OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 20, Iss. 14 — Jul. 2, 2012
  • pp: 15872–15881
« Show journal navigation

Suppression of stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical fibers using a linearly chirped diode laser

J. O. White, A. Vasilyev, J. P. Cahill, N. Satyan, O. Okusaga, G. Rakuljic, C. E. Mungan, and A. Yariv  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 20, Issue 14, pp. 15872-15881 (2012)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.20.015872


View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (1357 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

The output of high power fiber amplifiers is typically limited by stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS). An analysis of SBS with a chirped pump laser indicates that a chirp of 2.5 × 1015 Hz/s could raise, by an order of magnitude, the SBS threshold of a 20-m fiber. A diode laser with a constant output power and a linear chirp of 5 × 1015 Hz/s has been previously demonstrated. In a low-power proof-of-concept experiment, the threshold for SBS in a 6-km fiber is increased by a factor of 100 with a chirp of 5 × 1014 Hz/s. A linear chirp will enable straightforward coherent combination of multiple fiber amplifiers, with electronic compensation of path length differences on the order of 0.2 m.

© 2012 OSA

1. Introduction

Stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) is a major factor limiting the output power of a fiber laser. In a lossless, passive fiber, SBS occurs when the product of fiber length, L, intensity, I, and Brillouin gain reaches a threshold value. The intensity can be approximated by I=P/A, where P is the incident laser power and A is the mode area. We denote by g0 the gain experienced by a Stokes wave on line center, in the case of a narrowband laser. If the laser linewidth, ΔνL, is large compared to the Brillouin linewidth, ΔνB, the Brillouin gain is given approximately by geff=g0ΔνB/ΔνL. Techniques to suppress SBS while maintaining fundamental mode operation include increasing the mode area while reducing the numerical aperture [1

1. D. Taverner, D. J. Richardson, L. Dong, J. E. Caplen, K. Williams, and R. V. Penty, “158-µJ pulses from a single-transverse-mode, large-mode-area erbium-doped fiber amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 22(6), 378–380 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], increasing ΔνL via phase modulation [2

2. L. Yingfan, L. Zhiwei, D. Yongkang, and L. Qiang, “Research on stimulated Brillouin scattering suppression based on multi-frequency phase modulation n,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 7, 29–31 (2009). [CrossRef]

4

4. J. Edgecumbe, T. Ehrenreich, C.-H. Wang, K. Farley, J. Galipeau, R. Leveille, D. Björk, I. Majid, and K. Tankala, “kW class, narrow-linewidth, counter pumped fiber amplifiers,” Solid State and Diode Laser Technical Review, 17 June 2010.

], laser gain competition [5

5. I. Dajani, C. Zeringue, C. Lu, C. Vergien, L. Henry, and C. Robin, “Stimulated Brillouin scattering suppression through laser gain competition: scalability to high power,” Opt. Lett. 35(18), 3114–3116 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], and using highly doped fibers to absorb the pump light in a short length to minimize L. A combination of these techniques has yielded 10 kW from a single-mode fiber master oscillator power amplifier [6

6. Model YLS-10000-SM, IPG Photonics

]. However, the ~2-THz output bandwidth implies that to coherently combine multiple amplifiers, path lengths will have to be matched to ~10 µm.

In this paper, we show that a laser with a linear frequency chirp on the order of 1015 Hz/s can suppress, by an order of magnitude, the SBS in a high power fiber amplifier. In addition, it will allow coherent combination of multiple amplifiers and electronic compensation of path length differences on the order of 0.2 m. As a proof of principle, we demonstrate a factor of 100 suppression of the SBS gain in a 6-km fiber, with a chirp of 5 × 1014 Hz/s.

