crystal pumped at 1064 nm,” Opt. Lett. 35(8), 1230–1232 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and picosecond OPOs [13

13. A. Peremans, D. Lis, F. Cecchet, P. G. Schunemann, K. T. Zawilski, and V. Petrov, “Noncritical singly resonant synchronously pumped OPO for generation of picosecond pulses in the mid-infrared near 6.4 microm,” Opt. Lett. 34(20), 3053–3055 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,14

14. S. Chaitanya Kumar, A. Agnesi, P. Dallocchio, F. Pirzio, G. Reali, K. T. Zawilski, P. G. Schunemann, and M. Ebrahim-Zadeh, “Compact, 1.5 mJ, 450 MHz, CdSiP2 picosecond optical parametric oscillator near 6.3 μm,” Opt. Lett. 36(16), 3236–3238 (2011). [PubMed]

]. Also, a mid-IR OPG based on CSP pumped by a picosecond amplified mode-locked Nd:YVO4 laser at 1.064 μm has been reported, providing a fixed output wavelengths, and generating an idler energy up to 1.54 µJ at 6.204 µm together with signal energy of 11.6 µJ at 1.282 µm [15

15. O. Chalus, P. G. Schunemann, K. T. Zawilski, J. Biegert, and M. Ebrahim-Zadeh, “Optical parametric generation in CdSiP2.,” Opt. Lett. 35(24), 4142–4144 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

Here we report, for the first time to our knowledge, a picosecond OPG based on CSP pumped at 1.064 μm, capable of providing record pulse energies and broad wavelength tuning in the mid-IR. The OPG is tunable over 6153-6732 nm (idler) in the mid-IR and 1264-1286 nm (signal) in the near-IR, and can deliver ~600 µJ of output energy over the entire signal tuning range in 24 ps pulses together with >25 µJ of long-wavelength mid-IR pulse energy over 55% of the idler tuning range.

2. Experimental setup

2.1 Pump laser

The schematic of the laser system together with the experimental setup for the OPG is shown in Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic of the experimental setup for CSP OPG. SAM: Saturable absorber mirror, LD: Laser diode, PC: Pockels cell, GP: Glan polarizer, HWP: Half-wave-plate, PBS: Polarizing beam splitter, M: Mirrors, L: Lens, F: Filter.
. The pump laser is a laboratory designed oscillator-amplifier system operating at a wavelength of 1.064 μm [16

16. M. Jelínek and V. Kubeček, “15 ps quasi-continuously pumped passively mode-locked highly doped Nd:YAG laser in bounce geometry,” Laser Phys. Lett. 8, 657–660 (2011).

]. The active medium in the laser oscillator is 30-mm-long Nd:YAG slab, with Nd doping concentration of 2.4 at.%. The two end faces with an aperture of 5 × 2 mm2 were cut at the Brewster angle of 68°. The pumping face has an aperture of 30 × 2 mm2 and is antireflection (AR) coated at 808 nm. The pump source for the oscillator is a single quasi-continuous-wave laser diode (LD) bar with the fast axis collimation, providing a nominal output power of 150 W at a repetition rate of 100 Hz. The LD is mounted on a copper plate with Peltier cooling, enabling fine tuning of output wavelength around 808 nm to match the Nd:YAG absorption peak. The oscillator is configured in a standing-wave cavity formed by the mirrors, M1-M3, and a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SAM). M1 is an AR coated plane mirror with reflectivity of ~70% at 1064 nm. M2 is a plano-concave mirror with radius of curvature of 1 m, while M3 is a plane mirror, both high reflecting at 1.064 μm. The total physical length of the optical resonator is 1.12 m, corresponding to free spectral range of 131 MHz. The laser is optimized for operation in the passive mode-locking regime at a wavelength of 1.064 μm, using a SAM with a modulation depth of 25%. In order to extract a single pulse from the Q-switched mode-locked output train, the oscillator is cavity dumped using a KD*P Pockels cell and a Glan laser polarizer. The residual transmission from M1 is used to trigger a high voltage quarter-wave step signal (rise time below 7 ns) for the Pockels cell. The oscillator generates vertically polarized single pulses with energy of 25 ± 2 μJ. The output beam spatial profile is nearly Gaussian in both axes, and the duration of the output pulses measured by the streak camera is 20 ps with stability better than 2 ps. The pump pulse energy is further boosted up to 2.5 mJ by a single-pass flashlamp-pumped amplifier based on 100-mm-long Nd:YAG crystal with no significant effect on pulse duration. The pulse repetition rate after the amplifier is limited to 5 Hz by the flashlamp power supply.

