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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 20, Iss. 15 — Jul. 16, 2012
  • pp: 16801–16806
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Efficient continuous-wave laser operation at 1064 nm in Nd:YVO4 cladding waveguides produced by femtosecond laser inscription

Yuechen Jia, Feng Chen, and Javier R. Vázquez de Aldana  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 20, Issue 15, pp. 16801-16806 (2012)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.20.016801


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Abstract

Cladding waveguides have been produced in Nd:YVO4 crystals by using femtosecond laser inscription. Such structures are fabricated with circular cross sections and diameters of ~100-120 μm, supporting multi-mode guidance in the two orthogonal polarizations. At room temperature continuous wave laser oscillations at wavelength of ~1064 nm have been realized through the optical pump at 808 nm with slope efficiency as high as 65% and a maximum output power of 335 mW.

© 2012 OSA

1. Introduction

As one of the most excellent gain media for solid state lasers, the neodymium-doped yttrium orthovanadate (Nd:YVO4) has attracted much attention owing to its outstanding features (e.g., high emission cross section, broad absorption bands, good mechanical and thermal properties) [1

1. A. A. Kaminskii, Laser Crystals: Their Physics and Properties (Springer, 1990)

]. Optical waveguides can confine light propagation in small volumes, in which higher optical intensities could be reached in respect to the bulks [2

2. E. J. Murphy, Integrated optical circuits and components: Design and applications (Marcel Dekker, 1999).

]. Benefiting from high intracavity intensity owing to the reduced active volumes, waveguide lasers show many advantages when compared to their bulk counterparts, such as lower threshold and higher laser slope efficiencies [3

3. J. I. Mackenzie, “Dielectric solid-state planar waveguide lasers: A review,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 626–637 (2007). [CrossRef]

6

6. E. Cantelar, D. Jaque, and G. Lifante, “Waveguide lasers based on dielectric materials,” Opt. Mater. 34(3), 555–571 (2012). [CrossRef]

]. In addition, the waveguide laser components are basic minor light sources that can be integrated in single photonic circuit for diverse applications [2

2. E. J. Murphy, Integrated optical circuits and components: Design and applications (Marcel Dekker, 1999).

]. As of yet, highly efficient waveguide lasers have been realized in a wide range of materials [7

7. K. van Dalfsen, S. Aravazhi, C. Grivas, S. M. García-Blanco, and M. Pollnau, “Thulium channel waveguide laser in a monoclinic double tungstate with 70% slope efficiency,” Opt. Lett. 37(5), 887–889 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13

13. Y. Tan, A. Rodenas, F. Chen, R. R. Thomson, A. K. Kar, D. Jaque, and Q. M. Lu, “70% slope efficiency from an ultrafast laser-written Nd:GdVO4 channel waveguide laser,” Opt. Express 18(24), 24994–24999 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

The combination of excellent lasing features of Nd:YVO4 crystal and the compact configuration of optical waveguides may be promising solution for fabrication of low-cost, highly efficient integrated light sources. Ion implantation was firstly applied to achieve waveguides in Nd:YVO4, and later the planar waveguide laser was realized in C ion implanted chip (with a slope efficiency of 29.6% and maximum output of 9 mW) [14

14. M. E. Sánchez-Morales, G. V. Vázquez, E. B. Mejía, H. Márquez, J. Rickards, and R. Trejo-Luna, “Laser emission in Nd:YVO4 channel waveguides at 1064 nm,” Appl. Phys. B 94(2), 215–219 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. Since 1996, the femtosecond (fs) laser inscription has emerged to be a powerful technique to fabricate waveguides for its unique ability on the three-dimensional (3D) micromachining of many transparent materials [15

15. R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 219–225 (2008). [CrossRef]

17

17. K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, “Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 21(21), 1729–1731 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Waveguides in Nd:YVO4 crystal have been already produced by fs laser writing through the “double line” technique [18

18. W. F. Silva, C. Jacinto, A. Benayas, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, G. A. Torchia, F. Chen, Y. Tan, and D. Jaque, “Femtosecond-laser-written, stress-induced Nd:YVO4 waveguides preserving fluorescence and Raman gain,” Opt. Lett. 35(7), 916–918 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and continuous-wave (cw) waveguide lasers were obtained at 1.06 μm with much higher efficiency than those from the ion beam produced Nd:YVO4 waveguide systems [19

19. Y. Tan, F. Chen, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, G. A. Torchia, A. Benayas, and D. Jaque, “Continuous wave laser generation at 1064 nm in femtosecond laser inscribed Nd:YVO4 channel waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(3), 031119 (2010). [CrossRef]

,20

20. Y. Tan, J. Guan, F. Chen, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, G. A. Torchia, A. Benayas, and D. Jaque, “Highly efficient waveguide lasers in a femtosecond laser inscribed Nd:YVO4 channel waveguide,” in Advances in Optical Materials, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper AIFB4.

