OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 20, Iss. 16 — Jul. 30, 2012
  • pp: 18515–18524
« Show journal navigation

Radiation of a uniformly moving line charge in a zero-index metamaterial and other periodic media

Avner Yanai and Uriel Levy  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 20, Issue 16, pp. 18515-18524 (2012)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.20.018515


View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (958 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

Radiation of electromagnetic waves by a uniformly moving charge is the subject of extensive research over the last several decades. Fascinating effects such as Vavilov-Cherenkov radiation, transition radiation and the Smith-Purcell effect were discovered and studied in depth. In this letter we study the radiation of a line charge moving with relativistic constant velocity within an average zero index metamaterial consisting of periodically alternating layers with negative and positive refractive index. We observe a strong radiation enhancement, ∼3 orders of magnitude, for specific combinations of velocities and radiation frequencies. This surprising finding is attributed to a gigantic increase in the density of states at the positive/negative index boundary. Furthermore, we shed light on radiation effects of such a line charge propagating within the more “traditional” structure of periodically alternating layers consisting of positive and different refractive index with focus on frequencies satisfying the quarter wave stack and the half wave stack conditions. We show that the quarter-wave-stack case results in emission propagating vertically to the line charge trajectory, while the half-wave-stack results in negligible radiation. All these findings were obtained using a computationally efficient and conceptually intuitive computation method, based on eigenmode expansion of specific frequency components. For validation purposes this method was compared with the finite-difference-time-domain method.

© 2012 OSA

1. Introduction

Since the experimental manifestation of Vavilov and Cherenkov in 1934 and the following theoretical explanation by Frank and Tamm in 1937, it is known that a charged particle moving in a homogeneous medium with constant velocity larger than the phase velocity of light radiates electromagnetic energy. Other processes of radiation by charged particles with constant velocity are transition radiation and Smith-Purcell radiation [1

1. V. L. Ginzburg, “Radiation by uniformly moving sources (Vavilov - Cherenkov effect, transition radiation,and other phenomena),” Usp. Fiz. Nauk 166, 1033–1042 (1996). [CrossRef]

7

7. L. Schächter, Beam-Wave Interaction in Periodic and Quasi-Periodic Structures (Springer, 1997).

]. Transition radiation occurs when the particle transverses materials with different refractive indexes. Smith-Purcell radiation is the consequence of converting the evanescent field (generated by a charged particle moving at a speed lower than the phase velocity of light in a medium) into propagating field by a diffraction grating. While the latter effect assumes the presence of a charged particle in vacuum, in close proximity to the grating, there is also a great interest in studying the radiation of charges moving at a constant velocity within the periodic media [8

8. I. A. Fainberg and N. A. Khizhniak, “Energy Loss of a Charged Particle Passing Through a Laminar Dielectric,” Sov. Phys. JETP 5720–729 (1957).

11

11. L.Sh. Khachatryan, S.R. Arzumanyan, and W. Wagner, “Self-amplified Cherenkov radiation from a relativistic electron in a waveguide partially filled with a laminated material,” JJ. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 357, 012004 (2012). [CrossRef]

]. In [12

12. C. Luo, M. Ibanescu, S. G. Johnson, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Cherenkov radiation in photonic crystals,” Science 299(5605), 368–371 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] it was shown that line charges moving in a 2D photonic crystal may radiate in a reversed angle. In [13

13. C. Kremers, D. N. Chigrin, and J. Kroha, “Theory of Cherenkov radiation in periodic dielectric media: Emission spectrum,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 013829 (2009). [CrossRef]

, 14

14. C. Kremers and D. N. Chigrin, “Spatial distribution of Cherenkov radiation in periodic dielectric media,” J. Opt. A 11, 114008 (2009). [CrossRef]

] the radiation of both line charges and charged particles moving in photonic crystal lattices were analyzed.

