## Continuous wavelet transform for non-stationary vibration detection with phase-OTDR |

Optics Express, Vol. 20, Issue 18, pp. 20459-20465 (2012)

http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.20.020459

Acrobat PDF (1181 KB)

### Abstract

We propose the continuous wavelet transform for non-stationary vibration measurement by distributed vibration sensor based on phase optical time-domain reflectometry (OTDR). The continuous wavelet transform approach can give simultaneously the frequency and time information of the vibration event. Frequency evolution is obtained by the wavelet ridge detection method from the scalogram of the continuous wavelet transform. In addition, a novel signal processing algorithm based on the global wavelet spectrum is used to determine the location of vibration. Distributed vibration measurements of 500Hz and 500Hz to 1kHz sweep events over 20 cm fiber length are demonstrated using a single mode fiber.

© 2012 OSA

## 1. Introduction

1. A. J. Rogers, “Polarization-optical time domain reflectometry: A technique for the measurement of field distributions,” Appl. Opt. **20**(6), 1060–1074 (1981). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2. Z. Zhang and X. Bao, “Distributed optical fiber vibration sensor based on spectrum analysis of Polarization-OTDR system,” Opt. Express **16**(14), 10240–10247 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3. E. Udd, “Sagnac distributed sensors concepts,” Proc. SPIE **1586**, 46–52 (1992). [CrossRef]

5. Q. Sun, D. Liu, J. Wang, and H. Liu, “Distributed fiber-optic vibration sensor using a ring Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Opt. Commun. **281**(6), 1538–1544 (2008). [CrossRef]

6. P. Addison, J. Walker, and R. Guido, “Time frequency analysis of biosignals,” IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag. **28**(5), 14–29 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7. F. Al-Badour, M. Sunar, and L. Cheded, “Vibration analysis of rotating machinery using time-frequency analysis and wavelet techniques,” Mech. Syst. Signal Process. **25**(6), 2083–2101 (2011). [CrossRef]

## 2. Continuous wavelet transform

## 3. Experimental setup and signal processing

11. Z. Qin, T. Zhu, L. Chen, and X. Bao, “High sensitivity distributed vibration sensor based on polarization-maintaining configurations of phase-OTDR,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. **23**(15), 1091–1093 (2011). [CrossRef]

12. P. Healey, “Fading in heterodyne OTDR,” Electron. Lett. **20**(1), 30–32 (1984). [CrossRef]

13. Z. Qin, L. Chen, and X. Bao, “Wavelet denoising method for improving detection performance of distributed vibration sensor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. **24**(7), 542–544 (2012). [CrossRef]

## 4. Experimental results and discussions

_{signal}/A

_{noise}). According to this definition, the SNR of the 200MHz cutoff frequency filter is 20.7dB compared to the the 350MHz case which is 18.1dB. The global wavelet transform spectrum at each point along the sensing fiber is obtained to determine the position by integral over the whole data acquisition time which can amplify the signal section and suppress the noise level.

14. W. Li, X. Bao, Y. Li, and L. Chen, “Differential pulse-width pair BOTDA for high spatial resolution sensing,” Opt. Express **16**(26), 21616–21625 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

## 5. Conclusion

## Acknowledgments

## References and links

1. | A. J. Rogers, “Polarization-optical time domain reflectometry: A technique for the measurement of field distributions,” Appl. Opt. |

2. | Z. Zhang and X. Bao, “Distributed optical fiber vibration sensor based on spectrum analysis of Polarization-OTDR system,” Opt. Express |

3. | E. Udd, “Sagnac distributed sensors concepts,” Proc. SPIE |

4. | S. J. Russell, K. R. C. Brady, and J. P. Dakin, “Real-time location of multiple time-varying strain disturbances, acting over a 40-km fiber section, using a novel dual-Sagnac interferometer,” J. Lightwave Technol. |

5. | Q. Sun, D. Liu, J. Wang, and H. Liu, “Distributed fiber-optic vibration sensor using a ring Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Opt. Commun. |

6. | P. Addison, J. Walker, and R. Guido, “Time frequency analysis of biosignals,” IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag. |

7. | F. Al-Badour, M. Sunar, and L. Cheded, “Vibration analysis of rotating machinery using time-frequency analysis and wavelet techniques,” Mech. Syst. Signal Process. |

8. | S. Mallat, |

9. | Y. L. Lu, T. Zhu, L. A. Chen, and X. Y. Bao, “Distributed vibration sensor based on coherent detection of phase-OTDR,” J. Lightwave Technol. |

10. | J. C. Juarez, E. W. Maier, K. N. Choi, and H. F. Taylor, “Distributed fiber-optic intrusion sensor system,” J. Lightwave Technol. |

11. | Z. Qin, T. Zhu, L. Chen, and X. Bao, “High sensitivity distributed vibration sensor based on polarization-maintaining configurations of phase-OTDR,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. |

12. | P. Healey, “Fading in heterodyne OTDR,” Electron. Lett. |

13. | Z. Qin, L. Chen, and X. Bao, “Wavelet denoising method for improving detection performance of distributed vibration sensor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. |

14. | W. Li, X. Bao, Y. Li, and L. Chen, “Differential pulse-width pair BOTDA for high spatial resolution sensing,” Opt. Express |

**OCIS Codes**

(060.2370) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics sensors

(060.2430) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fibers, single-mode

(100.7410) Image processing : Wavelets

(290.5870) Scattering : Scattering, Rayleigh

**ToC Category:**

Sensors

**History**

Original Manuscript: May 25, 2012

Revised Manuscript: August 15, 2012

Manuscript Accepted: August 17, 2012

Published: August 21, 2012

**Citation**

Zengguang Qin, Liang Chen, and Xiaoyi Bao, "Continuous wavelet transform for non-stationary vibration detection with phase-OTDR," Opt. Express **20**, 20459-20465 (2012)

http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-20-18-20459

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### References

- A. J. Rogers, “Polarization-optical time domain reflectometry: A technique for the measurement of field distributions,” Appl. Opt.20(6), 1060–1074 (1981). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Z. Zhang and X. Bao, “Distributed optical fiber vibration sensor based on spectrum analysis of Polarization-OTDR system,” Opt. Express16(14), 10240–10247 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- E. Udd, “Sagnac distributed sensors concepts,” Proc. SPIE1586, 46–52 (1992). [CrossRef]
- S. J. Russell, K. R. C. Brady, and J. P. Dakin, “Real-time location of multiple time-varying strain disturbances, acting over a 40-km fiber section, using a novel dual-Sagnac interferometer,” J. Lightwave Technol.19(2), 205–213 (2001). [CrossRef]
- Q. Sun, D. Liu, J. Wang, and H. Liu, “Distributed fiber-optic vibration sensor using a ring Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Opt. Commun.281(6), 1538–1544 (2008). [CrossRef]
- P. Addison, J. Walker, and R. Guido, “Time frequency analysis of biosignals,” IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag.28(5), 14–29 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- F. Al-Badour, M. Sunar, and L. Cheded, “Vibration analysis of rotating machinery using time-frequency analysis and wavelet techniques,” Mech. Syst. Signal Process.25(6), 2083–2101 (2011). [CrossRef]
- S. Mallat, A Wavelet Tour of Signal Processing, Second Edition (Academic Press, 1999).
- Y. L. Lu, T. Zhu, L. A. Chen, and X. Y. Bao, “Distributed vibration sensor based on coherent detection of phase-OTDR,” J. Lightwave Technol.28, 3243–3249 (2010).
- J. C. Juarez, E. W. Maier, K. N. Choi, and H. F. Taylor, “Distributed fiber-optic intrusion sensor system,” J. Lightwave Technol.23(6), 2081–2087 (2005). [CrossRef]
- Z. Qin, T. Zhu, L. Chen, and X. Bao, “High sensitivity distributed vibration sensor based on polarization-maintaining configurations of phase-OTDR,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(15), 1091–1093 (2011). [CrossRef]
- P. Healey, “Fading in heterodyne OTDR,” Electron. Lett.20(1), 30–32 (1984). [CrossRef]
- Z. Qin, L. Chen, and X. Bao, “Wavelet denoising method for improving detection performance of distributed vibration sensor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(7), 542–544 (2012). [CrossRef]
- W. Li, X. Bao, Y. Li, and L. Chen, “Differential pulse-width pair BOTDA for high spatial resolution sensing,” Opt. Express16(26), 21616–21625 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

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