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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 20, Iss. 16 — Jul. 30, 2012
  • pp: 18188–18193
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DNA optical nanofibers: preparation and characterization

Weihong Long, Weiwen Zou, Xinwan Li, and Jianping Chen  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 20, Issue 16, pp. 18188-18193 (2012)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.20.018188


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Abstract

We demonstrate the preparation and characterization of DNA optical nanofibers. The prepared DNA optical nanofibers with strong strength and high flexibility are tested. Coupled with silica fiber tapers, their optical characteristics including light transmission performance, group delay and chromatic dispersion are experimentally investigated. The visible and near infrared light waveguiding properties of the DNA optical nanofibers with and without R6G doping are also studied. It is expected that the DNA optical nanofibers may be potential for building the miniaturized biomedical photonic devices.

© 2012 OSA

1. Introduction

DNA materials can be used to fabricate drug delivery system, biomedical devices and bioelectronics due to their bioabsorbable and biodegradable nature [1

1. S. Gajria, T. Neumann, and M. Tirrell, “Self-assembly and applications of nucleic acid solid-state films,” Wiley Interdiscip Rev Nanomed Nanobiotechnol 3, 479–500 (2011). [PubMed]

]. Besides, DNA has the double helix structure and hence possesses unusual optoelectronic characteristics, such as enhanced photoluminescence and lasing characteristics [2

2. A. J. Steckl, “DNA - a new material for photonics?” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 3–5 (2007). [CrossRef]

4

4. Y. Ner, J. G. Grote, J. A. Stuart, and G. A. Sotzing, “White luminescence from multiple-dye-doped electrospun DNA nanofibers by fluorescence resonance energy transfer,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 48(28), 5134–5138 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. DNA complexed with cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTMA) is thermally and optically stable, which makes it suitable for applications in photonics, optoelectronics and sensing [2

2. A. J. Steckl, “DNA - a new material for photonics?” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 3–5 (2007). [CrossRef]

5

5. L. Wang, J. Yoshida, N. Ogata, S. Sasaki, and T. Kajiyama, “Self-assembled supramolecular films derived from marine deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)-cationic surfactant complexes: large-scale preparation and optical and thermal properties,” Chem. Mater. 13(4), 1273–1281 (2001). [CrossRef]

]. Recently, the development of DNA-based devices in nanoscale attracts increasing attention [1

1. S. Gajria, T. Neumann, and M. Tirrell, “Self-assembly and applications of nucleic acid solid-state films,” Wiley Interdiscip Rev Nanomed Nanobiotechnol 3, 479–500 (2011). [PubMed]

4

4. Y. Ner, J. G. Grote, J. A. Stuart, and G. A. Sotzing, “White luminescence from multiple-dye-doped electrospun DNA nanofibers by fluorescence resonance energy transfer,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 48(28), 5134–5138 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. DNA-CTMA has been used to fabricate the optoelectronic devices [6

6. J. G. Grote, J. A. Hagen, J. S. Zetts, R. L. Nelson, D. E. Diggs, M. O. Stone, P. P. Yaney, E. Heckman, C. Zhang, W. H. Steier, A. K. Y. Jen, L. R. Dalton, N. Ogata, M. J. Curley, S. J. Clarson, and F. K. Hopkins, “Investigation of polymers and marine-derived DNA in optoelectronics,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108(25), 8584–8591 (2004). [CrossRef]

], optical image correlation device [7

7. J. Mysliwiec, A. Kochalska, and A. Miniewicz, “Biopolymer-based material used in optical image correlation,” Appl. Opt. 47(11), 1902–1906 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and low loss waveguide [8

8. J. Zhou, Z. Y. Wang, X. Yang, C. Y. Wong, and E. Y. Pun, “Fabrication of low-loss, single-mode-channel waveguide with DNA-CTMA biopolymer by multistep processing technology,” Opt. Lett. 35(10), 1512–1514 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

Up to date, most of these devices were fabricated by eletrospinning and lithography. DNA photonic wire has been demonstrated [9

9. J. K. Hannestad, P. Sandin, and B. Albinsson, “Self-assembled DNA photonic wire for long-range energy transfer,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(47), 15889–15895 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], whereas effort to fabricate DNA optical fiber based on DNA material suffered some difficulties [10

10. H. Nakao, T. Taguchi, H. Shiigi, and K. Miki, “Simple one-step growth and parallel alignment of DNA nanofibers via solvent vapor-induced buildup,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 14(14), 1858–1860 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. For example, surface stiffness, flexibility and strength are the issues that should be considered. In comparison, direct drawing is a simple but more effective method to fabricate prototype photonic devices, such as waveguide, high sensitive sensor, splitter and all optical display [11

11. S. A. Harfenist, S. D. Cambron, E. W. Nelson, S. M. Berry, A. W. Isham, M. M. Crain, K. M. Walsh, R. S. Keynton, and R. W. Cohn, “Direct drawing of suspended filamentary micro- and nanostructures from liquid polymers,” Nano Lett. 4(10), 1931–1937 (2004). [CrossRef]

13

13. H. Yu, D. Liao, M. B. Johnston, and B. Li, “All-optical full-color displays using polymer nanofibers,” ACS Nano 5(3), 2020–2025 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Using this method, we have successfully fabricated the DNA optical microfibers (fibers in micrometer scale) and the devices [14

14. W. Long, W. Zou, Z. Hong, Y. Su, L. Tong, L. Yang, L. Zhou, X. Li, and J. Chen, “Characterization of DNA optical microfiber devices fabricated by drawing,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper CME1.

]. The fabricated DNA optical microfibers often suffer from the poor uniformity and strong irregular roughness due to the residual impurities in the purified DNA materials. These cause serious light scattering and mainly attribute to the high loss (6 dB/mm), much higher than that of the molecular beam deposited DNA film (~0.02 dB/mm) described in [3

3. J. A. Hagen, W. X. Li, H. Spaeth, J. G. Grote, and A. J. Steckl, “Molecular beam deposition of DNA nanometer films,” Nano Lett. 7(1), 133–137 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Compared with the microfiber, the nanofiber has smaller size and higher surface-to-volume ratio. When the diameters of optical fibers decrease down to sub-microscale or even nanoscale (close to the diffraction limit of the guided light), some interesting phenomena including large evanescent fields and large waveguide dispersions have been obtained [15

15. J. Bures and R. Ghosh, “Power density of the evanescent field in the vicinity of a tapered fiber,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16(8), 1992–1996 (1999). [CrossRef]

19

19. A. M. Zheltikov, “Birefringence of guided modes in photonic wires: Gaussian-mode analysis,” Opt. Commun. 252(1-3), 78–83 (2005). [CrossRef]

]. These phenomena have excited a lot of research issues for developing the compact photonic components after combining the functionalized materials such as chemical indicators, laser dyes and semiconductor nanowires [12

12. F. Gu, L. Zhang, X. Yin, and L. Tong, “Polymer single-nanowire optical sensors,” Nano Lett. 8(9), 2757–2761 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,20

20. X. Jiang, Q. Yang, G. Vienne, Y. Li, L. Tong, J. Zhang, and L. Hu, “Demonstration of microfiber knot laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 143513 (2006). [CrossRef]

22

22. R. Yan, J. H. Park, Y. Choi, C. J. Heo, S. M. Yang, L. P. Lee, and P. Yang, “Nanowire-based single-cell endoscopy,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(3), 191–196 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Because of the large evanescent fields, the nanofibers have been widely investigated as the sensors and the compact photonic devices, such as the sensor of monitoring the gas concentration change with the ppm-level sensitivity, a single-cell endoscopy by injecting a “small” nanofiber into a cell, the connector of being directly coupled with the plasmonic nanowire, the ultracompact splitters and all-optical full-color displays [12

12. F. Gu, L. Zhang, X. Yin, and L. Tong, “Polymer single-nanowire optical sensors,” Nano Lett. 8(9), 2757–2761 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,13

13. H. Yu, D. Liao, M. B. Johnston, and B. Li, “All-optical full-color displays using polymer nanofibers,” ACS Nano 5(3), 2020–2025 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,21

21. X. Guo, M. Qiu, J. Bao, B. J. Wiley, Q. Yang, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, H. Yu, and L. Tong, “Direct coupling of plasmonic and photonic nanowires for hybrid nanophotonic components and circuits,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4515–4519 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,22

22. R. Yan, J. H. Park, Y. Choi, C. J. Heo, S. M. Yang, L. P. Lee, and P. Yang, “Nanowire-based single-cell endoscopy,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(3), 191–196 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The large waveguide dispersion of the nanofiber was widely used in supercontinuum generation [23

23. P. Ying, G. Feng, X. Li, Z. Ma, J. Chen, Q. Zhu, and X. Zhang, “Supercontinuum generation based on nanofiber,” Optik (Stuttg.) 119(13), 648–653 (2008). [CrossRef]

]. Hence it is necessary to develop DNA optical nanofibers (fibers in nanometer scale) and study their properties.

In this paper, we demonstrate the preparation of DNA optical nanofibers. The DNA material purification method is improved by use of the filter with the nanoscale pore. DNA optical nanofibers were fabricated by simple drawing. Transmission loss, group delay (GD) and chromatic dispersion (CD) of DNA optical nanofibers were experimentally investigated. Since DNA-CTMA can greatly enhance fluorescent efficiency and R6G has the high quantum efficiency [3

3. J. A. Hagen, W. X. Li, H. Spaeth, J. G. Grote, and A. J. Steckl, “Molecular beam deposition of DNA nanometer films,” Nano Lett. 7(1), 133–137 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5

5. L. Wang, J. Yoshida, N. Ogata, S. Sasaki, and T. Kajiyama, “Self-assembled supramolecular films derived from marine deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)-cationic surfactant complexes: large-scale preparation and optical and thermal properties,” Chem. Mater. 13(4), 1273–1281 (2001). [CrossRef]

], R6G doped DNA optical nanofiber was fabricated and the visible and near-infrared light waveguiding properties were studied.

2. Preparation of DNA optical nanofibers

DNA-CTMA was homemade by mixing salmon sperm DNA (Sigma-Aldrich) and CTMA (MW = 320, Sigma-Aldrich) solution. The details are described as follows. First, salmon sperm DNA was dissolved in ddH2O, and then the DNA solution was decolorized by active carbon and filtered with the normal filter membrane. Second, CTMA solution was added into the preceded DNA solution continuously until there is no more precipitation, which is similar to the method described in [5

5. L. Wang, J. Yoshida, N. Ogata, S. Sasaki, and T. Kajiyama, “Self-assembled supramolecular films derived from marine deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)-cationic surfactant complexes: large-scale preparation and optical and thermal properties,” Chem. Mater. 13(4), 1273–1281 (2001). [CrossRef]

]. Third, the DNA-CTMA layer was dissolved in 1-butanol (MW = 74.12, Sigma-Aldrich) and purified with the 0.45 μm syringe filters (Millipore). Finally, an additional step of using LiposoFast-Basic with the 50-nm-pore membrane (Avestin) was used to filter the DNA-CTMA suspension again.

In order to obtain the efficient light coupling, the two ends of a DNA optical nanofiber were coupled with the home-made abrupt silica tapers with submicrometer- or nanometer-order waist. A standard silica single-mode fiber (SMF) was heated by the arc discharge via a fiber splicer (Ericsson FSU975) and drawn to the desired shape by controlling the heating time and the drawing length. Compared with the conventional drawing technique using a flame [16

16. L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], it ensures the silica taper possessing cleanness and strong suppression of air convection currents near the silica nanofiber. It ensures the formation of the abrupt silica fibers with tips below 100 nm (confirmed by SEM).

As shown in Fig. 3(a)
Fig. 3 Images of a DNA optical nanofiber coupled with silica fiber tapers. (a) The microscope image of a 540-nm-diameter DNA nanofiber coupled with silica fiber tapers (up) and its magnified view of the marked zone (middle), light transmission at 632.8 nm wavelength (down). (b) Schematic diagram of a DNA optical nanofiber coupled with silica fiber tapers is fixed with UV curable fluoropolymer (red) (up) and the picture of a packaged DNA optical nanofiber encapsulated with PMMA box on the glass slide (down).
, two silica fiber tapers were used as the input and output ports coupled with a DNA optical nanofiber, whose diameter was characterized by SEM. The diameter of the taper changes from several microns to below 100 nm along the tapering direction, which ensures that the mode field diameter (MFD) of a DNA optical nanofiber is among the maximum and the minimum of the silica taper MFD. Provided the MFD of a DNA optical nanofiber matches well with those of silica tapers, high-efficient coupling occurs.

The microscope images of light transmission at 632.8 nm wavelength are illustrated in Fig. 1(c) and Fig. 3(a) for 650-nm-diameter and 540-nm-diameter DNA optical nanofibers, respectively. The experimental results show that the total loss (including coupling and transmission loss) is ~10 dB. DNA optical nanofiber coupled with silica fiber tapers was packaged in order to avoid the environmental influence, as shown in Fig. 3(b). Silica fiber tapers coupled with a DNA optical nanofiber were fixed on the MgF2 surface and then a PMMA box was employed to seal the coupled DNA optical nanofiber.

3. Characterization of DNA optical nanofibers

The experimental setup to characterize DNA optical nanofibers is depicted in Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Schematic diagram of the experimental setup. TLS: tunable laser source, AM: amplitude modulator, PC: polarization controller, S: sample (DNA optical nanofibers), O/E: photoelectric converter, NA: network analyzer, RF: radio frequency signal.
. A tunable laser at 1550 nm range is intensity modulated through an amplitude modulator (AM) driven by a radio frequency (RF) signal, and then launched into the DNA optical nanofiber sample (S). The light phase change (Δφ) induced by the sample is measured by a network analyzer. The relative group delay can be calculated by [24

24. A. Yariv and P. Yeh, Photonics: Optical-Electronics in Modern Communications, Sixth Edition (Publishing House of Electronics Industry, 2009), Chap. 6, 7.

].
ΔτΔλ=Δφωm,
(1)
where ωm is the angular frequency of the RF signal.

Two different DNA optical nanofiber samples after packaging were characterized. The normalized measurement was employed using the silica fiber with the matched length of the measured sample package before every characterization, which can eliminate the influence of silica fiber and the taper. The results are plotted in Fig. 5(a)
Fig. 5 Transmission spectrum and GD images of DNA optical nanofibers. (a) 1% R6G doped 540-nm-diameter DNA optical nanofiber, (b) 600-nm-diameter DNA optical nanofiber, (c) Calculated CD of DNA optical nanofibers.
and Fig. 5(b), respectively. The first one was doped by 1% R6G with a 540 nm diameter and the other one was fabricated from the pure DNA material with a 600 nm diameter. There is a difference in the total loss between these two samples, which is perhaps due to the incomplete coupling situations. The normalized dispersions of DNA optical nanofibers with or without R6G doping are both negative in the wavelength range of 1540-1560 nm, which is indicated by the GD curves. The deduced CD value [24

24. A. Yariv and P. Yeh, Photonics: Optical-Electronics in Modern Communications, Sixth Edition (Publishing House of Electronics Industry, 2009), Chap. 6, 7.

] is shown in Fig. 5(c), which is almost close to zero.

It is noted that there are more or less periodic fluctuations for both samples in the loss, GD and CD measurements (see Fig. 5). As described in [25

25. R. J. Black, S. Lacroix, F. Gonthier, and J. D. Love, “Tapered single-mode fibres and devices. part 2: experimental and theoretical quantification,” Optoelectronics, IEE Proceedings J 138(5), 355–364 (1991). [CrossRef]

], it can be attributed to the interference between two optical modes (the fundamental mode of LP01 and a higher order mode, such as approximate LP02). The working mechanism is discussed as follows. The fundamental mode in the core of the silica SMF (see Fig. 3(a)) excites multiple higher order modes in the transition region of silica SMF taper. First, they suffer the phase difference inside the two tapers. Second, since the DNA optical nanofiber being in nanometer scale supports the only fundamental mode, the excited higher order modes in silica SMF taper leak out to the environmental air and only part of the leaked light is coupled back into the other silica SMF taper. In consequence, interference with low amplitude occurs between the efficient propagation of the fundamental mode (in silica fiber tapers and DNA optical fiber) and the inefficient propagation of the higher mode (in silica fiber tapers and air), respectively. This phenomenon works like a Mach-Zehnder (MZ) type multi-mode interference [26

26. Y. Jung, G. Brambilla, and D. J. Richardson, “Broadband single-mode operation of standard optical fibers by using a sub-wavelength optical wire filter,” Opt. Express 16(19), 14661–14667 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. It can be further confirmed by the fact that the amplitude of the fluctuations and the period are quite similar to each other as silica fiber tapers and the length of the two DNA optical nanofibers were almost the same.

4. Conclusion

Acknowledgments

We thank Prof. L. Tong, F. Gu, Y. Ma, and Z. Yang at Zhejiang University for their assistances, and are grateful to Prof. Y. Su, Prof. L. Zhou, Prof. R. He, Z. Hong, H. Luo, J. Shen, and J. Shi at Shanghai Jiao Tong University for helpful advice and fruitful discussions. We acknowledge supports from Instrumental analysis center of Shanghai Jiao Tong University in SEM and TEM tests. This work was partially supported by 973 program (Grant no. 2011CB301700), NSFC (Grant nos. 61007052, 61107041, 61127016), STCSM Project (Grant no. 10DJ1400402, 12XD1406400), the International Cooperation Project from MOST (Grand no. 2011FDA11780), and the “SMC Young Star” scientist Program of Shanghai Jiao Tong University.

References and links

1.

S. Gajria, T. Neumann, and M. Tirrell, “Self-assembly and applications of nucleic acid solid-state films,” Wiley Interdiscip Rev Nanomed Nanobiotechnol 3, 479–500 (2011). [PubMed]

2.

A. J. Steckl, “DNA - a new material for photonics?” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 3–5 (2007). [CrossRef]

3.

J. A. Hagen, W. X. Li, H. Spaeth, J. G. Grote, and A. J. Steckl, “Molecular beam deposition of DNA nanometer films,” Nano Lett. 7(1), 133–137 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4.

Y. Ner, J. G. Grote, J. A. Stuart, and G. A. Sotzing, “White luminescence from multiple-dye-doped electrospun DNA nanofibers by fluorescence resonance energy transfer,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 48(28), 5134–5138 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

L. Wang, J. Yoshida, N. Ogata, S. Sasaki, and T. Kajiyama, “Self-assembled supramolecular films derived from marine deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)-cationic surfactant complexes: large-scale preparation and optical and thermal properties,” Chem. Mater. 13(4), 1273–1281 (2001). [CrossRef]

6.

J. G. Grote, J. A. Hagen, J. S. Zetts, R. L. Nelson, D. E. Diggs, M. O. Stone, P. P. Yaney, E. Heckman, C. Zhang, W. H. Steier, A. K. Y. Jen, L. R. Dalton, N. Ogata, M. J. Curley, S. J. Clarson, and F. K. Hopkins, “Investigation of polymers and marine-derived DNA in optoelectronics,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108(25), 8584–8591 (2004). [CrossRef]

7.

J. Mysliwiec, A. Kochalska, and A. Miniewicz, “Biopolymer-based material used in optical image correlation,” Appl. Opt. 47(11), 1902–1906 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

J. Zhou, Z. Y. Wang, X. Yang, C. Y. Wong, and E. Y. Pun, “Fabrication of low-loss, single-mode-channel waveguide with DNA-CTMA biopolymer by multistep processing technology,” Opt. Lett. 35(10), 1512–1514 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

J. K. Hannestad, P. Sandin, and B. Albinsson, “Self-assembled DNA photonic wire for long-range energy transfer,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(47), 15889–15895 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

H. Nakao, T. Taguchi, H. Shiigi, and K. Miki, “Simple one-step growth and parallel alignment of DNA nanofibers via solvent vapor-induced buildup,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 14(14), 1858–1860 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

S. A. Harfenist, S. D. Cambron, E. W. Nelson, S. M. Berry, A. W. Isham, M. M. Crain, K. M. Walsh, R. S. Keynton, and R. W. Cohn, “Direct drawing of suspended filamentary micro- and nanostructures from liquid polymers,” Nano Lett. 4(10), 1931–1937 (2004). [CrossRef]

12.

F. Gu, L. Zhang, X. Yin, and L. Tong, “Polymer single-nanowire optical sensors,” Nano Lett. 8(9), 2757–2761 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

H. Yu, D. Liao, M. B. Johnston, and B. Li, “All-optical full-color displays using polymer nanofibers,” ACS Nano 5(3), 2020–2025 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

W. Long, W. Zou, Z. Hong, Y. Su, L. Tong, L. Yang, L. Zhou, X. Li, and J. Chen, “Characterization of DNA optical microfiber devices fabricated by drawing,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper CME1.

15.

J. Bures and R. Ghosh, “Power density of the evanescent field in the vicinity of a tapered fiber,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16(8), 1992–1996 (1999). [CrossRef]

16.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

17.

L. Tong, J. Lou, and E. Mazur, “Single-mode guiding properties of subwavelength-diameter silica and silicon wire waveguides,” Opt. Express 12(6), 1025–1035 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18.

F. L. Kien, J. Q. Liang, K. Hakuta, and V. I. Balykin, “Field intensity distributions and polarization orientations in a vacuum-clad subwavelength-diameter optical fiber,” Opt. Commun. 242(4-6), 445–455 (2004). [CrossRef]

19.

A. M. Zheltikov, “Birefringence of guided modes in photonic wires: Gaussian-mode analysis,” Opt. Commun. 252(1-3), 78–83 (2005). [CrossRef]

20.

X. Jiang, Q. Yang, G. Vienne, Y. Li, L. Tong, J. Zhang, and L. Hu, “Demonstration of microfiber knot laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 143513 (2006). [CrossRef]

21.

X. Guo, M. Qiu, J. Bao, B. J. Wiley, Q. Yang, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, H. Yu, and L. Tong, “Direct coupling of plasmonic and photonic nanowires for hybrid nanophotonic components and circuits,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4515–4519 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

22.

R. Yan, J. H. Park, Y. Choi, C. J. Heo, S. M. Yang, L. P. Lee, and P. Yang, “Nanowire-based single-cell endoscopy,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(3), 191–196 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

23.

P. Ying, G. Feng, X. Li, Z. Ma, J. Chen, Q. Zhu, and X. Zhang, “Supercontinuum generation based on nanofiber,” Optik (Stuttg.) 119(13), 648–653 (2008). [CrossRef]

24.

A. Yariv and P. Yeh, Photonics: Optical-Electronics in Modern Communications, Sixth Edition (Publishing House of Electronics Industry, 2009), Chap. 6, 7.

25.

R. J. Black, S. Lacroix, F. Gonthier, and J. D. Love, “Tapered single-mode fibres and devices. part 2: experimental and theoretical quantification,” Optoelectronics, IEE Proceedings J 138(5), 355–364 (1991). [CrossRef]

26.

Y. Jung, G. Brambilla, and D. J. Richardson, “Broadband single-mode operation of standard optical fibers by using a sub-wavelength optical wire filter,” Opt. Express 16(19), 14661–14667 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

OCIS Codes
(060.2280) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber design and fabrication
(310.6628) Thin films : Subwavelength structures, nanostructures

ToC Category:
Fiber Optics and Optical Communications

History
Original Manuscript: May 24, 2012
Revised Manuscript: July 2, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: July 11, 2012
Published: July 24, 2012

Virtual Issues
Vol. 7, Iss. 9 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Citation
Weihong Long, Weiwen Zou, Xinwan Li, and Jianping Chen, "DNA optical nanofibers: preparation and characterization," Opt. Express 20, 18188-18193 (2012)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-20-16-18188


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References

  1. S. Gajria, T. Neumann, and M. Tirrell, “Self-assembly and applications of nucleic acid solid-state films,” Wiley Interdiscip Rev Nanomed Nanobiotechnol3, 479–500 (2011). [PubMed]
  2. A. J. Steckl, “DNA - a new material for photonics?” Nat. Photonics1(1), 3–5 (2007). [CrossRef]
  3. J. A. Hagen, W. X. Li, H. Spaeth, J. G. Grote, and A. J. Steckl, “Molecular beam deposition of DNA nanometer films,” Nano Lett.7(1), 133–137 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. Y. Ner, J. G. Grote, J. A. Stuart, and G. A. Sotzing, “White luminescence from multiple-dye-doped electrospun DNA nanofibers by fluorescence resonance energy transfer,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.48(28), 5134–5138 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. L. Wang, J. Yoshida, N. Ogata, S. Sasaki, and T. Kajiyama, “Self-assembled supramolecular films derived from marine deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)-cationic surfactant complexes: large-scale preparation and optical and thermal properties,” Chem. Mater.13(4), 1273–1281 (2001). [CrossRef]
  6. J. G. Grote, J. A. Hagen, J. S. Zetts, R. L. Nelson, D. E. Diggs, M. O. Stone, P. P. Yaney, E. Heckman, C. Zhang, W. H. Steier, A. K. Y. Jen, L. R. Dalton, N. Ogata, M. J. Curley, S. J. Clarson, and F. K. Hopkins, “Investigation of polymers and marine-derived DNA in optoelectronics,” J. Phys. Chem. B108(25), 8584–8591 (2004). [CrossRef]
  7. J. Mysliwiec, A. Kochalska, and A. Miniewicz, “Biopolymer-based material used in optical image correlation,” Appl. Opt.47(11), 1902–1906 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. J. Zhou, Z. Y. Wang, X. Yang, C. Y. Wong, and E. Y. Pun, “Fabrication of low-loss, single-mode-channel waveguide with DNA-CTMA biopolymer by multistep processing technology,” Opt. Lett.35(10), 1512–1514 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. K. Hannestad, P. Sandin, and B. Albinsson, “Self-assembled DNA photonic wire for long-range energy transfer,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.130(47), 15889–15895 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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