In 1968, V. Veselago predicted that for a medium with negative ε and μ (a double negative (DNG) material) the Cherenkov radiation cone is reversed compared to the case of a medium with both ε and μ positive (a double positive (DPS) material) [15

15. V. G. Veselago, “The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of ε and μ,” Sov. Phys. Usp. 10, 509–514 (1968). [CrossRef]

]. This prediction was later discussed in the context of lossy and dispersive DNG media [16

16. J. Lu, T. Grzegorczyk, Y. Zhang, J. Pacheco Jr., B.-I. Wu, J. Kong, and M. Chen, “Cerenkov radiation in materials with negative permittivity and permeability,” Opt. Express 11, 723–734 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and confirmed experimentally [17

17. S. Xi, H. Chen, T. Jiang, L. Ran, J. Huangfu, B. I. Wu, J. A. Kong, and M. Chen, “Experimental Verification of Reversed Cherenkov Radiation in Left-Handed Metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 194801 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. The radiation of charged particles moving from DPS to DNG media was studied as well [18

18. S. N. Galyamin, A. V. Tyukhtin, A. Kanareykin, and P. Schoessow, “Reversed Cherenkov-Transition Radiation by a Charge Crossing a Left-Handed Medium Boundary,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 194802 (2009). [CrossRef]

, 19

19. S. N. Galyamin and A. V. Tyukhtin, “Electromagnetic field of a moving charge in the presence of a left-handed medium,” Phys. Rev. B 81, 235134 (2010). [CrossRef]

]. Very recently, radiation in metamaterial wire grid media has been considered as well [20

20. D. E. Fernandes, S. I. Maslovski, and M. G. Silveirinha, “Cherenkov emission in a nanowire material,” Phys. Rev. B 85, 155107 (2012). [CrossRef]

, 21

21. V. V. Vorobev and A. V. Tyukhtin, “Nondivergent Cherenkov Radiation in a Wire Metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 184801 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Also has been considered the excitation of metamaterial structures with a magnetic dipole source [22

22. Z. Mohammadi, C. P. Van Vlack, S. Hughes, J. Bornemann, and R. Gordon, “Vortex electron energy loss spectroscopy for near-field mapping of magnetic plasmons,” Opt. Express 20, 15024–15034 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

2. Formulation of the problem

Our discussion begins with solving the electromagnetic fields in an infinite 1D periodic structure, excited by a line charge with infinite extent along the y direction which is moving at a relativistic velocity along the direction of periodicity (z). L is the unit cell size, v is the velocity of the line charge and ρ is charge density per unit length (see schematic in Fig. 1). The moving charge density results in a current density J in the z direction given by:
Jz(x,z,t)=ρvδ(x)δ(zvt)
(1)
where z is the direction of propagation. The periodic structure consists of two materials defined by their electric permittivity and magnetic permeability εi and μi (i = 1, 2) respectively, and by their width Li. To calculate the electromagnetic fields that reside in this structure we first calculate the eigenmodes of the structure for the homogeneous problem (in the absence of sources) using the FMM, and afterward extract the coupling of the source to the eigenmodes.

Fig. 1 Schematic drawing of the structure, extending infinitely in the x and y directions, with periodicity in the z direction. Two unit cells of the structure are shown. The thick blue arrow denotes the propagation direction of the line charge. x = 0 is defined as the x position of the line source.

2.1. Homogeneous problem

2.2. Inhomogeneous problem

Equation (4) defines a surface current density, which forces a discontinuity of the magnetic field, equal to half the current amplitude [29

29. J. D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics, 3rd ed. (Wiley, 1999).

]. Therefore, at an infinitesimal distance σ from x = 0, the magnetic field obeys:
2Hy|σ=ρexp(jkz,cz)
(5)
In order to find the coupling coefficients C, we combine Eqs. (2) and (5), obtaining:
n=12N+1CnWmnexp(jkz,mz)exp(jkx,nσ)=12ρexp(jkz,cz)
(6)
Which can be written in matrix form as: W=X=C_=12ρδm,0_ where δm,0_ is a column vector with all elements zero, except for the element corresponding to the zeroth order (m = 0) which is equal to unity. For x → 0 the matrix is asymptotically equal to the identity matrix . The matrix is obtained by solving the homogeneous problem. It is now possible to solve for the column vector of coupling constants :
C_=12ρW=1δm,0_
(7)
Having obtained , we have a full description of Hy_.