SBS is also a limiting factor in long-distance fiber telecommunications. SBS has been suppressed by a factor of 2.3 in a 14-km fiber by tapering the core from 8 to 7 µm, which varied the Stokes shift by 49 MHz [7

7. K. Shiraki, M. Ohashi, and M. Tateda, “Suppression of stimulated Brillouin scattering in a fibre by changing the core radius,” Electron. Lett. 31(8), 668–669 (1995). [CrossRef]

]. Varying the core diameter is not an option for high power fiber lasers, because the Stokes shift in a large 30-µm core has a negligible dependence on diameter. Instead, photonic crystal fibers have recently been made with a radially segmented core that flattens the Brillouin gain [8

8. C. Robin, I. Dajani, and F. Chiragh, “Experimental studies of segmented acoustically tailored photonic crystal fiber amplifier with 494 W single-frequency output,” Proc. SPIE 7914, 79140B, 79140B-8 (2011). [CrossRef]

]. Random acoustically microstructured fibers [9

9. C. G. Carlson, R. B. Ross, J. M. Schafer, J. B. Spring, and B. G. Ward, “Full vectorial analysis of Brillouin gain in random acoustically microstructured photonic crystal fibers,” Phys. Rev. B 83(23), 235110 (2011). [CrossRef]

] and acoustic anti-guiding fibers [10

10. S. Gray, D. T. Walton, X. Chen, J. Wang, M.-J. Li, A. Liu, A. B. Ruffin, J. A. Demeritt, and L. A. Zenteno, “Optical fibers with tailored acoustic speed profiles for suppressing stimulated Brillouin scattering in high-power, single-frequency sources,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(1), 37–46 (2009). [CrossRef]

] have also been shown to reduce the peak SBS gain. The method we propose here will work in conjunction with these fibers.

Recently, two ytterbium (Yb) fiber amplifiers were actively phase locked to a common oscillator, but the 25-GHz oscillator bandwidth means that the amplifier path lengths have to be mechanically matched to ~1 mm [11

11. G. D. Goodno, S. J. McNaught, J. E. Rothenberg, T. S. McComb, P. A. Thielen, M. G. Wickham, and M. E. Weber, “Active phase and polarization locking of a 1.4 kW fiber amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 35(10), 1542–1544 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The advantage of our seed with a well-defined linear chirp is that path length differences can be electronically compensated with an acousto-optic frequency shifter controlled by an optoelectronic phase locked loop. Similar optical phase-locked loops have already been developed to coherently combine multiple (non-chirped) diode lasers [12

12. DARPA ADHELS contract No. HR0011-060C-0029, final report (2008).

16

16. N. Satyan, W. Liang, A. Kewitsch, G. Rakuljic, and A. Yariv, “Coherent power combination of semiconductor lasers using optical phase-lock loops,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(2), 240–247 (2009). [CrossRef]

].

2. Theory

Consider a laser wave at frequency νL propagating in the +zdirection in a fiber, amplifying a counter-propagating Stokes wave consisting of a superposition of frequencies, ν, that are independent in the undepleted pump regime. For homogeneous broadening, the steady-state Brillouin gain has a Lorentzian frequency dependence with a maximum at νLΩ and a full width at half maximum of ΔνB:
g(ν)=g01+(ννL+ΩΔνB/2)2,
(1)
where Ω is the Stokes shift. A linearly chirped laser beam can be represented by
νL(z,t)=ν0+β(t+Lzc/n),
(2)
where β is the chirp rate. We use n=1.45 for the refractive index. In the presence of a chirp, the situation will be dynamic, but for chirps less than the square of the phonon lifetime, we expect (1) to be a good description of the interaction (see the Appendix). In this case, each frequency component of the counter-propagating Stokes wave will experience a gain given by
g(δ,z)=g01+(δ2βn(Lz)/cΔνB/2)2,
(3)
where δ is the offset from resonance, i.e. δ=νν0+Ω. g(z) is plotted in Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Normalized SBS gain coefficient vs. position in a 17.5-m fiber, for various chirps and ΔνΒ = 20 MHz. The Stokes wave propagates from z = L to z = 0. The dashed line shows the gain for a chirp of 1015 Hz/s, at a Stokes frequency, which is resonant with the laser at z = L. The solid lines correspond to the Stokes frequencies that experience the highest integrated gain for each value of the chirp.
for the case L=17.5m, i.e., a 15-m amplifier followed by a 2.5-m delivery fiber, ΔνB=20 MHz, and several values of the chirp. A Stokes frequency starting on resonance, i.e., with δ=0, will experience a gain that decreases with propagation in the z direction as it moves away from resonance (dashed line in Fig. 1). For β>0, a Stokes frequency with δ>0 will initially see an increase in gain, then a maximum at resonance with the pump, followed by a decrease (solid lines in Fig. 1). The frequency that experiences the largest net gain over the length of the fiber will be offset from resonance by δopt=βτ, where τ is the transit time of the fiber, and it will have its peak gain at z=L/2.