2.2 Optical parametric generator

The output beam from the laser at a wavelength of 1.064 μm, with a diameter of 2 mm and a beam quality factor of M2~1.8, is used to pump the OPG. The nonlinear crystal is a 12.1-mm-long, 4-mm-wide (along the c-axis), 5-mm-thick CSP sample grown from stoichiometric melt by the horizontal gradient freeze technique [9

9. K. T. Zawilski, P. G. Schunemann, T. C. Pollak, D. E. Zelmon, N. C. Fernelius, and F. K. Hopkins, “Growth and characterization of large CdSiP2 single crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(8), 1127–1132 (2010). [CrossRef]

]. It is cut at θ = 90°, ϕ = 45° for type-I (eoo) interaction under NCPM and housed in an oven whose temperature can be varied from room temperature to 200 °C in steps of ± 0.1 °C. Both crystal faces are AR coated with a single-layer sapphire, providing high transmission, T>98.7% for the pump and signal over 1064-1300 nm and T>76% for the idler over 6000-6500 nm. The pump beam is collimated to a beam radius of 700 µm at the center of the nonlinear crystal. The beam waist is optimized to use the maximum available pump pulse energy and yet to avoid potential damage to the CSP crystal or the coating. The generated signal is separated from the residual pump using a near-IR filter, while a germanium filter is used to extract the mid-IR idler output.

3. Results and discussion

3.1 Temperature tuning

In order to characterize the OPG with regard to wavelength tunability, we initially performed temperature tuning measurements. The temperature of the nonlinear crystal was varied by altering the set-point temperature of the oven. We used an additional thermocouple, connected directly to the crystal holder, to accurately monitor the actual crystal temperature. The variation of the oven temperature from 25 to 200 °C corresponded to a thermocouple temperature variation from 25 to 174 °C, indicating that the set-point temperature of the oven differs significantly from the real crystal temperature at high temperatures. Hence, by changing the temperature of the CSP crystal from 25 to 174 °C, we were able to tune the OPG over 1263-1286 nm (23 nm) in the near-IR signal, corresponding to 6731-6153 nm (578 nm) in the mid-IR idler. Figure 2(a)
Fig. 2 (a) Temperature tuning curves, (b) extracted signal and idler energy across the tuning range of the CSP OPG.
shows the temperature tuning curves of the CSP OPG. The signal wavelength was recorded by using an InGaAs spectrometer (Ocean Optics, NIR 512,resolution ~5 nm), and was further confirmed by single-pass second harmonic generation into the red in a 10 mm LiIO3 crystal with type-I (ooe) phase-matching. The corresponding idler wavelength was inferred from energy conservation. The solid line in Fig. 2(a) is the theoretical tuning curve calculated from the Sellmeier equations for CSP [9

9. K. T. Zawilski, P. G. Schunemann, T. C. Pollak, D. E. Zelmon, N. C. Fernelius, and F. K. Hopkins, “Growth and characterization of large CdSiP2 single crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(8), 1127–1132 (2010). [CrossRef]

], while the dashed line is calculated from the Sellmeier equations reported recently [17

17. K. Kato, N. Umemura, and V. Petrov, “Sellmeier and thermo-optic dispersion formulas for CdSiP2,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(11), 116104 (2011). [CrossRef]

]. As evident from Fig. 2(a), the theoretical solid lines are in close agreement with our experimentally measured data. The amount of signal and idler energy extracted over the entire tuning range is shown in Fig. 2(b). For a fixed pump energy of 2.1 mJ at the input to the CSP crystal, the signal energy remains almost constant at ~600 µJ over the entire tuning range, while the idler energy varies from a maximum of 33 µJ at 6153 nm to 20 µJ at 6731 nm, providing >25 µJ over 55% of the tuning range. The drop in the idler energy towards the longer wavelengths is attributed to water absorption peak near 6.4 µm and residual multi-phonon absorption in the CSP crystal, resulting in reduced transmission.

3.2 Energy scaling

We also characterized the OPG for energy scaling at a temperature of 91C, corresponding to an idler wavelength near 6400 nm. Under this condition, we were able to generate as much as 600 μJ of signal at 1276 nm, together with 30 μJ of idler at 6404 nm, for input pump energy of 2.1 mJ, as shown in Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Variation of the signal (1276 nm) and idler (6404 nm) energy extracted from CSP OPG as a function of the pump energy.
. This represents an energy conversion efficiency of 28.6% and a photon conversion efficiency of 34.2% for the signal. Similarly, the idler is recorded to have an energy conversion efficiency of 1.4% and photon conversion efficiency as high as 8.6% at wavelengths as long as 6404 nm. The corresponding slope efficiencies extracted from the linear fits to the experimental data for the signal and idler are 30% and 14%, respectively. The threshold pump energy of the OPG is recorded to be ~120 μJ, corresponding to a peak intensity of ~0.4 GW/cm2. The threshold pump intensity for superfluorescence generation starting from quantum noise is given by Eq. (1) [18