2.3. Calculation of radiated power

Using conservation of energy, the radiated electromagnetic power in the unit cell per frequency component is obtained by calculating the time averaged work done by the line charge.
P(ω)=12Re(σ,LJ˜zEz*dxdz)
(8)
For TM polarization, the Ez field can be deduced from Hy. In matrix form we write [23

23. M. G. Moharam, E. B. Grann, D. A. Pommet, and T. K. Gaylord, “Formulation for stable and efficient implementation of the rigorous coupled-wave analysis of binary gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 1068–1076 (1995). [CrossRef]

]:
Ez_=E=1W=Kx=X=C_=V=X=C_
(9)
With defined as V==E=1W=Kx=. Knowing Ez, Eq. (8) can be evaluated:
P(ω)=12Reσ,Lρδ(x)exp(jkz,cz)(m=n=1VmnCnexp(jkz,mz))*dxdz
(10)
The delta function δ(x) removes the integration over x. By integrating over z, all multiplications between non equal Fourier components of the current source and Ez are zero from orthogonality, and Eq. (10) can be written in matrix form:
P(ω)=12ρLRe(V_m=0,nC_)
(11)
where m=0,n is a row vector and its elements are the “zeroth order” Fourier components of each eigenmode.

We now show that the emitted power averaged over the unit cell is equal to the time averaged Poynting vector in the z direction Sz=12Re(ExHy*). Because of symmetry around x = 0, the time averaged Poynting vector is multiplied by two:
Sz,tot=Re(ExHy*)=Re((V=C_)(W=C_)T)=12ρRe((V=C_)(W=W=1δm,0_)T)=12ρRe((V_m=0,nC_))
(12)
In Eq. (12), “T” denotes the Hermitian complex conjugate transpose. It is seen that SzL = P.

3. Simulation results

3.1. Comparison with FDTD

In order to validate our results, we now compare the total radiated power obtained with the FMM to FDTD simulations. In the FDTD model, we assumed a single wavelength current sheet source (infinite in the y direction and extending over the unit cell in the z direction) with angular frequency ω and Jz(x, z, t) = ρδ(x)exp(jkz,cz) exp(jωt). This current source represents the steady state solution of our problem, i.e. it doesn’t assume a moving line charge explicitly. As such, the current source excitation fits the purpose of validating the results obtained by FMM (being a frequency domain method the FMM provides a steady state solution) with an independent method. In Fig. 2 we show the radiated power per unit frequency as calculated by both FDTD and FMM. The consistency between the two methods is clearly evident.

Fig. 2 Radiated power P(ω) from one unit cell, normalized by ρ2/(0) as a function of ε2 calculated for ε1 = 1, μ1 = 1, μ2 = 2, v = 0.85c, L = 0.4536λ = 2L1 = 2L2. The blue line and the red circles correspond to FMM and FDTD results respectively.

3.2. Vertical emission from a periodic structure satisfying the QWS condition

We now consider the case of vertical emission of electromagnetic waves (light propagation along the x direction) by a line charge moving along the horizontal (z) direction within a 1D periodic structure. We focus our attention on a specific frequency (out of the continuum of frequencies emitted by the line charge) for which the QWS condition is satisfied. In a homogeneous medium, vertical emission is obtained when kz,c approaches zero. Unfortunately, such a case occurs only if the line charge is moving with an infinitely high velocity, and therefore vertical emission cannot be obtained in a homogenous medium. As known from the theory of 1D photonic crystals [30

30. J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, J. N. Winn, and R. D. Meade, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light, 2nd ed. (Princeton University Press, 2008).

], Bloch wavevectors at one of the Brillouin Zone (BZ) edges (e.g. kB = π/L, where kB is the Bloch wavevector) with frequencies that obey the QWS condition, are Bragg reflected to the opposite Brillouin zone edge (kB = −π/L). We now ask ourselves what would happen if we assume an excitation by a specific kz,c inducing a phase difference between the two boundaries of the QWS unit cell that is equivalent to kz = ±π/L, i.e. excitation at the edge of the 1st BZ. For such a case, all diffracted orders are located at the edges of this BZ. Obviously, these diffracted orders cannot contribute to power flow in the z direction, because all orders obey the QWS condition. Moreover, plane waves that monotonically decay in either the positive or negative z direction, cannot contribute to power flow in the x direction because their energy density vanishes. However, the superposition with equal phase and amplitude of two such plane waves with their kz at the opposite BZ edges, will result in a standing wave with zero phase difference across the unit cell, located at the center of the BZ (kz = 0). Such a wave does not decay monotonically in the z direction and thus can propagate along the x direction.