In the small-signal regime, for a laser intensity that is uniform in z, each Stokes frequency will experience exponential gain over an effective length given by
Leff(δ)=1g00Lg(δ,z) dz=ΔνB c4nβ (tan1δΔνB/2tan1δ2βτΔνB/2 ).
(4)
For β0, Leff reduces to L. For a large chirp, LeffπΔνBc/4nβ. Leff is shown in Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Plot of Leff vs. chirp, at δopt, for several values of ΔνB and L.
for two values of ΔνB and two values of L, at δopt, i.e., the worst-case scenario for the amplifier. For ΔνB=20 MHz and L=17.5 m, the maximum SBS gain is reduced by a factor of six for a chirp of 1015 Hz/s and by a factor of 60 for β=1016 Hz/s.

An important feature of this scheme is that long delivery fibers can be accommodated. As an example, for ΔνB=20 MHz, and β=1015Hz/s, the effective length at δopt equals 3 m for both a 17.5-m fiber and a 35-m fiber. Once the chirp has reduced Leff to a fraction of L, doubling the fiber length does not increase the net Brillouin gain.

A plot of Leff versus offset (Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Plot of Leff vs. Stokes offset frequency, for ΔνΒ = 20 MHz and L = 17.5 m.
) shows that as the chirp increases the optimum offset increases, the gain at the optimum offset decreases, and the gain bandwidth broadens.

3. Experiment

The SBS suppression has been measured by directing a chirped pump beam to a 6-km single mode fiber using a circulator and measuring the reflected power with a photodiode (Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Experimental layout for observing SBS suppression. A chirped diode laser is amplified in an erbium-doped fiber amplifier and then directed to the fiber under test (FUT) using a circulator.
). The mode field diameter of the fiber is 8 µm.

The seed laser is a 1.5-µm vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) with a current that is controlled by an optoelectronic phase-locked loop that incorporates a fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer [17

17. N. Satyan, A. Vasilyev, G. Rakuljic, V. Leyva, and A. Yariv, “Precise control of broadband frequency chirps using optoelectronic feedback,” Opt. Express 17(18), 15991–15999 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The frequency waveform is triangular, with a range of up to 500 GHz and a period as short as 100 µs. The chirp can be varied between 1014 Hz/s and 5 × 1015 Hz/s. The output power is kept constant at 2 mW using a feedback loop that incorporates a semiconductor optical amplifier. The resulting power spectrum is extremely flat (Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Power spectrum of the chirped diode laser.
).

The power reflected from the fiber under test, Pout, has contributions from Rayleigh and Brillouin scattering. At each chirp, below the SBS threshold, Pout is linearly proportional to Pin, indicating that spontaneous Rayleigh scattering is the dominant source (Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Backscattered power vs incident power for a 6-km single mode fiber with an 8-µm mode field diameter. The symbols are the experimental data taken at chirps of β = 0, 1014, 2 × 1014, and 5 × 1014 Hz/s. The curves are calculations of the backscattered Brillouin power for β = 1011 ‒ 1015 Hz/s (left to right). The dashed line is the backscattered Rayleigh power.
). At zero chirp, the output power rises sharply at the SBS threshold of 20 mW. For a chirp of 1014 Hz/s, the threshold increases to 0.4 W. For a chirp of 5 × 1014 Hz/s, the threshold increases to 2 W, clearly establishing the scaling law. The rollover in Pout at the higher values of PB is due to pump depletion.

The solid curves in Fig. 7 are simulations based on (5). The dashed line represents the backscattered Rayleigh power, PR. We determined the value PB/PR=1.5×102 below threshold using an optical spectrum analyzer. The value of g0=5×1012m/W was chosen to fit the zero-chirp data. The Brillouin linewidth ΔνB=110 MHz was chosen to fit the low chirp data. The simulation curves do not roll over because the calculation made use of the small-signal gain approximation, i.e., it neglects pump depletion.

An independent high-resolution measurement of ΔνB was made with a distributed feedback laser, balanced photodiode and electronic spectrum analyzer, which allowed us to separate the Rayleigh and Brillouin components [18

18. V. Lanticq, S. Jiang, R. Gabet, Y. Jaouën, F. Taillade, G. Moreau, and G. P. Agrawal, “Self-referenced and single-ended method to measure Brillouin gain in monomode optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 34(7), 1018–1020 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Care was taken to be in the spontaneous regime. The Brillouin spectrum has a width of 39 MHz (Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Spontaneous Brillouin power spectrum for the 6-km single mode fiber.
), comparable to other recent measurements at 1.5 µm [19

19. O. Terra, G. Grosche, and H. Schnatz, “Brillouin amplification in phase coherent transfer of optical frequencies over 480 km fiber,” Opt. Express 18(15), 16102–16111 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

4. Discussion

This technique has a qualitative resemblance to chirped pulse amplification, wherein pulses are chirped and stretched to lower the intensity and avoid self-focusing in a solid-state amplifier. Here, we are proposing to chirp a continuous wave seed laser to suppress SBS in a fiber amplifier.

If the SBS gain in a 10 – 20 m fiber amplifier turns out to be much broader than the 39-MHz value that we measure for single mode fiber, faster chirps will be required. We believe that through further development of the chirping technique β can be increased to 1016 Hz/s to offset an increase in ΔνB. A possible means to achieve linear frequency chirps with even higher chirp rates is by four-wave-mixing [20

20. N. Satyan, G. Rakuljic, and A. Yariv, “Chirp multiplication by four wave mixing for wideband swept-frequency sources for high resolution imaging,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(14), 2077–2083 (2010). [CrossRef]

].

SBS is also a concern in fiber optic parametric amplifiers. When information transmission and signal integrity are important criteria, a frequency-hopped chirp can be used to suppress SBS with high bandwidth-efficiency [21

21. J. B. Coles, B. P.-P. Kuo, N. Alic, S. Moro, C.-S. Bres, J. M. C. Boggio, P. A. Andrekson, M. Karlsson, and S. Radic, “Bandwidth-efficient phase modulation techniques for stimulated Brillouin scattering suppression in fiber optic parametric amplifiers,” Opt. Express 18(17), 18138–18150 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

The value for g0 determined from fitting the data in Fig. 7 is a factor of three lower than the value measured in [18

18. V. Lanticq, S. Jiang, R. Gabet, Y. Jaouën, F. Taillade, G. Moreau, and G. P. Agrawal, “Self-referenced and single-ended method to measure Brillouin gain in monomode optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 34(7), 1018–1020 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] using a different technique. The discrepancy may be due to errors in calibration, the use of acousto-optic effective area in [18

18. V. Lanticq, S. Jiang, R. Gabet, Y. Jaouën, F. Taillade, G. Moreau, and G. P. Agrawal, “Self-referenced and single-ended method to measure Brillouin gain in monomode optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 34(7), 1018–1020 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], and also the ~30 MHz bandwidth of our unchirped laser. The intrinsic laser bandwidth may also enter into the determination of ΔνB from fitting the data in Fig. 7. This could explain the discrepancy with the independent measurement in Fig. 8.

For coherent combining of multiple amplifiers, the transient phase variations intrinsic to the fiber amplifier have to be in a frequency range that a phase-locked loop can follow. The power scaling of the phase noise spectrum at the output of a 10-W Yb fiber amplifier [22

22. S. J. Augst, T. Y. Fan, and A. Sanchez, “Coherent beam combining and phase noise measurements of ytterbium fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Lett. 29(5), 474–476 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] suggest that the 1-MHz bandwidth phase-locked loops already developed will be sufficient for multi-kW lasers [13

13. W. Liang, N. Satyan, A. Yariv, A. Kewitsch, G. Rakuljic, F. Aflatouni, H. Hashemi, and J. Ungar, “Coherent power combination of two master-oscillator-power-amplifier (MOPA) semiconductor lasers using optical phase lock loops,” Opt. Express 15(6), 3201–3205 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

16

16. N. Satyan, W. Liang, A. Kewitsch, G. Rakuljic, and A. Yariv, “Coherent power combination of semiconductor lasers using optical phase-lock loops,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(2), 240–247 (2009). [CrossRef]

].

A major advantage of the linear chirp for coherent combining is that it allows for a straightforward compensation of path length differences by preceding each amplifier with an acousto-optic frequency shifter (AOFS) [23

23. N. Satyan, A. Vasilyev, G. Rakuljic, J.O. White, and A. Yariv, manuscript submitted for publication.

]. The longest path length difference that can be compensated will be limited by several factors. The range of the AOFS will impose a limit of
ΔLmax<cΔνmaxnβ.
(6)
A typical range is Δνmax=10MHz. At a chirp of 1015 Hz/s, this would yield ΔLmax<2m. Considering that other factors may enter, a conservative estimate would be ΔLmax<0.2m.

Due to the exponential nature of the Brillouin gain, any variation (or structure) in the spectrum of gIL lowers the SBS threshold. Sinusoidal phase modulation of a narrowband laser introduces side bands, giving the Brillouin gain spectrum a high peak-to-average ratio. Large amplitude phase modulation of the laser via pseudo-random bit sequences is one attempt to flatten the gain spectrum [24

24. D. Brown, M. Dennis, and W. Torruellas, “Improved phase modulation for SBS mitigation in kW-class fiber amplifiers,” Photonics West, 24 Jan. 2011.

]. A salient characteristic of the linear chirp is the uniformity of the Stokes gain spectrum (Figs. 3, 6). This means that a tenfold increase of the SBS threshold of a 17.5-m fiber can be obtained with a chirp of 2.5 × 1015 Hz/s (Fig. 4), which would broaden the effective gain spectrum to only 340 MHz, as compared to the ~3 GHz bandwidth required when using phase modulation [4

4. J. Edgecumbe, T. Ehrenreich, C.-H. Wang, K. Farley, J. Galipeau, R. Leveille, D. Björk, I. Majid, and K. Tankala, “kW class, narrow-linewidth, counter pumped fiber amplifiers,” Solid State and Diode Laser Technical Review, 17 June 2010.

].

5. Conclusion

Our analysis shows that a linearly chirped diode laser seed has the potential to significantly suppress the SBS that is currently limiting the output power of narrow-linewidth fiber amplifiers. Experiments at ~3 W with a passive 6-km fiber are in agreement with estimates based on a simple model. Extrapolating to a 17.5-m fiber and 20-MHz Brillouin bandwidth, we anticipate a factor of ~20 increase in SBS threshold for a chirp of 5 × 1015 Hz/s.

Appendix

The purpose of the following analysis is to estimate the maximum chirp for which (1) would be a useful estimate of the interaction between a chirped laser and Stokes wave. In the slowly varying envelope approximation, we expect the interaction within a single mode fiber to be described by coupled partial and ordinary differential equations for the envelopes of the laser field, EL, the Stokes field, ES, and the acoustic wave amplitude ρ [25]. Consider a short length of fiber within which EL and ES are known. In regions of the fiber where the contribution of thermal phonons can be neglected, the system of equations reduces to
dρdt=ρτ+iΛELES*exp(iπβt2),
(7)
where a phase equal to the integral of the chirp has been added to EL. Here τ is the phonon decay time, and Λ is the acoustic coupling parameter. We numerically integrate (7) over the interval t=10/τβ to t=10/τβ, with the initial condition ρ=0. The solution is then normalized to the phase of the laser field, and to the magnitude of the steady-state solution in the absence of chirp, i.e., we consider ρn=ρexp(iπβt2)/ΛELES*. For each chirp, time t can then be re-scaled to frequency νS using (2). ν represents the offset from resonance, i.e. ν=νLνSΩ. Therefore, ρ(ν) represents the response of the medium in the neighborhood of resonance, given that the laser field is in the middle of a frequency sweep. The exponential gain coefficient g(ν) is proportional to the imaginary part of ρn (Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Frequency dependence of Im(ρ), normalized to the zero-chirp steady-state value, for different values of the chirp, and τ = 10 ns.
), which has an approximately Lorentzian shape even at 3 × 1015 Hz/s. This confirms our expectation that the steady state gain in (1) would be useful up to chirps approximately equal to the Brillouin bandwidth squared. We note here that the integral of Im(ρ) is independent of chirp.