18. A. Agnesi, E. Piccinini, G. C. Reali, and C. Solcia, “All-solid-state picosecond tunable source of near-infrared radiation,” Opt. Lett. 22(18), 1415–1417 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,19

19. R. L. Byer, “Optical parametric oscillators,” in Quantum Electronics: A Treatise, H. Rabin and C. L. Tang, eds. (Academic, 1975), pp. 587–702.

]
Ith5ε0cn3λsλideff2L2
(1)
where ε0 is the permittivity of free space, c is the velocity of light, n is the refractive index of the material, λs is the signal wavelength (1276 nm), λi is the idler wavelength (6404 nm). For a 12-mm-long CSP crystal, with deff~84 pm/V, a signal wavelength of 1276 nm and an idler wavelength of 6404 nm, the threshold intensity predicted by Eq. (1) is ~0.3 GW/cm2, whichis slightly lower than the experimentally measured pump threshold of ~0.4 GW/cm2. The difference in the theoretically predicted and experimentally measured threshold intensity can be attributed to the residual losses at pump, signal and idler wavelengths in the CSP crystal. Although the losses due to multi-phonon absorption, which limit the long-wavelength transparency in CSP, are intrinsic, the residual absorption close to the bandgap of the material, limiting the short-wavelength transparency, is not intrinsic. Hence, progress in the crystal growth technology, leading to improvement in the optical quality of the CSP crystal, could further reduce the parametric generation threshold.

3.3 Temporal and spectral characterization

Further, we performed spectral and temporal characterization of the signal pulses generated from the OPG. Figure 4(a)
Fig. 4 (a) Typical autocorrelation and (b) spectrum of the CSP OPG signal pulses at 1276 nm.
shows a typical autocorrelation profile measured at a temperature of 91 °C, corresponding to a signal wavelength of 1276 nm. The FWHM of the curve is 34 ps, resulting in signal pulse duration of 24 ps, assuming a Gaussian pulse shape. This value of the pulse duration was confirmed by repeating the measurement several times. The corresponding signal spectrum measured using a near-IR spectrometer is centered at 1276 nm with a FWHM bandwidth of 10.4 nm, as shown in Fig. 4(b), resulting in ΔνΔτ~46. The large time-bandwidth product is attributed mainly to power broadening due to the OPG operation ~18 times above threshold, as well as non-collinear generation. Additionally, we have recorded the idler spectrum at the same temperature of 91 °C using a grating spectrometer. The measured idler spectrum centered at 6404 nm is shown in Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Spectrum of the idler pulses generated from the CSP OPG centered at 6404 nm.
and has an FWHM bandwidth of 140 nm.

4. Conclusions

In conclusion, we have demonstrated a tunable, high-energy, picosecond single-pass OPG with record near-IR signal and mid-IR idler pulse energy based on the new nonlinear material, CSP. This is the first demonstration of tunable OPG based on CSP, to the best of our knowledge. The OPG signal is tunable over 1263-1286 nm in the near-IR, generating 24 ps pulses with output energies as much as 600 µJ over the entire tuning range. The corresponding idler is tunable over 6153-6731 nm in the mid-IR, providing maximum pulse energy of 33 µJ at 6153 nm. The spectral measurements of the idler resulted in a broadband spectrum with a FWHM bandwidth of 140 nm centered at 6404 nm.

Acknowledgments

We acknowledge support for this research by the European Union 7th Framework Program MIRSURG (grant 224042), partial support by the Ministry of Science and Innovation, Spain, through Consolider Program SAUUL (grant CSD2007-00013), the Catalan Agència de Gestió d'Ajuts Universitaris i de Recerca (AGAUR) through grant SGR 2009-2013 and plan nacional through grant FIS2011-30465-C02-01. Funding from LASERLAB-EUROPE (228334) as well as Czech Science Foundation under grants No. 102/12/2361 and 102/09/1741 is also gratefully acknowledged.

References and links

1.

G. Edwards, R. Logan, M. Copeland, L. Reinisch, J. Davidson, B. Johnson, R. Maciunas, M. Mendenhall, R. Ossoff, J. Tribble, J. Werkhaven, and D. O'day, “Tissue ablation by a free-electron laser tuned to the amide II band,” Nature 371(6496), 416–419 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2.

J. Hildenbrand, J. Herbst, J. Wöllenstein, and A. Lambrecht, “Explosive detection using infrared laser spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE 7222, 72220B (2009). [CrossRef]

3.

J. Zhang, J. Y. Huang, and Y. R. Shen, Optical Parametric Generation and Amplification (Harwood Academic Publishers, 1995).

4.

M. Ebrahim-Zadeh and I. T. Sorokina, Mid-Infrared Coherent Sources and Applications (Springer, 2007).

5.

J. Biegert, P. K. Bates, and O. Chalus, “New mid-IR light sources,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. Electron.-Ultrafast Sci. Technol 18(1), 531–540 (2012). [CrossRef]

6.

S. Chaitanya Kumar, A. Esteban-Martin, and M. Ebrahim-Zadeh, “Interferometric output coupling of ring optical oscillators,” Opt. Lett. 36(7), 1068–1070 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

S. C. Kumar and M. Ebrahim-Zadeh, “High-power, fiber-laser-pumped, picosecond optical parametric oscillator based on MgO:sPPLT,” Opt. Express 19(27), 26660–26665 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

D. N. Nikogosyan, Nonlinear Optical Crystals: A Complete Survey (Springer 2005).

9.

K. T. Zawilski, P. G. Schunemann, T. C. Pollak, D. E. Zelmon, N. C. Fernelius, and F. K. Hopkins, “Growth and characterization of large CdSiP2 single crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(8), 1127–1132 (2010). [CrossRef]

10.

V. Petrov, F. Noack, I. Tunchev, P. Schunemann, and K. Zawilski, “The nonlinear coefficient d36 of CdSiP2,” Proc. SPIE 7197, 71970M, 71970M-8 (2009). [CrossRef]

11.

V. Petrov, P. G. Schunemann, K. T. Zawilski, and T. M. Pollak, “Noncritical singly resonant optical parametric oscillator operation near 6.2 microm based on a CdSiP2 crystal pumped at 1064 nm,” Opt. Lett. 34(16), 2399–2401 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

V. Petrov, G. Marchev, P. G. Schunemann, A. Tyazhev, K. T. Zawilski, and T. M. Pollak, “Subnanosecond, 1 kHz, temperature-tuned, noncritical mid-infrared optical parametric oscillator based on CdSiP2 crystal pumped at 1064 nm,” Opt. Lett. 35(8), 1230–1232 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

A. Peremans, D. Lis, F. Cecchet, P. G. Schunemann, K. T. Zawilski, and V. Petrov, “Noncritical singly resonant synchronously pumped OPO for generation of picosecond pulses in the mid-infrared near 6.4 microm,” Opt. Lett. 34(20), 3053–3055 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

S. Chaitanya Kumar, A. Agnesi, P. Dallocchio, F. Pirzio, G. Reali, K. T. Zawilski, P. G. Schunemann, and M. Ebrahim-Zadeh, “Compact, 1.5 mJ, 450 MHz, CdSiP2 picosecond optical parametric oscillator near 6.3 μm,” Opt. Lett. 36(16), 3236–3238 (2011). [PubMed]

15.

O. Chalus, P. G. Schunemann, K. T. Zawilski, J. Biegert, and M. Ebrahim-Zadeh, “Optical parametric generation in CdSiP2.,” Opt. Lett. 35(24), 4142–4144 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

16.

M. Jelínek and V. Kubeček, “15 ps quasi-continuously pumped passively mode-locked highly doped Nd:YAG laser in bounce geometry,” Laser Phys. Lett. 8, 657–660 (2011).

17.

K. Kato, N. Umemura, and V. Petrov, “Sellmeier and thermo-optic dispersion formulas for CdSiP2,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(11), 116104 (2011). [CrossRef]

18.

A. Agnesi, E. Piccinini, G. C. Reali, and C. Solcia, “All-solid-state picosecond tunable source of near-infrared radiation,” Opt. Lett. 22(18), 1415–1417 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

19.

R. L. Byer, “Optical parametric oscillators,” in Quantum Electronics: A Treatise, H. Rabin and C. L. Tang, eds. (Academic, 1975), pp. 587–702.

OCIS Codes
(190.4400) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics, materials
(190.4970) Nonlinear optics : Parametric oscillators and amplifiers
(190.7110) Nonlinear optics : Ultrafast nonlinear optics

ToC Category:
Nonlinear Optics

History
Original Manuscript: May 25, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: June 8, 2012
Published: June 26, 2012

Citation
S. Chaitanya Kumar, M. Jelínek, M. Baudisch, K. T. Zawilski, P. G. Schunemann, V. Kubeček, J. Biegert, and M. Ebrahim-Zadeh, "Tunable, high-energy, mid-infrared, picosecond optical parametric generator based on CdSiP2," Opt. Express 20, 15703-15709 (2012)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-20-14-15703


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References

  1. G. Edwards, R. Logan, M. Copeland, L. Reinisch, J. Davidson, B. Johnson, R. Maciunas, M. Mendenhall, R. Ossoff, J. Tribble, J. Werkhaven, and D. O'day, “Tissue ablation by a free-electron laser tuned to the amide II band,” Nature371(6496), 416–419 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. J. Hildenbrand, J. Herbst, J. Wöllenstein, and A. Lambrecht, “Explosive detection using infrared laser spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE7222, 72220B (2009). [CrossRef]
  3. J. Zhang, J. Y. Huang, and Y. R. Shen, Optical Parametric Generation and Amplification (Harwood Academic Publishers, 1995).
  4. M. Ebrahim-Zadeh and I. T. Sorokina, Mid-Infrared Coherent Sources and Applications (Springer, 2007).
  5. J. Biegert, P. K. Bates, and O. Chalus, “New mid-IR light sources,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. Electron.-Ultrafast Sci. Technol18(1), 531–540 (2012). [CrossRef]
  6. S. Chaitanya Kumar, A. Esteban-Martin, and M. Ebrahim-Zadeh, “Interferometric output coupling of ring optical oscillators,” Opt. Lett.36(7), 1068–1070 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. S. C. Kumar and M. Ebrahim-Zadeh, “High-power, fiber-laser-pumped, picosecond optical parametric oscillator based on MgO:sPPLT,” Opt. Express19(27), 26660–26665 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. D. N. Nikogosyan, Nonlinear Optical Crystals: A Complete Survey (Springer 2005).
  9. K. T. Zawilski, P. G. Schunemann, T. C. Pollak, D. E. Zelmon, N. C. Fernelius, and F. K. Hopkins, “Growth and characterization of large CdSiP2 single crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth312(8), 1127–1132 (2010). [CrossRef]
  10. V. Petrov, F. Noack, I. Tunchev, P. Schunemann, and K. Zawilski, “The nonlinear coefficient d36 of CdSiP2,” Proc. SPIE7197, 71970M, 71970M-8 (2009). [CrossRef]
  11. V. Petrov, P. G. Schunemann, K. T. Zawilski, and T. M. Pollak, “Noncritical singly resonant optical parametric oscillator operation near 6.2 microm based on a CdSiP2 crystal pumped at 1064 nm,” Opt. Lett.34(16), 2399–2401 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. V. Petrov, G. Marchev, P. G. Schunemann, A. Tyazhev, K. T. Zawilski, and T. M. Pollak, “Subnanosecond, 1 kHz, temperature-tuned, noncritical mid-infrared optical parametric oscillator based on CdSiP2 crystal pumped at 1064 nm,” Opt. Lett.35(8), 1230–1232 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. A. Peremans, D. Lis, F. Cecchet, P. G. Schunemann, K. T. Zawilski, and V. Petrov, “Noncritical singly resonant synchronously pumped OPO for generation of picosecond pulses in the mid-infrared near 6.4 microm,” Opt. Lett.34(20), 3053–3055 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. S. Chaitanya Kumar, A. Agnesi, P. Dallocchio, F. Pirzio, G. Reali, K. T. Zawilski, P. G. Schunemann, and M. Ebrahim-Zadeh, “Compact, 1.5 mJ, 450 MHz, CdSiP2 picosecond optical parametric oscillator near 6.3 μm,” Opt. Lett.36(16), 3236–3238 (2011). [PubMed]
  15. O. Chalus, P. G. Schunemann, K. T. Zawilski, J. Biegert, and M. Ebrahim-Zadeh, “Optical parametric generation in CdSiP2.,” Opt. Lett.35(24), 4142–4144 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. M. Jelínek and V. Kubeček, “15 ps quasi-continuously pumped passively mode-locked highly doped Nd:YAG laser in bounce geometry,” Laser Phys. Lett.8, 657–660 (2011).
  17. K. Kato, N. Umemura, and V. Petrov, “Sellmeier and thermo-optic dispersion formulas for CdSiP2,” J. Appl. Phys.109(11), 116104 (2011). [CrossRef]
  18. A. Agnesi, E. Piccinini, G. C. Reali, and C. Solcia, “All-solid-state picosecond tunable source of near-infrared radiation,” Opt. Lett.22(18), 1415–1417 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. R. L. Byer, “Optical parametric oscillators,” in Quantum Electronics: A Treatise, H. Rabin and C. L. Tang, eds. (Academic, 1975), pp. 587–702.

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