Following this heuristic discussion we preformed an FMM simulation with the following parameters obeying the QWS condition: λ=4Lε1ε2/(ε1+ε2), v = 2Lc/λ, L1=ε2ε1+ε2L, L2=ε1ε1+ε2L, ε1 = 1.2, ε2 = 1 and μ1 = μ2 = 1. In Fig. 3(a) the Poynting vector in the x direction (Sx) is shown, providing a clear evident for the radiation of light in the vertical direction away from the line charge. In Figs. 3(b) and 3(c) we plot the real and imaginary parts of Hy (the colorbar is normalized by ρ). Indeed, one can learn from these two figures that away from the source (located at x = 0) the magnetic field has a negligible phase difference across the unit cell, as expected from the above mentioned discussion. In Fig. 3(d), we plot the magnitude of the Fourier components of the magnetic field amplitudes, (calculated at x = ±100λ to diminish the effect of the non-propagating modes). As can be seen, there are two major non vanishing Fourier components (N = 0,1), with equal amplitude. These two Fourier components correspond to plane waves with kz = ±π/L, in agreement with the above mentioned discussion. The phases of these two Fourier components (not shown) are identical. All Fourier orders are distributed symmetrically around N = 0,1.

Fig. 3 (a) Re(Sx) normalized by of ρ2/(0) (b,c) Field distribution of Re(Hy) and Im(Hy) (corresponding to an exp(jωt) time dependence) normalized by ρ. (d) Magnitude of the Fourier orders of Hy.

3.3. Horizontal emission from a periodic structure satisfying the HWS

We now study the emission from a HWS structure. We use similar parameters as in Section 3.2, only now λ=2Lε1ε2/(ε1+ε2) and v = Lc/λ. In Fig. 4 the field amplitudes of Hy and Ez are plotted. It is seen that in each half plane (x > 0 and x < 0), the magnetic field distribution corresponds to a “plane wave” propagating in the z direction. The Ez component decays exponentially along the x direction and therefore Sx must be zero away from the source, as no power flux in the x direction can exist with a vanishing Ez component. Indeed, substituting our FMM results in Eq. (11) results in a null for the first nine significant digits behind the decimal point. The nearly zero radiated power is also understood from the following observation: the real and imaginary parts of the current distribution given by Eq. (4) are shifted by π/2 compared to the real and imaginary parts of Ez shown in Fig. 4. Therefore, the work done by the Ez field on the charges vanishes.

Fig. 4 (a,b) Field distribution of Re(Hy) and Im(Hy) (corresponding to an exp(jωt) time dependence), normalized by ρ. (c,d) Field distribution of Re(Ez) and Im(Ez) normalized by ρ/(0).

4. Radiation in zero real average refractive index DPS – DNG periodic structures

We now move forward to discuss the fascinating case of a current source moving within a HWS consisting of alternating DPS and DNG layers. In isotropic DPS media, the time averaged Poynting vector ( S=12Re(E×H*)) and the wavevector k are parallel, while in isotropic DNG media they are anti-parallel [15

15. V. G. Veselago, “The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of ε and μ,” Sov. Phys. Usp. 10, 509–514 (1968). [CrossRef]

]. Therefore, for the nth excited eigenmode with wavevector kx,n, the Poynting vectors in the DPS and DNG media, are anti parallel. If the real part of the refractive index in the two media is opposite (as obtained for example for the following combination of parameters: ε1 = εR + I, ε2 = −εR + I, μ1 = μR + I, μ2 = −μR + I where the subscripts R and I denote the real and imaginary parts of the material parameters respectively), and the duty cycle is set to 12 (i.e. L1 = L2) the overall energy flow will cancel out after averaging over a unit cell, if the field intensities in both media are equal. This case of opposite real part of the refractive index is a special case of a structure having average zero real part of the refractive index [28

28. A. Yanai, M. Orenstein, and U. Levy, “Giant resonance absorption in ultra-thin metamaterial periodic structures,” Opt. Express 20, 3693–3702 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 31

31. S. Nefedov and S. A. Tretyakov, “Photonic band gap structure containing metamaterial with negative permittivity and permeability,” Phys. Rev. E 66, 036611 (2002). [CrossRef]

33

33. S. Kocaman, M. S. Aras, P. Hsieh, J. F. McMillan, C. G. Biris, N. C. Panoiu, M. B. Yu, D. L. Kwong, A. Stein, and C. W. Wong, “Zero phase delay in negative-refractive-index photonic crystal superlattices,” Nat. Photonics 5, 499–505 (2011). [CrossRef]

].