Acknowledgments

This work has been supported by High Energy Laser Joint Technology Office contract 11-SA-0405. We are also grateful for continuing technical input from Scott Christensen, John Edgecumbe, and Imtiaz Majid at Nufern.

References and links

1.

D. Taverner, D. J. Richardson, L. Dong, J. E. Caplen, K. Williams, and R. V. Penty, “158-µJ pulses from a single-transverse-mode, large-mode-area erbium-doped fiber amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 22(6), 378–380 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2.

L. Yingfan, L. Zhiwei, D. Yongkang, and L. Qiang, “Research on stimulated Brillouin scattering suppression based on multi-frequency phase modulation n,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 7, 29–31 (2009). [CrossRef]

3.

D. Brown, M. Dennis, and W. Torruellas, “Improved phase modulation for SBS mitigation in kW-class fiber amplifiers,” SPIE Photonics West, San Francisco, CA, 24 Jan. 2011.

4.

J. Edgecumbe, T. Ehrenreich, C.-H. Wang, K. Farley, J. Galipeau, R. Leveille, D. Björk, I. Majid, and K. Tankala, “kW class, narrow-linewidth, counter pumped fiber amplifiers,” Solid State and Diode Laser Technical Review, 17 June 2010.

5.

I. Dajani, C. Zeringue, C. Lu, C. Vergien, L. Henry, and C. Robin, “Stimulated Brillouin scattering suppression through laser gain competition: scalability to high power,” Opt. Lett. 35(18), 3114–3116 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

Model YLS-10000-SM, IPG Photonics

7.

K. Shiraki, M. Ohashi, and M. Tateda, “Suppression of stimulated Brillouin scattering in a fibre by changing the core radius,” Electron. Lett. 31(8), 668–669 (1995). [CrossRef]

8.

C. Robin, I. Dajani, and F. Chiragh, “Experimental studies of segmented acoustically tailored photonic crystal fiber amplifier with 494 W single-frequency output,” Proc. SPIE 7914, 79140B, 79140B-8 (2011). [CrossRef]

9.

C. G. Carlson, R. B. Ross, J. M. Schafer, J. B. Spring, and B. G. Ward, “Full vectorial analysis of Brillouin gain in random acoustically microstructured photonic crystal fibers,” Phys. Rev. B 83(23), 235110 (2011). [CrossRef]

10.

S. Gray, D. T. Walton, X. Chen, J. Wang, M.-J. Li, A. Liu, A. B. Ruffin, J. A. Demeritt, and L. A. Zenteno, “Optical fibers with tailored acoustic speed profiles for suppressing stimulated Brillouin scattering in high-power, single-frequency sources,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(1), 37–46 (2009). [CrossRef]

11.

G. D. Goodno, S. J. McNaught, J. E. Rothenberg, T. S. McComb, P. A. Thielen, M. G. Wickham, and M. E. Weber, “Active phase and polarization locking of a 1.4 kW fiber amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 35(10), 1542–1544 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

DARPA ADHELS contract No. HR0011-060C-0029, final report (2008).

13.

W. Liang, N. Satyan, A. Yariv, A. Kewitsch, G. Rakuljic, F. Aflatouni, H. Hashemi, and J. Ungar, “Coherent power combination of two master-oscillator-power-amplifier (MOPA) semiconductor lasers using optical phase lock loops,” Opt. Express 15(6), 3201–3205 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

W. Liang, N. Satyan, A. Yariv, A. Kewitsch, and G. Rakuljic, “Tiled-aperture coherent beam combining using optical phase-lock loops,” Electron. Lett. 44(14), 875–876 (2008). [CrossRef]

15.

N. Satyan, W. Liang, F. Aflatouni, A. Yariv, A. Kewitsch, G. Rakuljic, and H. Hashemi, “Phase-controlled apertures using heterodyne optical phase-locked loops,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(11), 897–899 (2008). [CrossRef]

16.

N. Satyan, W. Liang, A. Kewitsch, G. Rakuljic, and A. Yariv, “Coherent power combination of semiconductor lasers using optical phase-lock loops,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(2), 240–247 (2009). [CrossRef]

17.

N. Satyan, A. Vasilyev, G. Rakuljic, V. Leyva, and A. Yariv, “Precise control of broadband frequency chirps using optoelectronic feedback,” Opt. Express 17(18), 15991–15999 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18.

V. Lanticq, S. Jiang, R. Gabet, Y. Jaouën, F. Taillade, G. Moreau, and G. P. Agrawal, “Self-referenced and single-ended method to measure Brillouin gain in monomode optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 34(7), 1018–1020 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

19.

O. Terra, G. Grosche, and H. Schnatz, “Brillouin amplification in phase coherent transfer of optical frequencies over 480 km fiber,” Opt. Express 18(15), 16102–16111 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

20.

N. Satyan, G. Rakuljic, and A. Yariv, “Chirp multiplication by four wave mixing for wideband swept-frequency sources for high resolution imaging,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(14), 2077–2083 (2010). [CrossRef]

21.

J. B. Coles, B. P.-P. Kuo, N. Alic, S. Moro, C.-S. Bres, J. M. C. Boggio, P. A. Andrekson, M. Karlsson, and S. Radic, “Bandwidth-efficient phase modulation techniques for stimulated Brillouin scattering suppression in fiber optic parametric amplifiers,” Opt. Express 18(17), 18138–18150 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

22.

S. J. Augst, T. Y. Fan, and A. Sanchez, “Coherent beam combining and phase noise measurements of ytterbium fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Lett. 29(5), 474–476 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

23.

N. Satyan, A. Vasilyev, G. Rakuljic, J.O. White, and A. Yariv, manuscript submitted for publication.

24.

D. Brown, M. Dennis, and W. Torruellas, “Improved phase modulation for SBS mitigation in kW-class fiber amplifiers,” Photonics West, 24 Jan. 2011.

OCIS Codes
(060.2320) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics amplifiers and oscillators
(190.5890) Nonlinear optics : Scattering, stimulated
(140.3518) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, frequency modulated

ToC Category:
Fiber Optics and Optical Communications

History
Original Manuscript: May 11, 2012
Revised Manuscript: June 13, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: June 15, 2012
Published: June 27, 2012

Citation
J. O. White, A. Vasilyev, J. P. Cahill, N. Satyan, O. Okusaga, G. Rakuljic, C. E. Mungan, and A. Yariv, "Suppression of stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical fibers using a linearly chirped diode laser," Opt. Express 20, 15872-15881 (2012)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-20-14-15872


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. D. Taverner, D. J. Richardson, L. Dong, J. E. Caplen, K. Williams, and R. V. Penty, “158-µJ pulses from a single-transverse-mode, large-mode-area erbium-doped fiber amplifier,” Opt. Lett.22(6), 378–380 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. L. Yingfan, L. Zhiwei, D. Yongkang, and L. Qiang, “Research on stimulated Brillouin scattering suppression based on multi-frequency phase modulation n,” Chin. Opt. Lett.7, 29–31 (2009). [CrossRef]
  3. D. Brown, M. Dennis, and W. Torruellas, “Improved phase modulation for SBS mitigation in kW-class fiber amplifiers,” SPIE Photonics West, San Francisco, CA, 24 Jan. 2011.
  4. J. Edgecumbe, T. Ehrenreich, C.-H. Wang, K. Farley, J. Galipeau, R. Leveille, D. Björk, I. Majid, and K. Tankala, “kW class, narrow-linewidth, counter pumped fiber amplifiers,” Solid State and Diode Laser Technical Review, 17 June 2010.
  5. I. Dajani, C. Zeringue, C. Lu, C. Vergien, L. Henry, and C. Robin, “Stimulated Brillouin scattering suppression through laser gain competition: scalability to high power,” Opt. Lett.35(18), 3114–3116 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. Model YLS-10000-SM, IPG Photonics
  7. K. Shiraki, M. Ohashi, and M. Tateda, “Suppression of stimulated Brillouin scattering in a fibre by changing the core radius,” Electron. Lett.31(8), 668–669 (1995). [CrossRef]
  8. C. Robin, I. Dajani, and F. Chiragh, “Experimental studies of segmented acoustically tailored photonic crystal fiber amplifier with 494 W single-frequency output,” Proc. SPIE7914, 79140B, 79140B-8 (2011). [CrossRef]
  9. C. G. Carlson, R. B. Ross, J. M. Schafer, J. B. Spring, and B. G. Ward, “Full vectorial analysis of Brillouin gain in random acoustically microstructured photonic crystal fibers,” Phys. Rev. B83(23), 235110 (2011). [CrossRef]
  10. S. Gray, D. T. Walton, X. Chen, J. Wang, M.-J. Li, A. Liu, A. B. Ruffin, J. A. Demeritt, and L. A. Zenteno, “Optical fibers with tailored acoustic speed profiles for suppressing stimulated Brillouin scattering in high-power, single-frequency sources,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(1), 37–46 (2009). [CrossRef]
  11. G. D. Goodno, S. J. McNaught, J. E. Rothenberg, T. S. McComb, P. A. Thielen, M. G. Wickham, and M. E. Weber, “Active phase and polarization locking of a 1.4 kW fiber amplifier,” Opt. Lett.35(10), 1542–1544 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. DARPA ADHELS contract No. HR0011-060C-0029, final report (2008).
  13. W. Liang, N. Satyan, A. Yariv, A. Kewitsch, G. Rakuljic, F. Aflatouni, H. Hashemi, and J. Ungar, “Coherent power combination of two master-oscillator-power-amplifier (MOPA) semiconductor lasers using optical phase lock loops,” Opt. Express15(6), 3201–3205 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. W. Liang, N. Satyan, A. Yariv, A. Kewitsch, and G. Rakuljic, “Tiled-aperture coherent beam combining using optical phase-lock loops,” Electron. Lett.44(14), 875–876 (2008). [CrossRef]
  15. N. Satyan, W. Liang, F. Aflatouni, A. Yariv, A. Kewitsch, G. Rakuljic, and H. Hashemi, “Phase-controlled apertures using heterodyne optical phase-locked loops,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(11), 897–899 (2008). [CrossRef]
  16. N. Satyan, W. Liang, A. Kewitsch, G. Rakuljic, and A. Yariv, “Coherent power combination of semiconductor lasers using optical phase-lock loops,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(2), 240–247 (2009). [CrossRef]
  17. N. Satyan, A. Vasilyev, G. Rakuljic, V. Leyva, and A. Yariv, “Precise control of broadband frequency chirps using optoelectronic feedback,” Opt. Express17(18), 15991–15999 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. V. Lanticq, S. Jiang, R. Gabet, Y. Jaouën, F. Taillade, G. Moreau, and G. P. Agrawal, “Self-referenced and single-ended method to measure Brillouin gain in monomode optical fibers,” Opt. Lett.34(7), 1018–1020 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. O. Terra, G. Grosche, and H. Schnatz, “Brillouin amplification in phase coherent transfer of optical frequencies over 480 km fiber,” Opt. Express18(15), 16102–16111 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. N. Satyan, G. Rakuljic, and A. Yariv, “Chirp multiplication by four wave mixing for wideband swept-frequency sources for high resolution imaging,” J. Lightwave Technol.28(14), 2077–2083 (2010). [CrossRef]
  21. J. B. Coles, B. P.-P. Kuo, N. Alic, S. Moro, C.-S. Bres, J. M. C. Boggio, P. A. Andrekson, M. Karlsson, and S. Radic, “Bandwidth-efficient phase modulation techniques for stimulated Brillouin scattering suppression in fiber optic parametric amplifiers,” Opt. Express18(17), 18138–18150 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. S. J. Augst, T. Y. Fan, and A. Sanchez, “Coherent beam combining and phase noise measurements of ytterbium fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Lett.29(5), 474–476 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. N. Satyan, A. Vasilyev, G. Rakuljic, J.O. White, and A. Yariv, manuscript submitted for publication.
  24. D. Brown, M. Dennis, and W. Torruellas, “Improved phase modulation for SBS mitigation in kW-class fiber amplifiers,” Photonics West, 24 Jan. 2011.

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited