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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 20, Iss. 15 — Jul. 16, 2012
  • pp: 16524–16531
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Thermal and laser characteristics of Nd doped La0.11Y0.89VO4 crystal

Honghao Xu, Haohai Yu, Zhengping Wang, Shuo Han, Yicheng Wang, Zhongben Pan, Yuanyuan Zhang, Shangqian Sun, Jiyang Wang, and Huaijin Zhang  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 20, Issue 15, pp. 16524-16531 (2012)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.20.016524


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Abstract

A 0.3 at% Nd doped La0.11Y0.89VO4 mixed crystal was grown by the Czochralski method. The thermal properties including the thermal expansion coefficient, specific heat, thermal diffusion coefficient, and the thermal conductivity were systematically studied. Diode-pumped continuous-wave (CW) laser performance at 1.06 μm with a- and c-cut crystal were demonstrated, and the maximum output power is about 8.76 W, which is obtained at the incident power of 19.15 W. All the results show that Nd:La0.11Y0.89VO4 is an excellent crystal for application as high-power lasers. What’s more, different with the a-cut crystal, the laser spectrum of c-cut one is found to be dual-wavelength.

© 2012 OSA

1. Introduction

2. Experiment details

Polycrystalline materials NdVO4, YVO4, and LaVO4 with purity of 99.99% were used to grow the crystal, and they were weighted according to the following equation
LaVO4+YVO4+NdVO4Nd0.005(La0.15Y0.85)0.995VO4
(1)
The crystal was grown by the Czochralski method under a nitrogen atmosphere with 2% oxygen (v/v) in an iridium crucible. A rectangular a-axis YVO4 single crystal was used as the seed.

The average linear thermal expansion coefficients were measured using a thermal mechanical analyzer (Perkin Elmer model Diamond TMA). The sample used for the measurement was cut into a rectangular piece with dimensions of 3 × 4 × 5 mm3 (a × b × c). The density of the mixed crystal was measured by the buoyancy method at room temperature (300 K). The density can be calculated by the following equation:
ρexp=mρwatermm'
(2)
where m is the sample weight in air, m’ is the sample weight immersed in distilled water, and ρwater is the density of distilled water at room temperature. The samples used in the thermal diffusion coefficient measurement were cut with the dimensions of 6 × 6 × 2 mm3 (a × b × c) and 6 × 6 × 2 mm3 (a × c × b), respectively. The thermal diffusion coefficients (λij) of the mixed crystal were measured on a laser flash apparatus (LFA447) in the temperature range of 293 to 873 K. The specific heat was measured using a differential scanning calorimeter (diamond DSC) with a small sample of the Nd:La0.11Y0.89VO4 crystal (55 mg).

The continuous-wave (CW) laser performance of the mixed crystal Nd:La0.11Y0.89VO4 was based a plano-concave resonator with end pumped by a LD. The schematic diagram of the setup is shown in the Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Configuration of the experimental laser.
. The pump source employed in the experiment was a fiber-coupled LD with a central wavelength around 808 nm. Through the focusing optics (N.A = 0.22), the output of the source was incident onto the laser material. M1 has a radius of curvature of 200 mm. It was anti-reflection (AR) coated at 808 nm on the pump side, and high-reflection coated at 1.06 μm and high-transmission (HT) coated at 808 nm on the other side. M2 was a flat output coupling (OC) mirror with different transmissions of OC = 10% or 15% at 1.06 μm. In order to remove the heat generated in the laser crystal in the experiment, it was wrapped with indium foil and mounted on a water-cooled copper block. The cooling water was maintained at about 15 °C throughout the experiments. The output power was measured with a power meter (EPM 2000. Melectron Inc).

3. Results and discussions

3.1 Crystal growth and crystal structure

The as-grown crystal has an excellent quality and is shown in Fig. 2(a)
Fig. 2 (a) As-grown crystal Nd:LaYVO4 boule; (b) XRPD patterns of the Nd:La0.11Y0.89VO4 and standard YVO4data.
, it is seen that the dimensions of the crystal are about 22 × 28 × 15 mm3 and there are no cracks in evidence (no scatter pellets can be observed under 5 mW He-Ne laser). Before cutting for the measurements, the as-grown Nd:LaxY1-xVO4 mixed crystal was annealed following the same procedure as employed previously [10

10. H. J. Zhang, X. L. Meng, L. Zhu, C. Q. Wang, Y. T. Chow, and M. K. Lu, “Growth, spectra and influence of annealing effect on laser properties of Nd:YVO4 crystal,” Opt. Mater. 14(1), 25–30 (2000). [CrossRef]

]. Nd concentrations in the crystal was measured to be 0.3 at%, and the components of the mixed crystal was determined to be Nd:La0.11Y0.89VO4 by the X-ray fluorescence method.

The structure of the as-grown crystal was studied by x-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), and the results are shown in Fig. 2(b). All the x-ray peaks of this crystal are sharp, indicating that it is of high quality. The as-grown crystal process the ZiSiO4 structure with I41/amd space group. Figure 2(b) also shows that all the peaks can be indexed in accordance with the standard JCPDS Card File 72-274 for YVO4. Based on the XPPD data, the unit-cell parameters of Nd:La0.11Y0.89VO4 were calculated to be: a = b = 7.136 Å, c = 6.301 Å, α = β = γ = 90°. Because the radius of La (1.061 Å) ions is bigger than that of Y (0.9 Å) ion, using La ion replace Y ion results that the unit parameters is bigger than that of Nd:YVO4 (JCPDS data of YVO4: a = b = 7.123 Å, c = 6.291 Å).

3.2 Thermal expansion

The thermal expansion coefficients along a- and c- axis of the crystal were shown in the upper right of Fig. 3
Fig. 3 the density versus temperature.
. The thermal expansion curves are almost linearly increasing within the measuring temperature range over the temperature range from 303 to 739 K, and the average linear expansion coefficients of the a- and c-axis were calculated to be 1.38 × 10−6 /K and 9.56 × 10−6 /K, respectively.

3.3 Density

The ρexp of Nd:La0.11Y0.89VO4 is calculated to be 4.276 g/cm3 at room temperature, which is larger than that of YVO4 because of the much larger atomic weight of La ions. For vanadate materials, the volume will expand when the temperature increases, so the density of the mixed crystal will decrease with the temperature increasing. With the measured thermal expansion coefficients and ρexp, the density of Nd:La0.11Y0.89VO4 at different temperatures can be calculated using the following the equation
ρ=ρ0(1+Δaa)2(1+Δcc)
(3)
where ρ0 is the density of the crystal at room temperature, a and c is the cell parameters of unit cell at the same temperature, ∆a and ∆c are the variation of the cell parameters with the temperature changing ∆T. ∆a/a and ∆c/c can get from the experiment date of the thermal expansion coefficient. The calculated density curve with the increase of temperature is shown in Fig. 3, which shows the density decreases from 4.276 g/cm3 to 4.256 g/cm3 slowly as the temperature rising from 303 K to 737 K.

3.4 Specific heat

The specific heat of Nd:La0.11Y0.89VO4 dependence on temperature is shown in upper right of Fig. 4(a)
Fig. 4 (a) thermal diffusion coefficient versus temperature (b) thermal conductivity versus temperature.
. It can be seen that the specific heat of the crystal increases from 0.542 to 0.608 Jg−1k−1 slightly with temperature increasing. The specific heat of Nd:La0.11Y0.89VO4 is 27.15 cal/(mol K) at 298 K, which is larger than that of Nd:LaVO4 [12

12. L. Z. Zhang, M. W. Qiu, M. J. Song, and G. F. Wang, “1064 nm lasing characterisation of Nd3+:LaVO4 pumped with Ti:sapphire laser,” Mater. Res. Innov. 14(2), 119–121 (2010). [CrossRef]

] crystal (24.6 cal/(mol K) at 298 K) and Nd:YVO4 [15

15. B. H. T. Chai, G. Loutts, J. Lefaucheur, X. X. Zhang, P. Hong, M. Bass, I. A. Shcherbakov, and A. I. Zagumennyi, “Comparison of laser performance of Nd-doped YVO4, GdVO4, Ca5(PO4)3F, Sr5(PO4)3F and Ca5(VO4)3F,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, T. Y. Fan and B. H. T. Chai, eds. 20, 41–52(Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994).

] crystal (24.6 cal/(mol K) at 298 K). The comparisons with the other vanadate crystals are list in Table 1

Table 1. Comparison of Main thermal Properties of several Nd-Doped vanadates

table-icon
View This Table
.

3.5 Thermal diffusion coefficient and thermal conductivity

Figure 4(a) shows the thermal diffusion coefficients of the crystal over the temperature range from 293 to 873 K. it is seen that the thermal diffusion coefficient along a- and c- axis decreases with the increase of temperature. At room temperature the thermal diffusion coefficients λ11 and λ33 are 2.198 mm2s−1 and 2.502 mm2s−1, respectively, which is smaller than that of Nd:YVO4 [13

13. J. Morikawa, C. Leong, T. Hashimoto, T. Ogawa, Y. Urata, S. Wada, M. Higuchi, and J. Takahashi, “Thermal conductivity/diffusivity of Nd3+ doped GdVO4, YVO4, LuVO4, and Y3Al5O12 by temperature wave analysis,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 063522 (2008). [CrossRef]

] (1 at% Nd doped, λ11 = 3.6 mm2s−1 λ33 = 4.7 mm2s−1).

Like thermal diffusion coefficient, the thermal conductivity [kij] is also a second-rank tensor and only have two independent principal components k11 = k22 and k33 along the principal axis for the tetragonal system. The thermal conductivity of the Nd: La0.11Y0.89VO4 mixed crystal can be calculated by the following equation
k=ρcpλ
(4)
where λ, Cp and ρ denote the thermal diffusivity, specific heat and density of the Nd:La0.11Y0.89VO4 mixed crystal, respectively. The obtained thermal conductivity of the crystal along different directions is plotted in Fig. 4(b). The thermal conductivities of Nd:La0.11Y0.89VO4 mixed crystal are k11 = 5.13 Wm−1K−1 and k33 = 5.84 Wm−1K−1 at room temperature, and are larger than those of Nd:YVO4 [15

15. B. H. T. Chai, G. Loutts, J. Lefaucheur, X. X. Zhang, P. Hong, M. Bass, I. A. Shcherbakov, and A. I. Zagumennyi, “Comparison of laser performance of Nd-doped YVO4, GdVO4, Ca5(PO4)3F, Sr5(PO4)3F and Ca5(VO4)3F,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, T. Y. Fan and B. H. T. Chai, eds. 20, 41–52(Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994).

]. According to the Eq. (4), although the thermal diffusion coefficient smaller due to the smaller average path of phonons generated by the disordered structure of the mixed crystal [14

14. C. Kittel, “Interpretation of the Thermal Conductivity of Glasses,” Phys. Rev. 75(6), 972–974 (1949). [CrossRef]

], the density and specific heat of the crystal both became larger than Nd:YVO4. Therefore, it is easy to understand why the thermal conductivity became larger than Nd:YVO4. The great thermal conductivity indicated that the crystal could be used in the middle and high power laser. The comparison with other common vanadate crystals was shown in Table. 1. It can be found that Nd:La0.11Y0.89VO4 has comparable thermal properties, including the specific heat and thermal conductivity, with Nd:YVO4 which has been widely used in the lasers with low and moderate power and low threshold [17

17. P. Zhu, D. J. Li, P. X. Hu, A. Schell, P. Shi, C. R. Haas, N. A. L. Wu, and K. M. Du, “High efficiency 165 W near-diffraction-limited Nd:YVO4 slab oscillator pumped at 880 nm,” Opt. Lett. 33(17), 1930–1932 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

19

19. L. McDonagh, R. Wallenstein, and A. Nebel, “111 W, 110 MHz repetition-rate, passively mode-locked TEM00Nd:YVO4 master oscillator power amplifier pumped at 888 nm,” Opt. Lett. 32(10), 1259–1261 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Based on the generated larger inhomogeneous broaden spectra by introduction of La ions, it can be believed that the Nd:La0.11Y0.89VO4 should have promising application in the pulsed lasers with moderate power.

3.6 Laser performances at 1.06 μm

Detailed laser performance of a-cut Nd:La0.11Y0.89VO4 is shown in Fig. 5(a)
Fig. 5 Output power of a-cut and c-cut Nd:La0.11Y0.89VO4 versus incident pump power.
. It is found that the threshold power and the maximum output power are 0.353 W and 8.74 W, respectively, with a 15% transmission output coupler. The maximum output power is obtained under the pumped power of 19.15 W corresponding to optical conversion efficiency of 45.6%. The slope efficiency is 46.5%. From the plot, it can be seen that the laser output is not saturated thanks to the high thermal conductivity k33.

The laser output performance of the c-cut Nd:La0.11Y0.89VO4 is shown in Fig. 5(b). It is found that the threshold power and maximum output power are 1.093 W and 7.62 W with the 10% transmission output couple, respectively. The maximum output power is also obtained when the pumped power is 19.15 W, corresponding to optical conversion efficiency of 39.8%. The slope efficiency is 43.9%.

Using the Pin-hole method, the M2 value of the a-cut and c-cut CW laser beam at the incident pump power of about 12 W was measured to be 2.36 and 2.11, respectively. Compare the results of two a-cut and c-cut, we found that the c-cut crystal laser output is almost saturated when the pumped power reaches to 19.15 W. Just considering the thermal problems, for a-cut crystal, the thermal transfer depends on the thermal conductivity k11 and k33, while for c-cut crystal it mainly depends on k11.

With a spectra analyzer, the laser spectra are measured shown in Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Laser spectrum of a-cut Nd:La0.11Y0.89VO4; (b) Laser and fluorescence spectrum of the c-cut Nd:La0.11Y0.89VO4; Inset of Fig. 6(b) The fluorescence line of Nd:La0.11Y0.89VO4 at the temperature of 78 K.
. For the a-cut crystal, the peak of laser wavelength is located at 1064 nm, while, the c-cut crystal laser possesses dual wavelength centered at 1064.8 nm and 1066.8 nm. With a polarizer, we found that both of the two modes of the dual-wavelength laser were unpolarized. In the inset of Fig. 6(b), the fluorescence spectrum of the c-cut crystal at the temperature of 78 K was obtained. It is found that there are two peaks located at about 1062.9 nm and 1065.1 nm, which can help us understand the reason of dual-wavelength output. Recently, multiple wavelengths lasing have been of great interest for many applications such as medical instrument, spectral analysis, and THz frequency generation, etc. So the dual-wavelength lasing property of the crystal will attract more people’s attentions.

4. Conclusion

The high-quality Nd doped La0.11Y0.89VO4 mixed crystal was grown by Czochralski method. The component measurement indicated that the mixed process the ZiSiO4 structure with space group I41/amd. The systematic thermal properties of the crystal were measured, the results show that the Nd:La0.11Y0.89VO4 crystal has relatively high thermal conductivity, and this crystal could be used as an moderate power laser materials. The CW laser operation with LD pumped was demonstrated, yield an output power of 8.17 W under the pumped power 19.15 W. Better results can be predicted by optimizing the cavity design and using a coated Nd:La0.11Y0.89VO4 crystal. All the results show that this crystal should be an excellent laser material.

Acknowledgment

This work was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51025210, 51032004 and 51021062), the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2010CB630702), the National High Technology Research and Development Program (“863”Program) of China (No. 2009AA03Z436)

References and links:

1.

R. A. Fields, M. Birnbaum, and C. L. Fincher, “Highly efficient Nd:YVO4 diode-laser end-pumped laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(23), 1885–1886 (1987). [CrossRef]

2.

T. Jensen, V. G. Ostroumov, J.-P. Meyn, G. Huber, A. I. Zagumennyi, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “Spectroscopic characterization and laser performance of diode-laser- pumped Nd:GdVO4,” Appl. Phys. B 58(5), 373–379 (1994). [CrossRef]

3.

H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, Z. P. Wang, J. Y. Wang, Y. G. Yu, Z. Shao, M. Jiang, H. Luo, and M. H. Jiang, “Enhancement of passive Q-switching performance with mixed Nd:LuxGd1-xVO4 laser crystals,” Opt. Lett. 32(15), 2152–2154 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4.

J. H. Liu, X. L. Meng, Z. S. Shao, M. H. Jiang, B. Ozygus, A. Ding, and H. Weber, “Pulse energy enhancement in passive Q-switching operation with a class of Nd:GdxY1-xVO4 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(7), 1289–1291 (2003). [CrossRef]

5.

V. G. Ostroumov, G. Huber, A. I. Zagumennyi, Y. D. Zavartsev, P. A. Studenikin, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “Spectroscopic properties and lasing of Nd:Gd0.5La0.5VO4 crystals,” Opt. Commun. 124(1-2), 63–68 (1996). [CrossRef]

6.

H. J. Zhang, C. Q. Wang, L. Zhu, X. S. Liu, G. H. Zhang, W. T. Yu, X. L. Meng, and Y. T. Chow, “Growth and characterization of series Nd:GdxLa1−xVO4 (x = 0.80, 0.60, 0.45) crystals,” J. Mater. Res. 17(03), 556–562 (2002). [CrossRef]

7.

J. H. Kang, W. B. Im, D. C. Lee, J. Y. Kim, D. Y. Jeon, Y. C. Kang, and K. Y. Jung, “Correlation of photoluminescence of (Y, Ln)VO4:Eu3+ (Ln=Gd and La) phosphors with their crystal structures,” Solid State Commun. 133(10), 651–656 (2005). [CrossRef]

8.

Z. Zhuo, T. Li, S. G. Li, B. Zhao, J. Z. Chen, and S. S. Li, “A new composite YVO4/Nd:Y0.9La0.1VO4 crystal laser end-pumped with a fiber coupled diode array,” Laser Phys. Lett. 6(6), 445–449 (2009). [CrossRef]

9.

H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, Z. P. Wang, J. Y. Wang, Y. G. Yu, X. F. Cheng, Z. S. Shao, M. H. Jiang, Z. C. Ling, and H. R. Xia, “Characterization of mixed Nd:LuxGd1−xVO4 laser crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(11), 113109 (2007). [CrossRef]

10.

H. J. Zhang, X. L. Meng, L. Zhu, C. Q. Wang, Y. T. Chow, and M. K. Lu, “Growth, spectra and influence of annealing effect on laser properties of Nd:YVO4 crystal,” Opt. Mater. 14(1), 25–30 (2000). [CrossRef]

11.

Y. Cheng, H. J. Zhang, Y. G. Yu, J. Y. Wang, X. T. Tao, J. H. Liu, V. Petrov, Z. C. Ling, H. R. Xia, and M. H. Jiang, “Thermal properties and continuous-wave laser performance of Yb:LuVO4 crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 86(4), 681–685 (2007). [CrossRef]

12.

L. Z. Zhang, M. W. Qiu, M. J. Song, and G. F. Wang, “1064 nm lasing characterisation of Nd3+:LaVO4 pumped with Ti:sapphire laser,” Mater. Res. Innov. 14(2), 119–121 (2010). [CrossRef]

13.

J. Morikawa, C. Leong, T. Hashimoto, T. Ogawa, Y. Urata, S. Wada, M. Higuchi, and J. Takahashi, “Thermal conductivity/diffusivity of Nd3+ doped GdVO4, YVO4, LuVO4, and Y3Al5O12 by temperature wave analysis,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 063522 (2008). [CrossRef]

14.

C. Kittel, “Interpretation of the Thermal Conductivity of Glasses,” Phys. Rev. 75(6), 972–974 (1949). [CrossRef]

15.

B. H. T. Chai, G. Loutts, J. Lefaucheur, X. X. Zhang, P. Hong, M. Bass, I. A. Shcherbakov, and A. I. Zagumennyi, “Comparison of laser performance of Nd-doped YVO4, GdVO4, Ca5(PO4)3F, Sr5(PO4)3F and Ca5(VO4)3F,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, T. Y. Fan and B. H. T. Chai, eds. 20, 41–52(Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994).

16.

H. J. Zhang, J. H. Liu, J. Y. Wang, C. Q. Wang, L. Zhu, Z. S. Shao, X. L. Meng, X. B. Hu, M. H. Jiang, and Y. T. Chow, “Characterization of the laser crystal NdGdVO4,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19(1), 18–27 (2002). [CrossRef]

17.

P. Zhu, D. J. Li, P. X. Hu, A. Schell, P. Shi, C. R. Haas, N. A. L. Wu, and K. M. Du, “High efficiency 165 W near-diffraction-limited Nd:YVO4 slab oscillator pumped at 880 nm,” Opt. Lett. 33(17), 1930–1932 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18.

Y. X. Fan, J. L. He, Y. G. Wang, S. Liu, H. T. Wang, and X. Y. Ma, “2-ps passively mode-locked Nd:YVO4 laser using an output-coupling-type semiconductor saturable absorber mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(10), 101103 (2005). [CrossRef]

19.

L. McDonagh, R. Wallenstein, and A. Nebel, “111 W, 110 MHz repetition-rate, passively mode-locked TEM00Nd:YVO4 master oscillator power amplifier pumped at 888 nm,” Opt. Lett. 32(10), 1259–1261 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

OCIS Codes
(140.3530) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, neodymium
(160.3380) Materials : Laser materials

ToC Category:
Lasers and Laser Optics

History
Original Manuscript: May 7, 2012
Revised Manuscript: June 28, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: June 30, 2012
Published: July 6, 2012

Citation
Honghao Xu, Haohai Yu, Zhengping Wang, Shuo Han, Yicheng Wang, Zhongben Pan, Yuanyuan Zhang, Shangqian Sun, Jiyang Wang, and Huaijin Zhang, "Thermal and laser characteristics of Nd doped La0.11Y0.89VO4 crystal," Opt. Express 20, 16524-16531 (2012)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-20-15-16524


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References

  1. R. A. Fields, M. Birnbaum, and C. L. Fincher, “Highly efficient Nd:YVO4 diode-laser end-pumped laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(23), 1885–1886 (1987). [CrossRef]
  2. T. Jensen, V. G. Ostroumov, J.-P. Meyn, G. Huber, A. I. Zagumennyi, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “Spectroscopic characterization and laser performance of diode-laser- pumped Nd:GdVO4,” Appl. Phys. B 58(5), 373–379 (1994). [CrossRef]
  3. H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, Z. P. Wang, J. Y. Wang, Y. G. Yu, Z. Shao, M. Jiang, H. Luo, and M. H. Jiang, “Enhancement of passive Q-switching performance with mixed Nd:LuxGd1-xVO4 laser crystals,” Opt. Lett. 32(15), 2152–2154 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. H. Liu, X. L. Meng, Z. S. Shao, M. H. Jiang, B. Ozygus, A. Ding, and H. Weber, “Pulse energy enhancement in passive Q-switching operation with a class of Nd:GdxY1-xVO4 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(7), 1289–1291 (2003). [CrossRef]
  5. V. G. Ostroumov, G. Huber, A. I. Zagumennyi, Y. D. Zavartsev, P. A. Studenikin, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “Spectroscopic properties and lasing of Nd:Gd0.5La0.5VO4 crystals,” Opt. Commun. 124(1-2), 63–68 (1996). [CrossRef]
  6. H. J. Zhang, C. Q. Wang, L. Zhu, X. S. Liu, G. H. Zhang, W. T. Yu, X. L. Meng, and Y. T. Chow, “Growth and characterization of series Nd:GdxLa1−xVO4 (x = 0.80, 0.60, 0.45) crystals,” J. Mater. Res. 17(03), 556–562 (2002). [CrossRef]
  7. J. H. Kang, W. B. Im, D. C. Lee, J. Y. Kim, D. Y. Jeon, Y. C. Kang, and K. Y. Jung, “Correlation of photoluminescence of (Y, Ln)VO4:Eu3+ (Ln=Gd and La) phosphors with their crystal structures,” Solid State Commun. 133(10), 651–656 (2005). [CrossRef]
  8. Z. Zhuo, T. Li, S. G. Li, B. Zhao, J. Z. Chen, and S. S. Li, “A new composite YVO4/Nd:Y0.9La0.1VO4 crystal laser end-pumped with a fiber coupled diode array,” Laser Phys. Lett. 6(6), 445–449 (2009). [CrossRef]
  9. H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, Z. P. Wang, J. Y. Wang, Y. G. Yu, X. F. Cheng, Z. S. Shao, M. H. Jiang, Z. C. Ling, and H. R. Xia, “Characterization of mixed Nd:LuxGd1−xVO4 laser crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(11), 113109 (2007). [CrossRef]
  10. H. J. Zhang, X. L. Meng, L. Zhu, C. Q. Wang, Y. T. Chow, and M. K. Lu, “Growth, spectra and influence of annealing effect on laser properties of Nd:YVO4 crystal,” Opt. Mater. 14(1), 25–30 (2000). [CrossRef]
  11. Y. Cheng, H. J. Zhang, Y. G. Yu, J. Y. Wang, X. T. Tao, J. H. Liu, V. Petrov, Z. C. Ling, H. R. Xia, and M. H. Jiang, “Thermal properties and continuous-wave laser performance of Yb:LuVO4 crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 86(4), 681–685 (2007). [CrossRef]
  12. L. Z. Zhang, M. W. Qiu, M. J. Song, and G. F. Wang, “1064 nm lasing characterisation of Nd3+:LaVO4 pumped with Ti:sapphire laser,” Mater. Res. Innov. 14(2), 119–121 (2010). [CrossRef]
  13. J. Morikawa, C. Leong, T. Hashimoto, T. Ogawa, Y. Urata, S. Wada, M. Higuchi, and J. Takahashi, “Thermal conductivity/diffusivity of Nd3+ doped GdVO4, YVO4, LuVO4, and Y3Al5O12 by temperature wave analysis,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 063522 (2008). [CrossRef]
  14. C. Kittel, “Interpretation of the Thermal Conductivity of Glasses,” Phys. Rev. 75(6), 972–974 (1949). [CrossRef]
  15. B. H. T. Chai, G. Loutts, J. Lefaucheur, X. X. Zhang, P. Hong, M. Bass, I. A. Shcherbakov, and A. I. Zagumennyi, “Comparison of laser performance of Nd-doped YVO4, GdVO4, Ca5(PO4)3F, Sr5(PO4)3F and Ca5(VO4)3F,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, T. Y. Fan and B. H. T. Chai, eds. 20, 41–52(Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994).
  16. H. J. Zhang, J. H. Liu, J. Y. Wang, C. Q. Wang, L. Zhu, Z. S. Shao, X. L. Meng, X. B. Hu, M. H. Jiang, and Y. T. Chow, “Characterization of the laser crystal NdGdVO4,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19(1), 18–27 (2002). [CrossRef]
  17. P. Zhu, D. J. Li, P. X. Hu, A. Schell, P. Shi, C. R. Haas, N. A. L. Wu, and K. M. Du, “High efficiency 165 W near-diffraction-limited Nd:YVO4 slab oscillator pumped at 880 nm,” Opt. Lett. 33(17), 1930–1932 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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