]. In such a configuration, two parallel laser-damage tracks (usually with negative refractive index change) with separation of 10-20 μm are formed at a certain depth of the crystal, and in the region between the two tracks an increase in the refractive index is induced due to the stress-field effect. In fact, the stress-induced waveguides have been realized in a number of crystals, e.g., LiNbO3 [21

21. J. Burghoff, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Origins of waveguiding in femtosecond laser-structured LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 89(1), 127–132 (2007). [CrossRef]

], Nd:YAG [12

12. T. Calmano, J. Siebenmorgen, O. Hellmig, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Nd:YAG waveguide laser with 1.3 W output power, fabricated by direct femtosecond laser writing,” Appl. Phys. B 100(1), 131–135 (2010). [CrossRef]

,22

22. A. Ródenas, G. A. Torchia, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, J. Lamela, F. Jaque, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Refractive index change mechanisms in femtosecond laser written ceramic Nd:YAG waveguides: micro-spectroscopy experiments and beam propagation calculations,” Appl. Phys. B 95(1), 85–96 (2009). [CrossRef]

], Nd:GGG [23

23. Y. Y. Ren, N. N. Dong, J. Macdonald, F. Chen, H. J. Zhang, and A. K. Kar, “Continuous wave channel waveguide lasers in Nd:LuVO4 fabricated by direct femtosecond laser writing,” Opt. Express 20(3), 1969–1974 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], and Nd doped vanadates [13

13. Y. Tan, A. Rodenas, F. Chen, R. R. Thomson, A. K. Kar, D. Jaque, and Q. M. Lu, “70% slope efficiency from an ultrafast laser-written Nd:GdVO4 channel waveguide laser,” Opt. Express 18(24), 24994–24999 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,18

18. W. F. Silva, C. Jacinto, A. Benayas, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, G. A. Torchia, F. Chen, Y. Tan, and D. Jaque, “Femtosecond-laser-written, stress-induced Nd:YVO4 waveguides preserving fluorescence and Raman gain,” Opt. Lett. 35(7), 916–918 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

20

20. Y. Tan, J. Guan, F. Chen, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, G. A. Torchia, A. Benayas, and D. Jaque, “Highly efficient waveguide lasers in a femtosecond laser inscribed Nd:YVO4 channel waveguide,” in Advances in Optical Materials, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper AIFB4.

,23

23. Y. Y. Ren, N. N. Dong, J. Macdonald, F. Chen, H. J. Zhang, and A. K. Kar, “Continuous wave channel waveguide lasers in Nd:LuVO4 fabricated by direct femtosecond laser writing,” Opt. Express 20(3), 1969–1974 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. For vanadates, e.g., Nd:YVO4 [24

24. C. Zhang, N. N. Dong, J. Yang, F. Chen, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, and Q. M. Lu, “Channel waveguide lasers in Nd:GGG crystals fabricated by femtosecond laser inscription,” Opt. Express 19(13), 12503–12508 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], Nd:GdVO4 [13

13. Y. Tan, A. Rodenas, F. Chen, R. R. Thomson, A. K. Kar, D. Jaque, and Q. M. Lu, “70% slope efficiency from an ultrafast laser-written Nd:GdVO4 channel waveguide laser,” Opt. Express 18(24), 24994–24999 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and Nd:LuVO4 [23

23. Y. Y. Ren, N. N. Dong, J. Macdonald, F. Chen, H. J. Zhang, and A. K. Kar, “Continuous wave channel waveguide lasers in Nd:LuVO4 fabricated by direct femtosecond laser writing,” Opt. Express 20(3), 1969–1974 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], the fs-laser written stress-induced waveguides exhibited excellent guiding properties as well as lasing performance. Nevertheless, the fs-lasers could be utilized to inscribe an alternative guiding structure, i.e., the cladding waveguides, which was firstly proposed by Okhrimchuk et al [25

25. A. G. Okhrimchuk, A. V. Shestakov, I. Khrushchev, and J. Mitchell, “Depressed cladding, buried waveguide laser formed in a YAG:Nd3+ crystal by femtosecond laser writing,” Opt. Lett. 30(17), 2248–2250 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. In this configuration, the waveguide core is surrounded by a number of fs-laser inscribed tracks with the refractive index lower than the unmodified material, and these tracks could be combined to produce any desired boundaries. Normally such structures are designed with large cross sections compared to the stress-induced waveguides that are limited to 10-20 μm. One of the most intriguing advantages of cladding waveguides is that the cross section could be designed with circular geometry and its diameter could match that of the multimode fibers (fiber-like cross section), which is very promising for the construction of fiber-waveguide-fiber integrated photonic chips. In addition, the larger diameters of cladding waveguides may result in more pump light power coupled into the guided region, and hence bring out the increment of the maximum output powers of the waveguide lasers. Up to now, such cladding structures with circular/elliptic cross sections have been fabricated in a few cubic laser crystals, such as Nd:YAG crystal [8

8. D. G. Lancaster, S. Gross, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, K. Kuan, T. M. Monro, M. Ams, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Fifty percent internal slope efficiency femtosecond direct-written Tm³⁺:ZBLAN waveguide laser,” Opt. Lett. 36(9), 1587–1589 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,26

26. A. Okhrimchuk, V. Mezentsev, A. Shestakov, and I. Bennion, “Low loss depressed cladding waveguide inscribed in YAG:Nd single crystal by femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 20(4), 3832–3843 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and Cr:YAG crystal [27

27. A. G. Okhrimchuk, V. K. Mezentsev, V. V. Dvoyrin, A. S. Kurkov, E. M. Sholokhov, S. K. Turitsyn, A. V. Shestakov, and I. Bennion, “Waveguide-saturable absorber fabricated by femtosecond pulses in YAG:Cr4+ crystal for Q-switched operation of Yb-fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 34(24), 3881–3883 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Very recently, we have fabricated the fs-laser inscribed nonlinear cladding waveguides in BiB3O6 [28

28. Y. Jia, J. R. Vazquez de Aldana, C. Romero, Y. Ren, Q. Lu, and F. Chen, “Femtosecond-laser-inscribed BiB3O6 nonlinear cladding waveguide for second-harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(7), 072701 (2012). [CrossRef]

] and KTiOPO4 [29

29. N. Dong, F. Chen, and J. R. Vazquez de Aldana, “ Efficient second harmonic generation by birefringent phase matching in femtosecond laser inscribed KTP cladding waveguides,” Phys. Status Solid: rrl DOI . [CrossRef]

] crystals, which have exhibited superior performances for birefringent second harmonic generations.

In this work, we report on the fabrication of cladding waveguides with fiber-like cross sections in Nd:YVO4 crystal by fs-laser inscription. Under optical pump of 808 nm light, efficient cw waveguide lasers at 1064 nm have been achieved at room temperature.

2. Experiments in details

The Nd:YVO4 crystal (doped by 2 at. % Nd3+ ions) was cut with the size of 6 (a) × 4 (a) × 2 (c) mm3 and optically polished. The cladding waveguides with circular boundaries were produced by using the laser facility of the Universidad de Salamanca (Spain). Figure 1
Fig. 1 The schematic of fabrication of Nd:YVO4 cladding waveguide by fs-laser inscription. The inset shows the microscope image of the cross section of the cladding waveguide with a diameter of 120 μm.
illustrates schematically the fabrication procedure for the Nd:YVO4 cladding waveguides. The inset of Fig. 1 shows the microscope image of the end face of one of the cladding waveguides, which clearly exhibits the circular shape surrounded by the fs-laser induced tracks. The waveguide cavity length of these two cladding waveguides was 4 mm. An amplified Ti:Sapphire laser system (Spitfire, Spectra Physics) generating linearly-polarized 120 fs pulses at wavelength of 800 nm with a repetition rate of 1 kHz and a maximum pulse energy of 1 mJ was used for the inscription of the waveguides. The laser beam was focused with a 40 × microscope objective (N.A. = 0.65) through one of the sample surfaces (dimensions 6 × 4 mm2). The linear focus of the beam was first placed 110 mm beneath the sample surface and the pulsed energy was set to 1 μJ with the help of a calibrated neutral density filter, and a half-wave plate and a linear polarizer. Under these conditions, the irradiation of the sample produced damage tracks in the beam propagation direction. The sample was located at a XYZ computer-controlled motorized stage with a spatial resolution of 0.2 μm. During the irradiation, the crystal was first scanned by the fs laser pulses at a constant velocity of 0.7 mm/s along the 4-mm axis, by which a damage line was produced inside the sample. The procedure was repeated at different depths and positions of the sample following the desired circular geometry, with a lateral separation of ~3 μm between adjacent scans, from the bottom to the top of the structure (see Fig. 1). As result, two tubular structures containing a chain of parallel tracks were inscribed in the Nd:YVO4 crystal by the fs-laser. The diameters of the two cladding waveguides at their cross sections were ~100 μm and ~120 μm, respectively. The careful choice of the irradiation parameters (scanning velocity and pulse energy) avoided the formation of cracks inside the crystal and allowed the generation of very clean cladding waveguides.

The cw waveguide laser operation experiment was performed by using the end pumping system (similar to that used in [13

13. Y. Tan, A. Rodenas, F. Chen, R. R. Thomson, A. K. Kar, D. Jaque, and Q. M. Lu, “70% slope efficiency from an ultrafast laser-written Nd:GdVO4 channel waveguide laser,” Opt. Express 18(24), 24994–24999 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]) at room temperature. A polarized light pump beam at a wavelength of 808 nm was generated from a tunable cw Ti:Sapphire laser (Coherent MBR 110). A spherical convex lens with focal length of 25 mm was used to couple the pump laser beam into the waveguide. The generated waveguide laser at 1064 nm was collected with a 20 × microscope objective lens (N.A. = 0.4) and imaged by using an infrared CCD camera. A dichroic beamsplitter was used to separate the residual non-absorbed 808 nm pump radiation. We used a spectrometer with resolution of 0.2 nm to analyze the emission spectra of the laser beam from the waveguides. In this work, the 1064 nm laser emission in the two waveguides was achieved without additional dielectric mirrors: the two polished end facets formed the Fabry-Perot cavity for laser oscillations, which results in an output coupler of 99% determined by the refractive index of Nd:YVO4 (n ≈2) through Fresnel reflection for the air-waveguide interface. The coupling losses were estimated to be 3.1 dB and 2.58 dB (corresponding to coupling efficiency of 49% and 55%) for the 808-nm pump beams into the ~100 μm and ~120 μm waveguides, respectively.

3. Results and discussion

The modification of the refractive index in the waveguide region was estimated by measuring the numerical aperture of the waveguide. The maximum refractive index increase (Δn) was calculated to be ∆n ≈4 × 10−3 by using the formula
Δn=sin2Θm2n
(1)
where Θm is the maximum incident angular deflection at which no transmitted power change occurs, and n = 1.9945 is the refractive index of the unmodified bulk crystal. The obtained ∆n value is similar to that reported in [26

26. A. Okhrimchuk, V. Mezentsev, A. Shestakov, and I. Bennion, “Low loss depressed cladding waveguide inscribed in YAG:Nd single crystal by femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 20(4), 3832–3843 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] for the Nd:YAG crystal cladding waveguides.

4. Summary

We have fabricated circular-cross-section cladding waveguides in Nd:YVO4 crystal by using fs laser inscription. Such structures are with diameter of ~100 and 120 μm, supporting good guidance in both of the two polarizations. The cw waveguide lasers at ~1064 nm were realized under the optical pump at 808 nm, reaching the slope efficiency as high as 65% and the maximum output power of as high as 335 mW. The excellent laser performance and the fiber-like geometry indicate potential applications of the fs-laser written Nd:YVO4 cladding waveguides as highly efficient integrated laser sources in the integrated photonic systems.

Acknowledgments

The work is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11111130200), the Spanish Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MICINN) through Consolider Program SAUUL CSD2007-00013 and project FIS2009-09522. Support from the Centro de Láseres Pulsados (CLPU) is also acknowledged.

References and links

1.

A. A. Kaminskii, Laser Crystals: Their Physics and Properties (Springer, 1990)

2.

E. J. Murphy, Integrated optical circuits and components: Design and applications (Marcel Dekker, 1999).

3.

J. I. Mackenzie, “Dielectric solid-state planar waveguide lasers: A review,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 626–637 (2007). [CrossRef]

4.

C. Grivas, “Optically pumped planar waveguide lasers, Part I: Fundamentals and fabrication techniques,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 35(6), 159–239 (2011). [CrossRef]

5.

M. Pollnau, C. Grivas, L. Laversenne, J. S. Wilkinson, R. W. Eason, and D. P. Shepherd, “Ti:Sapphire waveguide lasers,” Laser Phys. Lett. 4(8), 560–571 (2007). [CrossRef]

6.

E. Cantelar, D. Jaque, and G. Lifante, “Waveguide lasers based on dielectric materials,” Opt. Mater. 34(3), 555–571 (2012). [CrossRef]

7.

K. van Dalfsen, S. Aravazhi, C. Grivas, S. M. García-Blanco, and M. Pollnau, “Thulium channel waveguide laser in a monoclinic double tungstate with 70% slope efficiency,” Opt. Lett. 37(5), 887–889 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

D. G. Lancaster, S. Gross, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, K. Kuan, T. M. Monro, M. Ams, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Fifty percent internal slope efficiency femtosecond direct-written Tm³⁺:ZBLAN waveguide laser,” Opt. Lett. 36(9), 1587–1589 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

G. A. Torchia, A. Rodenas, A. Benayas, E. Cantelar, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Highly efficient laser action in femtosecond-written Nd:yttrium aluminum garnet ceramic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(11), 111103 (2008). [CrossRef]

10.

R. Mary, S. J. Beecher, G. Brown, R. R. Thomson, D. Jaque, S. Ohara, and A. K. Kar, “Compact, highly efficient ytterbium doped bismuthate glass waveguide laser,” Opt. Lett. 37(10), 1691–1693 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

T. Calmano, A. G. Paschke, J. Siebenmorgen, S. T. Fredrich-Thornton, H. Yagi, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Characterization of an Yb:YAG ceramic waveguide laser, fabricated by the direct femtosecond-laser writing technique,” Appl. Phys. B 103(1), 1–4 (2011). [CrossRef]

12.

T. Calmano, J. Siebenmorgen, O. Hellmig, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Nd:YAG waveguide laser with 1.3 W output power, fabricated by direct femtosecond laser writing,” Appl. Phys. B 100(1), 131–135 (2010). [CrossRef]

13.

Y. Tan, A. Rodenas, F. Chen, R. R. Thomson, A. K. Kar, D. Jaque, and Q. M. Lu, “70% slope efficiency from an ultrafast laser-written Nd:GdVO4 channel waveguide laser,” Opt. Express 18(24), 24994–24999 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

M. E. Sánchez-Morales, G. V. Vázquez, E. B. Mejía, H. Márquez, J. Rickards, and R. Trejo-Luna, “Laser emission in Nd:YVO4 channel waveguides at 1064 nm,” Appl. Phys. B 94(2), 215–219 (2009). [CrossRef]

15.

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 219–225 (2008). [CrossRef]

16.

S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, and H. Misawa, “Three-dimensional microfabrication of materials by femtosecond lasers for photonics applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(5), 051101 (2009). [CrossRef]

17.

K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, “Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 21(21), 1729–1731 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18.

W. F. Silva, C. Jacinto, A. Benayas, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, G. A. Torchia, F. Chen, Y. Tan, and D. Jaque, “Femtosecond-laser-written, stress-induced Nd:YVO4 waveguides preserving fluorescence and Raman gain,” Opt. Lett. 35(7), 916–918 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

19.

Y. Tan, F. Chen, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, G. A. Torchia, A. Benayas, and D. Jaque, “Continuous wave laser generation at 1064 nm in femtosecond laser inscribed Nd:YVO4 channel waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(3), 031119 (2010). [CrossRef]

20.

Y. Tan, J. Guan, F. Chen, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, G. A. Torchia, A. Benayas, and D. Jaque, “Highly efficient waveguide lasers in a femtosecond laser inscribed Nd:YVO4 channel waveguide,” in Advances in Optical Materials, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper AIFB4.

21.

J. Burghoff, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Origins of waveguiding in femtosecond laser-structured LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 89(1), 127–132 (2007). [CrossRef]

22.

A. Ródenas, G. A. Torchia, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, J. Lamela, F. Jaque, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Refractive index change mechanisms in femtosecond laser written ceramic Nd:YAG waveguides: micro-spectroscopy experiments and beam propagation calculations,” Appl. Phys. B 95(1), 85–96 (2009). [CrossRef]

23.

Y. Y. Ren, N. N. Dong, J. Macdonald, F. Chen, H. J. Zhang, and A. K. Kar, “Continuous wave channel waveguide lasers in Nd:LuVO4 fabricated by direct femtosecond laser writing,” Opt. Express 20(3), 1969–1974 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

24.

C. Zhang, N. N. Dong, J. Yang, F. Chen, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, and Q. M. Lu, “Channel waveguide lasers in Nd:GGG crystals fabricated by femtosecond laser inscription,” Opt. Express 19(13), 12503–12508 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

25.

A. G. Okhrimchuk, A. V. Shestakov, I. Khrushchev, and J. Mitchell, “Depressed cladding, buried waveguide laser formed in a YAG:Nd3+ crystal by femtosecond laser writing,” Opt. Lett. 30(17), 2248–2250 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

26.

A. Okhrimchuk, V. Mezentsev, A. Shestakov, and I. Bennion, “Low loss depressed cladding waveguide inscribed in YAG:Nd single crystal by femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 20(4), 3832–3843 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

27.

A. G. Okhrimchuk, V. K. Mezentsev, V. V. Dvoyrin, A. S. Kurkov, E. M. Sholokhov, S. K. Turitsyn, A. V. Shestakov, and I. Bennion, “Waveguide-saturable absorber fabricated by femtosecond pulses in YAG:Cr4+ crystal for Q-switched operation of Yb-fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 34(24), 3881–3883 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

28.

Y. Jia, J. R. Vazquez de Aldana, C. Romero, Y. Ren, Q. Lu, and F. Chen, “Femtosecond-laser-inscribed BiB3O6 nonlinear cladding waveguide for second-harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(7), 072701 (2012). [CrossRef]

29.

N. Dong, F. Chen, and J. R. Vazquez de Aldana, “ Efficient second harmonic generation by birefringent phase matching in femtosecond laser inscribed KTP cladding waveguides,” Phys. Status Solid: rrl DOI . [CrossRef]

30.

R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, and M. Marangoni, “Two straightforward methods for the measurement of optical losses in planar waveguides,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73(3), 1117–1120 (2002). [CrossRef]

31.

Y. Ren, N. Dong, Y. Tan, J. Guan, F. Chen, and Q. Lu, “Continuous Wave Laser Generation in Proton Implanted Nd:GGG Planar Waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28, 3578–3581 (2010).

OCIS Codes
(130.3120) Integrated optics : Integrated optics devices
(140.3390) Lasers and laser optics : Laser materials processing
(230.7370) Optical devices : Waveguides

ToC Category:
Lasers and Laser Optics

History
Original Manuscript: May 23, 2012
Revised Manuscript: June 27, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: July 3, 2012
Published: July 10, 2012

Citation
Yuechen Jia, Feng Chen, and Javier R. Vázquez de Aldana, "Efficient continuous-wave laser operation at 1064 nm in Nd:YVO4 cladding waveguides produced by femtosecond laser inscription," Opt. Express 20, 16801-16806 (2012)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-20-15-16801


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References

  1. A. A. Kaminskii, Laser Crystals: Their Physics and Properties (Springer, 1990)
  2. E. J. Murphy, Integrated optical circuits and components: Design and applications (Marcel Dekker, 1999).
  3. J. I. Mackenzie, “Dielectric solid-state planar waveguide lasers: A review,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.13(3), 626–637 (2007). [CrossRef]
  4. C. Grivas, “Optically pumped planar waveguide lasers, Part I: Fundamentals and fabrication techniques,” Prog. Quantum Electron.35(6), 159–239 (2011). [CrossRef]
  5. M. Pollnau, C. Grivas, L. Laversenne, J. S. Wilkinson, R. W. Eason, and D. P. Shepherd, “Ti:Sapphire waveguide lasers,” Laser Phys. Lett.4(8), 560–571 (2007). [CrossRef]
  6. E. Cantelar, D. Jaque, and G. Lifante, “Waveguide lasers based on dielectric materials,” Opt. Mater.34(3), 555–571 (2012). [CrossRef]
  7. K. van Dalfsen, S. Aravazhi, C. Grivas, S. M. García-Blanco, and M. Pollnau, “Thulium channel waveguide laser in a monoclinic double tungstate with 70% slope efficiency,” Opt. Lett.37(5), 887–889 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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