In Fig. 5(a), we plot the work done by the current source located within a DPS-DNG periodic structure as a function of v/c and λ/L, calculated for the following parameters: ε1 = 1 + 1 × 10−3 j, ε2 = −1 + 1 ×10−3 j, μ1 = 1 + 1 ×10−3 j, μ2 = −1 + 1 ×10−3 j and L = λ = 2L1 = 2L2. Very narrow peaks are observed. Moreover, the calculated work reaches very high values: possibly three orders of magnitude higher than in “ordinary” DPS structures (compare with the values in Fig. 2). Figure 5(b) is based on similar data used in Fig. 5(a), however the v/c axis is now rescaled to (λ/L)*(v/c). With this choice of scaling, the calculated work follows vertical lines located at (λ/L)*(v/c)=11,12,13,14,15 etc. (see also Fig. 5(c), where the color scale is saturated, making the locations more visible).

Fig. 5 (a) Work done by the line charge normalized by ρ2/(0) as a function of λ/L and v/c. (b) Work done by the line charge normalized by ρ2/(0) as a function of (λ/L)*(v/c) and λ/L. (c) Same as (b) but with saturated color scale for visualization purposes.

The drastically enhanced work stems from the fact that for (λ/L)*(v/c) = 1/p (p is a natural number), kz,cL = 2πc/(λv) = 2πp. Comparing to Eq. (4), it follows that when (λ/L)*(v/c) is equal to one of these discrete values, there is zero phase difference between the two boundaries of the unit cell. It was shown that for such a case, the local density of states (LDOS) is greatly enhanced [34

34. I. Shadrivov, A. Sukhorukov, and Y. Kivshar, “Complete Band Gaps in One-Dimensional Left-Handed Periodic Structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 193903 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Therefore, being proportional to the Cherenkov radiation [35

35. F. J. García de Abajo and M. Kociak, “Probing the photonic local density of states with electron energy loss spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(10), 106804 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,36

36. F. J. García de Abajo, “Optical excitations in electron microscopy,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 209–275 (2010). [CrossRef]

], enhancing the LDOS must lead to the enhancement of the work done by the line charge. This effect cannot be observed in a standard DPS HWS because the field propagating along the z axis is not balanced by a counter propagating field, and thus there is no build up of the field. However, in the DPS-DNS case the propagation along the z axis in both media is opposite, giving rise to a resonance effect and high LDOS.

One must keep in mind that the enhancement factor depends on the losses within the material. For an ideal, nonrealistic case of zero loss one may expect an infinite enhancement, whereas for a higher loss scenario the enhancement will be diminished. Thus, this effect is expected to be observed primarily in the Giga Hertz to Tera Hertz frequency band, where the intrinsic loss of such materials is small.

Interestingly, while the product of JE* is large due to the localized Ez field component, we did not observe coupling to radiative modes. This can be understood by the fact that the Poynting vector, averaged over the unit cell is identically zero due to the opposite power flow in both media.

5. Conclusions

Using the FMM, the radiation of line charges moving with relativistic constant velocity was studied. First, the FMM results were compared to FDTD. Subsequently, we showed that for frequencies satisfying the QWS condition, vertical emission is obtained, whereas the HWS case results in negligible emission. Following, we calculated the radiation of a line charge moving with relativistic constant velocity within an average zero index metamaterial consisting of periodically alternating layers with negative and positive refractive index. We observed a strong radiation enhancement, ∼3 orders of magnitude, for specific combinations of velocities and radiation frequencies. The enhancement was attributed to the high local density of states at these frequencies. Finally, we considered the effect of dispersion. Evidently, significant enhancement is obtained even within dispersive media. Yet, the magnitude of enhancement is likely to be reduced in such practical scenario, owing to the difficulty in mitigating the challenge of perfect index matching, with the result of slight detuning from the FP condition.

Acknowledgments

The authors acknowledge the support of the Israeli Science Foundation (ISF). A.Y. acknowledges the support of the CAMBR and Brojde fellowships.

References and links

1.

V. L. Ginzburg, “Radiation by uniformly moving sources (Vavilov - Cherenkov effect, transition radiation,and other phenomena),” Usp. Fiz. Nauk 166, 1033–1042 (1996). [CrossRef]

2.

P. M. van den Berg, “Smith-Purcell radiation from a line charge moving parallel to a reflection grating,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 689–698 (1973). [CrossRef]

3.

P.M. van den Berg, “Smith-Purcell radiation from a point charge moving parallel to a reflection grating,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 1588–1597 (1973). [CrossRef]

4.

S. J. Smith and E. M. Purcell, “Visible light from localized surface charges moving across a grating,” Phys. Rev. 92, 1069 (1953). [CrossRef]

5.

S. L. Chuang and J. A. Kong, “Enhancement of Smith-Purcell radiation from a grating with surface-plasmon excitation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 1, 672–676 (1984). [CrossRef]

6.

T. Ochiai and K. Ohtaka, “Electron energy loss and Smith-Purcell radiation in two- and three-dimensional photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 13, 7683–7698 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

L. Schächter, Beam-Wave Interaction in Periodic and Quasi-Periodic Structures (Springer, 1997).

8.

I. A. Fainberg and N. A. Khizhniak, “Energy Loss of a Charged Particle Passing Through a Laminar Dielectric,” Sov. Phys. JETP 5720–729 (1957).

9.

B. M. Bolotovskii, “Theory of Cerenkov radiation (III),” Sov. Phys. Usp. 4, 781–811 (1962). [CrossRef]

10.

K. F. Casey and C. Yeh, “Transition Radiation in a Periodically Stratified Plasma,” Phys. Rev. A 2, 810–818 (1970). [CrossRef]

11.

L.Sh. Khachatryan, S.R. Arzumanyan, and W. Wagner, “Self-amplified Cherenkov radiation from a relativistic electron in a waveguide partially filled with a laminated material,” JJ. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 357, 012004 (2012). [CrossRef]

12.

C. Luo, M. Ibanescu, S. G. Johnson, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Cherenkov radiation in photonic crystals,” Science 299(5605), 368–371 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

C. Kremers, D. N. Chigrin, and J. Kroha, “Theory of Cherenkov radiation in periodic dielectric media: Emission spectrum,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 013829 (2009). [CrossRef]

14.

C. Kremers and D. N. Chigrin, “Spatial distribution of Cherenkov radiation in periodic dielectric media,” J. Opt. A 11, 114008 (2009). [CrossRef]

15.

V. G. Veselago, “The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of ε and μ,” Sov. Phys. Usp. 10, 509–514 (1968). [CrossRef]

16.

J. Lu, T. Grzegorczyk, Y. Zhang, J. Pacheco Jr., B.-I. Wu, J. Kong, and M. Chen, “Cerenkov radiation in materials with negative permittivity and permeability,” Opt. Express 11, 723–734 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

17.

S. Xi, H. Chen, T. Jiang, L. Ran, J. Huangfu, B. I. Wu, J. A. Kong, and M. Chen, “Experimental Verification of Reversed Cherenkov Radiation in Left-Handed Metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 194801 (2009). [CrossRef]

18.

S. N. Galyamin, A. V. Tyukhtin, A. Kanareykin, and P. Schoessow, “Reversed Cherenkov-Transition Radiation by a Charge Crossing a Left-Handed Medium Boundary,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 194802 (2009). [CrossRef]

19.

S. N. Galyamin and A. V. Tyukhtin, “Electromagnetic field of a moving charge in the presence of a left-handed medium,” Phys. Rev. B 81, 235134 (2010). [CrossRef]

20.

D. E. Fernandes, S. I. Maslovski, and M. G. Silveirinha, “Cherenkov emission in a nanowire material,” Phys. Rev. B 85, 155107 (2012). [CrossRef]

21.

V. V. Vorobev and A. V. Tyukhtin, “Nondivergent Cherenkov Radiation in a Wire Metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 184801 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

22.

Z. Mohammadi, C. P. Van Vlack, S. Hughes, J. Bornemann, and R. Gordon, “Vortex electron energy loss spectroscopy for near-field mapping of magnetic plasmons,” Opt. Express 20, 15024–15034 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

23.

M. G. Moharam, E. B. Grann, D. A. Pommet, and T. K. Gaylord, “Formulation for stable and efficient implementation of the rigorous coupled-wave analysis of binary gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 1068–1076 (1995). [CrossRef]

24.

L. Li, “Use of Fourier series in the analysis of discontinuous periodic structures,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 1870–1876 (1996). [CrossRef]

25.

P. Lalanne and G. Morris, “Highly improved convergence of the coupled-wave method for TM polarization,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 779–784 (1996). [CrossRef]

26.

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, “MEEP: A flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181(3), 687–702 (2010). [CrossRef]

27.

R. Petit, Electromagnetic Theory of Gratings (Topics in Applied Physics) (Springer, 1980). [CrossRef]

28.

A. Yanai, M. Orenstein, and U. Levy, “Giant resonance absorption in ultra-thin metamaterial periodic structures,” Opt. Express 20, 3693–3702 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

29.

J. D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics, 3rd ed. (Wiley, 1999).

30.

J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, J. N. Winn, and R. D. Meade, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light, 2nd ed. (Princeton University Press, 2008).

31.

S. Nefedov and S. A. Tretyakov, “Photonic band gap structure containing metamaterial with negative permittivity and permeability,” Phys. Rev. E 66, 036611 (2002). [CrossRef]

32.

L. Wu, S. He, and L. F. Shen, “Band structure for a one-dimensional photonic crystal containing left-handed materials,” Phys. Rev. B 67, 235103 (2003). [CrossRef]

33.

S. Kocaman, M. S. Aras, P. Hsieh, J. F. McMillan, C. G. Biris, N. C. Panoiu, M. B. Yu, D. L. Kwong, A. Stein, and C. W. Wong, “Zero phase delay in negative-refractive-index photonic crystal superlattices,” Nat. Photonics 5, 499–505 (2011). [CrossRef]

34.

I. Shadrivov, A. Sukhorukov, and Y. Kivshar, “Complete Band Gaps in One-Dimensional Left-Handed Periodic Structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 193903 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

35.

F. J. García de Abajo and M. Kociak, “Probing the photonic local density of states with electron energy loss spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(10), 106804 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

36.

F. J. García de Abajo, “Optical excitations in electron microscopy,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 209–275 (2010). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(050.0050) Diffraction and gratings : Diffraction and gratings
(240.6690) Optics at surfaces : Surface waves
(300.2140) Spectroscopy : Emission

ToC Category:
Metamaterials

History
Original Manuscript: June 22, 2012
Revised Manuscript: July 15, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: July 16, 2012
Published: July 27, 2012

Citation
Avner Yanai and Uriel Levy, "Radiation of a uniformly moving line charge in a zero-index metamaterial and other periodic media," Opt. Express 20, 18515-18524 (2012)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-20-16-18515


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. V. L. Ginzburg, “Radiation by uniformly moving sources (Vavilov - Cherenkov effect, transition radiation,and other phenomena),” Usp. Fiz. Nauk166, 1033–1042 (1996). [CrossRef]
  2. P. M. van den Berg, “Smith-Purcell radiation from a line charge moving parallel to a reflection grating,” J. Opt. Soc. Am.63, 689–698 (1973). [CrossRef]
  3. P.M. van den Berg, “Smith-Purcell radiation from a point charge moving parallel to a reflection grating,” J. Opt. Soc. Am.63, 1588–1597 (1973). [CrossRef]
  4. S. J. Smith and E. M. Purcell, “Visible light from localized surface charges moving across a grating,” Phys. Rev.92, 1069 (1953). [CrossRef]
  5. S. L. Chuang and J. A. Kong, “Enhancement of Smith-Purcell radiation from a grating with surface-plasmon excitation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A1, 672–676 (1984). [CrossRef]
  6. T. Ochiai and K. Ohtaka, “Electron energy loss and Smith-Purcell radiation in two- and three-dimensional photonic crystals,” Opt. Express13, 7683–7698 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. L. Schächter, Beam-Wave Interaction in Periodic and Quasi-Periodic Structures (Springer, 1997).
  8. I. A. Fainberg and N. A. Khizhniak, “Energy Loss of a Charged Particle Passing Through a Laminar Dielectric,” Sov. Phys. JETP5720–729 (1957).
  9. B. M. Bolotovskii, “Theory of Cerenkov radiation (III),” Sov. Phys. Usp.4, 781–811 (1962). [CrossRef]
  10. K. F. Casey and C. Yeh, “Transition Radiation in a Periodically Stratified Plasma,” Phys. Rev. A2, 810–818 (1970). [CrossRef]
  11. L.Sh. Khachatryan, S.R. Arzumanyan, and W. Wagner, “Self-amplified Cherenkov radiation from a relativistic electron in a waveguide partially filled with a laminated material,” JJ. Phys.: Conf. Ser.357, 012004 (2012). [CrossRef]
  12. C. Luo, M. Ibanescu, S. G. Johnson, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Cherenkov radiation in photonic crystals,” Science299(5605), 368–371 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. C. Kremers, D. N. Chigrin, and J. Kroha, “Theory of Cherenkov radiation in periodic dielectric media: Emission spectrum,” Phys. Rev. A79, 013829 (2009). [CrossRef]
  14. C. Kremers and D. N. Chigrin, “Spatial distribution of Cherenkov radiation in periodic dielectric media,” J. Opt. A11, 114008 (2009). [CrossRef]
  15. V. G. Veselago, “The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of ε and μ,” Sov. Phys. Usp.10, 509–514 (1968). [CrossRef]
  16. J. Lu, T. Grzegorczyk, Y. Zhang, J. Pacheco, B.-I. Wu, J. Kong, and M. Chen, “Cerenkov radiation in materials with negative permittivity and permeability,” Opt. Express11, 723–734 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. S. Xi, H. Chen, T. Jiang, L. Ran, J. Huangfu, B. I. Wu, J. A. Kong, and M. Chen, “Experimental Verification of Reversed Cherenkov Radiation in Left-Handed Metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103, 194801 (2009). [CrossRef]
  18. S. N. Galyamin, A. V. Tyukhtin, A. Kanareykin, and P. Schoessow, “Reversed Cherenkov-Transition Radiation by a Charge Crossing a Left-Handed Medium Boundary,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103, 194802 (2009). [CrossRef]
  19. S. N. Galyamin and A. V. Tyukhtin, “Electromagnetic field of a moving charge in the presence of a left-handed medium,” Phys. Rev. B81, 235134 (2010). [CrossRef]
  20. D. E. Fernandes, S. I. Maslovski, and M. G. Silveirinha, “Cherenkov emission in a nanowire material,” Phys. Rev. B85, 155107 (2012). [CrossRef]
  21. V. V. Vorobev and A. V. Tyukhtin, “Nondivergent Cherenkov Radiation in a Wire Metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108, 184801 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. Z. Mohammadi, C. P. Van Vlack, S. Hughes, J. Bornemann, and R. Gordon, “Vortex electron energy loss spectroscopy for near-field mapping of magnetic plasmons,” Opt. Express20, 15024–15034 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. M. G. Moharam, E. B. Grann, D. A. Pommet, and T. K. Gaylord, “Formulation for stable and efficient implementation of the rigorous coupled-wave analysis of binary gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A12, 1068–1076 (1995). [CrossRef]
  24. L. Li, “Use of Fourier series in the analysis of discontinuous periodic structures,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A13, 1870–1876 (1996). [CrossRef]
  25. P. Lalanne and G. Morris, “Highly improved convergence of the coupled-wave method for TM polarization,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A13, 779–784 (1996). [CrossRef]
  26. A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, “MEEP: A flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun.181(3), 687–702 (2010). [CrossRef]
  27. R. Petit, Electromagnetic Theory of Gratings (Topics in Applied Physics) (Springer, 1980). [CrossRef]
  28. A. Yanai, M. Orenstein, and U. Levy, “Giant resonance absorption in ultra-thin metamaterial periodic structures,” Opt. Express20, 3693–3702 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. J. D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics, 3rd ed. (Wiley, 1999).
  30. J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, J. N. Winn, and R. D. Meade, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light, 2nd ed. (Princeton University Press, 2008).
  31. S. Nefedov and S. A. Tretyakov, “Photonic band gap structure containing metamaterial with negative permittivity and permeability,” Phys. Rev. E66, 036611 (2002). [CrossRef]
  32. L. Wu, S. He, and L. F. Shen, “Band structure for a one-dimensional photonic crystal containing left-handed materials,” Phys. Rev. B67, 235103 (2003). [CrossRef]
  33. S. Kocaman, M. S. Aras, P. Hsieh, J. F. McMillan, C. G. Biris, N. C. Panoiu, M. B. Yu, D. L. Kwong, A. Stein, and C. W. Wong, “Zero phase delay in negative-refractive-index photonic crystal superlattices,” Nat. Photonics5, 499–505 (2011). [CrossRef]
  34. I. Shadrivov, A. Sukhorukov, and Y. Kivshar, “Complete Band Gaps in One-Dimensional Left-Handed Periodic Structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95, 193903 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. F. J. García de Abajo and M. Kociak, “Probing the photonic local density of states with electron energy loss spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100(10), 106804 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. F. J. García de Abajo, “Optical excitations in electron microscopy,” Rev. Mod. Phys.82, 209–275 (2010). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

Figures

Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3
 
Fig. 4 Fig. 5
 

« Previous Article

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited