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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 20, Iss. 19 — Sep. 10, 2012
  • pp: 21758–21765
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Widely tunable, efficient on-chip single photon sources at telecommunication wavelengths

Thang B. Hoang, Johannes Beetz, Matthias Lermer, Leonardo Midolo, Martin Kamp, Sven Höfling, and Andrea Fiore  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 20, Issue 19, pp. 21758-21765 (2012)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.20.021758


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Abstract

We demonstrate tunable on-chip single photon sources using the Stark tuning of single quantum dot (QD) excitonic transitions in short photonic crystal waveguides (PhC WGs). The emission of single QDs can be tuned in real-time by 9 nm with an applied bias voltage less than 2V. Due to a reshaped density of optical modes in the PhC WG, a large coupling efficiency β65% to the waveguide mode is maintained across a wavelength range of 5 nm. When the QD is resonant with the Fabry-Perot mode of the PhC WG, a strong enhancement of spontaneous emission is observed leading to a maximum coupling efficiency β=88% . These results represent an important step towards the scalable integration of single photon sources in quantum photonic integrated circuits.

© 2012 OSA

1. Introduction

The integration of QDs with PhC structures, such as photonic crystal cavities (PhCCs) and PhC WGs, has attracted tremendous attention in recent years as it may enable the realization of large arrays of efficient single photon sources on a chip. PhC WGs are particularly interesting since the QD-WG coupling does not rely on a sharp spectral resonance, making it more fabrication-tolerant. Indeed, the increased local density of states (LDOS) in the flat part of the dispersion curve of PhC WG modes enhances the QD spontaneous emission rate [1

1. E. Purcell, “Spontaneous emission probabilities at radio frequencies,” Phys. Rev. 69, 681. (1946).

5

5. G. Lecamp, P. Lalanne, and J. P. Hugonin, “Very large spontaneous-emission β factors in photonic-crystal waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(2), 023902 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], resulting in an optimized coupling efficiency over a relatively broad spectral range. The integration of semiconductor QDs in PhC WGs has been realized and experimentally investigated [2

2. E. Viasnoff-Schwoob, C. Weisbuch, H. Benisty, S. Olivier, S. Varoutsis, I. Robert-Philip, R. Houdré, and C. J. M. Smith, “Spontaneous emission enhancement of quantum dots in a photonic crystal wire,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(18), 183901 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,6

6. T. Lund-Hansen, S. Stobbe, B. Julsgaard, H. Thyrrestrup, T. Sünner, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, and P. Lodahl, “Experimental realization of highly efficient broadband coupling of single quantum dots to a photonic crystal waveguide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(11), 113903 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

-11

11. A. Laucht, S. Pütz, T. Günthner, N. Hauke, R. Saive, S. Frederick, M. Bichler, M. C. Amann, A. Holleitner, M. Kaniber, and J. Finley, “A waveguide-coupled on-chip single-photon source,” Phys. Rev. X 2(1), 011014 (2012). [CrossRef]

]. Several works [7

7. S. J. Dewhurst, D. Granados, D. J. P. Ellis, A. J. Bennett, R. B. Patel, I. Farrer, D. Anderson, G. A. C. Jones, D. A. Ritchie, and A. J. Shields, “Slow-light-enhanced single quantum dot emission in a unidirectional photonic crystal waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 031109 (2010). [CrossRef]

,9

9. A. Schwagmann, S. Kalliakos, I. Farrer, J. P. Griffiths, G. A. C. Jones, D. A. Ritchie, and A. J. Shields, “On-chip single photon emission from an integrated semiconductor quantum dot into a photonic crystal waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(26), 261108 (2011). [CrossRef]

11

11. A. Laucht, S. Pütz, T. Günthner, N. Hauke, R. Saive, S. Frederick, M. Bichler, M. C. Amann, A. Holleitner, M. Kaniber, and J. Finley, “A waveguide-coupled on-chip single-photon source,” Phys. Rev. X 2(1), 011014 (2012). [CrossRef]

] have examined short GaAs PhC WG structures, where single InAs QD emission lines can be coupled to the WG slow light modes while avoiding disorder-induced localization due to fabrication imperfections [12

12. P. D. García, S. Smolka, S. Stobbe, and P. Lodahl, “Density of states controls Anderson localization in disordered photonic crystal waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 82(16), 165103 (2010). [CrossRef]

]. It was also shown that in addition to the enhancement due to the high optical density of states in the slow-light frequency regime, the QD emission is further enhanced due to the resonance with the Fabry-Perot (FP) waveguide cavity modes (resulting from the reflection at the two WG end facets) [4

4. V. S. Rao and S. Hughes, “Single quantum dot spontaneous emission in a finite-size photonic crystal waveguide: proposal for an efficient “on chip” single photon gun,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(19), 193901 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,10

10. T. B. Hoang, J. Beetz, L. Midolo, M. Skacel, M. Lermer, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, L. Balet, N. Chauvin, and A. Fiore, “Enhanced spontaneous emission from quantum dots in short photonic crystal waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(6), 061122 (2012). [CrossRef]

]. However, for any practical use in quantum photonic integrated circuits, one needs to be able to tune the single QD emission wavelength precisely in order to produce two-photon interference from distinct QDs [13

13. R. B. Patel, A. J. Bennett, I. Farrer, C. A. Nicoll, D. A. Ritchie, and A. J. Shields, “Two-photon interference of the emission from electrically tunable remote quantum dots,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 632–635 (2010). [CrossRef]

,14

14. E. B. Flagg, A. Muller, S. V. Polyakov, A. Ling, A. Migdall, and G. S. Solomon, “Interference of single photons from two separate semiconductor quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(13), 137401 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Here we report the first electrically tunable single-photon sources in PhC WGs. Due to the broadband nature of the LDOS reshaping in a PhC WG we achieve a high coupling efficiency to the WG mode over a large tuning range of ~5 nm, much larger than it would be possible using a fixed-wavelength cavity. Additionally, we observe a strong enhancement of QDs’ emission rate when they cross FP waveguide cavity modes leading to coupling efficienciesβ~(6588)%. The electrical tunability combined with high efficiencies make these sources very attractive for integration into quantum photonic integrated circuits.

2. Sample fabrication and experimental setup

A 1.5 µm thick AlGaAs sacrificial layer and a 320 nm thick membrane layer were grown on a (100) undoped GaAs substrate by molecular beam epitaxy. The layer structure is schematically shown in Fig. 1(a)
Fig. 1 (a) Layout of the QD sample design (b) Top left: sketch of the device investigated in this study and measurement configuration. Bottom right: SEM image of a final device from the sample used for measurements.
. The membrane, which acts as WG layer in the final device, consists of a central InAs QD layer (a few QDs/μm2, emitting near 1300 nm [15

15. B. Alloing, C. Zinoni, V. Zwiller, L. H. Li, C. Monat, M. Gobet, G. Buchs, A. Fiore, E. Pelucchi, and E. Kapon, “Growth and characterization of single quantum dots emitting at 1300 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(10), 101908 (2005). [CrossRef]

]) surrounded symmetrically by 5 nm thick GaAs spacers, 20nm thick Al0.33Ga0.67As layers, and 135 nm GaAs layers. The AlGaAs layers act as electronic barriers in order to achieve a large Stark tuning range [16

16. A. J. Bennett, R. B. Patel, J. Skiba-Szymanska, C. A. Nicoll, I. Farrer, D. A. Ritchie, and A. J. Shields, “Giant Stark effect in the emission of single semiconductor quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(3), 031104 (2010). [CrossRef]

]. During the growth of the membrane, a p-i-n diode was formed by introducing Si-dopants (2x1018 cm−3) in the bottom 50 nm and Be-dopants (2x1018 cm−3) in the top 30 nm. In order to allow precise pattern alignment of all subsequent lithography steps, Au markers were first fabricated on the sample. Thereafter, the part of the sample reserved for PhC WGs and p-contacts was defined by electron beam lithography (EBL) and covered with a BaF2/Cr etch mask using electron beam evaporation (EBE) and lift-off. Electron cyclotron reactive ion etching (ECR-RIE) was applied to etch the unprotected area down to the middle of the n-doped layer of the membrane (depth ~295 nm). After removal of the etch mask, electrical contacts on both the bottom and top level were patterned using EBL and lift-off process, with a film sequence of 17nm Cr / 33 nm Pt / 333 nm Au deposited by EBE. For the fabrication of the PhC WGs, the sample was covered with 100 nm SiO2 using sputter deposition and the PhC hole pattern was defined (closely to the p-contact) by electron beam lithography using a polymethylmethacrylate resist. The W1 PhC WGs were formed by leaving a row of holes un-patterned. Afterwards, the pattern was transferred from the resist into an underlying SiO2 layer by CHF3/Ar RIE and then into the membrane by ECR-RIE. In order to remove the AlGaAs sacrificial layer below the PhC WGs and the residual SiO2, the sample was immersed in hydrofluoric acid. The WG length was varied between 10 and 25μm. Such a WG length is long enough to produce the slow light effect and yet short enough to minimize the effect of disorder due to fabrication imperfections [17

17. E. Kuramochi, M. Notomi, S. Hughes, A. Shinya, T. Watanabe, and L. Ramunno, “Disorder-induced scattering loss of line-defect waveguides in photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. B 72(16), 161318 (2005). [CrossRef]

, 18

18. N. Le Thomas, H. Zhang, J. Jágerská, V. Zabelin, R. Houdré, I. Sagnes, and A. Talneau, “Light transport regimes in slow light photonic crystal waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 80(12), 125332 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. The PhC lattice spacing a was designed to vary around 315 nm in order for the slow-light frequencies of the PhC WGs to be in resonance with the QD ground state emission at low temperature (~1285 nm). Also, in addition to a good current-voltage characteristic of the device, the PhC WG should exhibit good FP modes in the slow-light regime therefore the sample was cleaved before etching. A scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image of a final device is shown in Fig. 1(b) (bottom) where a W1 PhC WG is seen lying in between the two p-n electrical contacts.

In the optical measurements, we used a custom designed low-temperature (5K) cryogenic probe station in combination with a micro-photoluminescence (μ-PL) set-up. In this set-up, the sample was mounted on the cold finger of a continuous flow helium cryostat and the QDs in a PhC WG are excited (from the top) by a laser (either 80 MHz pulsed diode λ=757 nm laser or cw λ= 780 nm laser) through a long working distance objective (1.2μm spot size). The PL emission from single QDs was collected from the WG side facet using a lensed single-mode fiber fed through the cryostat body and placed at a distance of approximately 10μm from the WG facet. Both the lensed fiber and the electrical contact probes were mounted on piezoelectric positioners. An illustration of the experimental configuration is shown in Fig. 1(b) (top). After being collected, emitted photons are either dispersed by a f = 1m spectrometer and detected by an InGaAs charge-coupled device (CCD) camera or coupled to superconducting single photon detectors (SSPDs) for time-resolved and anti-bunching measurements [19

19. C. Zinoni, B. Alloing, L. H. Li, F. Marsili, A. Fiore, L. Lunghi, A. Gerardino, Yu. B. Vakhtomin, K. V. Smirnov, and G. N. Gol’tsman, “Single-photon experiments at telecommunication wavelengths using nanowire superconducting detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(3), 031106 (2007). [CrossRef]

]. Single QD lines were filtered using the above mentioned spectrometer or by a tunable band-pass filter. The overall timing resolutions of the time-resolved and anti-bunching measurements were 110 ps and 65 ps, respectively.

3. Results and discussions

We first present in Fig. 2
Fig. 2 False color image (red indicates higher intensity) shows the QD PL emission wavelength (measured from the WG side facet) as a function of the applied forward bias voltages. The color scale bar on the right shows the normalized PL intensity per second. The white spectrum at the bottom of the image shows the FP mode profile when the PhC WG is excited with a high laser excitation power (~100μW). It is clearly seen that the QD lines are blue shifted when the bias voltage increases while the FP resonance do not shift. The inset shows the current-voltage characteristic of this particular device.
a μ-PL measurement of several single QD lines in a PhC WG under different DC bias voltages obtained with an optical excitation power ~90 nW. This excitation power (close to the saturation of QD lines) allows us to observe both single QD emission lines as well as several FP modes. The false color image (with red color indicating higher intensity) is constructed from μ-PL spectra taken from the WG side facet while the applied voltage is scanned from 0 to 1.8V in forward bias. Indeed, at zero or negative bias the QD emission lines were not observed indicating that the built-in junction field is sufficient to sweep carriers away from the QDs. We therefore use a forward bias to reduce and control the electric field across the QDs. From the current-voltage characteristic of the WG device, shown as an inset in Fig. 2, one can clearly see that within the range from 0 to 1.8 V the current through the device is negligible. The FP mode profile of the PhC WG device (the white spectrum at the bottom of the image) can be easily observed if one increases the laser excitation power to around 100μW. The strong PL enhancement of single QDs at the FP frequencies is due to the combination of the slow group velocity and the spatial confinement created by the reflection at the WG end facets, as previously reported [10

10. T. B. Hoang, J. Beetz, L. Midolo, M. Skacel, M. Lermer, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, L. Balet, N. Chauvin, and A. Fiore, “Enhanced spontaneous emission from quantum dots in short photonic crystal waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(6), 061122 (2012). [CrossRef]

]. It is clearly seen in Fig. 2 that the single narrow QD lines are tuned to the blue when the bias voltage is increased (i.e. field across QD decreased) and a tuning range of as much as 9 nm (7 meV) is observed for several QD lines. It is also very important to note that when changing the applied bias voltage the PhC WG FP modes do not tune within the measurement resolution. As a result of these tuning characteristics (i.e QDs vs FP modes) the emission of single QD lines can be sequentially tuned into resonance with several FP modes by varying the bias voltage. When a QD line crosses a FP mode, its intensity is strongly enhanced, due to the increased LDOS at the frequencies of the FP modes.

Two important factors determining the emission characteristics of single QDs in a PhC WG are the Purcell enhancement factor FP and the coupling efficiency β-factor between the QD and the WG modes. The Purcell factor describes how much the spontaneous emission rate of QDs in the PhC WG is enhanced compared to the QDs in bulk. Here we determined that the Purcell factor FP2when the dot is tuned into resonant with the FP mode at ~1290.5 nm (near the band edge) and taking into account the measured lifetime of 1.4 ns of these QDs in bulk GaAs and the decay rate into leaky modes as discussed below. This limited value ofFP is quite typical of PhC WGs [7

7. S. J. Dewhurst, D. Granados, D. J. P. Ellis, A. J. Bennett, R. B. Patel, I. Farrer, D. Anderson, G. A. C. Jones, D. A. Ritchie, and A. J. Shields, “Slow-light-enhanced single quantum dot emission in a unidirectional photonic crystal waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 031109 (2010). [CrossRef]

,8

8. H. Thyrrestrup, L. Sapienz, and P. Lodahl, “Extraction of the β-factor for single quantum dots coupled to a photonic crystal waveguide, ” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(23), 231106 (2010). [CrossRef]

,10

10. T. B. Hoang, J. Beetz, L. Midolo, M. Skacel, M. Lermer, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, L. Balet, N. Chauvin, and A. Fiore, “Enhanced spontaneous emission from quantum dots in short photonic crystal waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(6), 061122 (2012). [CrossRef]

,11

11. A. Laucht, S. Pütz, T. Günthner, N. Hauke, R. Saive, S. Frederick, M. Bichler, M. C. Amann, A. Holleitner, M. Kaniber, and J. Finley, “A waveguide-coupled on-chip single-photon source,” Phys. Rev. X 2(1), 011014 (2012). [CrossRef]

], and reflects the larger mode volume and lower Q-factor (ranging from 1500 at low wavelength to nearly 3000 at the band edge in the present study) as compared to the PhC cavities, besides spatial mismatch between QD and WG modes.

4. Conclusion

Single QD lines are electrically tuned by up to 9 nm using the Stark effect and can be brought into resonance with several FP modes of the short PhC WG. From both integrated and time-resolved PL experiments we observe a strong increase of the spontaneous emission rate at the FP mode resonances. From measured decay times of single QDs we derived a coupling efficiency β65%over a broad spectral range of 5 nm, and a maximum β=88%at resonance. The result of our study is a critical step on road toward the realization of a quantum photonic integrated circuit with on-chip tunable single photon emitters.

Acknowledgments

We acknowledge financial support from the European Commission within the FP7 project QUANTIP (project n. 244026) and from the Dutch Technology Foundation STW, applied science division of NWO and the Technology Program of the Ministry of Economic Affairs.

References and links

1.

E. Purcell, “Spontaneous emission probabilities at radio frequencies,” Phys. Rev. 69, 681. (1946).

2.

E. Viasnoff-Schwoob, C. Weisbuch, H. Benisty, S. Olivier, S. Varoutsis, I. Robert-Philip, R. Houdré, and C. J. M. Smith, “Spontaneous emission enhancement of quantum dots in a photonic crystal wire,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(18), 183901 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3.

V. S. C. Manga Rao and S. Hughes, “Single quantum-dot Purcell βfactor and factor in a photonic crystal waveguide,” Phys. Rev. B 75(20), 205437 (2007).

4.

V. S. Rao and S. Hughes, “Single quantum dot spontaneous emission in a finite-size photonic crystal waveguide: proposal for an efficient “on chip” single photon gun,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(19), 193901 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

G. Lecamp, P. Lalanne, and J. P. Hugonin, “Very large spontaneous-emission β factors in photonic-crystal waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(2), 023902 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

T. Lund-Hansen, S. Stobbe, B. Julsgaard, H. Thyrrestrup, T. Sünner, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, and P. Lodahl, “Experimental realization of highly efficient broadband coupling of single quantum dots to a photonic crystal waveguide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(11), 113903 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

S. J. Dewhurst, D. Granados, D. J. P. Ellis, A. J. Bennett, R. B. Patel, I. Farrer, D. Anderson, G. A. C. Jones, D. A. Ritchie, and A. J. Shields, “Slow-light-enhanced single quantum dot emission in a unidirectional photonic crystal waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 031109 (2010). [CrossRef]

8.

H. Thyrrestrup, L. Sapienz, and P. Lodahl, “Extraction of the β-factor for single quantum dots coupled to a photonic crystal waveguide, ” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(23), 231106 (2010). [CrossRef]

9.

A. Schwagmann, S. Kalliakos, I. Farrer, J. P. Griffiths, G. A. C. Jones, D. A. Ritchie, and A. J. Shields, “On-chip single photon emission from an integrated semiconductor quantum dot into a photonic crystal waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(26), 261108 (2011). [CrossRef]

10.

T. B. Hoang, J. Beetz, L. Midolo, M. Skacel, M. Lermer, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, L. Balet, N. Chauvin, and A. Fiore, “Enhanced spontaneous emission from quantum dots in short photonic crystal waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(6), 061122 (2012). [CrossRef]

11.

A. Laucht, S. Pütz, T. Günthner, N. Hauke, R. Saive, S. Frederick, M. Bichler, M. C. Amann, A. Holleitner, M. Kaniber, and J. Finley, “A waveguide-coupled on-chip single-photon source,” Phys. Rev. X 2(1), 011014 (2012). [CrossRef]

12.

P. D. García, S. Smolka, S. Stobbe, and P. Lodahl, “Density of states controls Anderson localization in disordered photonic crystal waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 82(16), 165103 (2010). [CrossRef]

13.

R. B. Patel, A. J. Bennett, I. Farrer, C. A. Nicoll, D. A. Ritchie, and A. J. Shields, “Two-photon interference of the emission from electrically tunable remote quantum dots,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 632–635 (2010). [CrossRef]

14.

E. B. Flagg, A. Muller, S. V. Polyakov, A. Ling, A. Migdall, and G. S. Solomon, “Interference of single photons from two separate semiconductor quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(13), 137401 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15.

B. Alloing, C. Zinoni, V. Zwiller, L. H. Li, C. Monat, M. Gobet, G. Buchs, A. Fiore, E. Pelucchi, and E. Kapon, “Growth and characterization of single quantum dots emitting at 1300 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(10), 101908 (2005). [CrossRef]

16.

A. J. Bennett, R. B. Patel, J. Skiba-Szymanska, C. A. Nicoll, I. Farrer, D. A. Ritchie, and A. J. Shields, “Giant Stark effect in the emission of single semiconductor quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(3), 031104 (2010). [CrossRef]

17.

E. Kuramochi, M. Notomi, S. Hughes, A. Shinya, T. Watanabe, and L. Ramunno, “Disorder-induced scattering loss of line-defect waveguides in photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. B 72(16), 161318 (2005). [CrossRef]

18.

N. Le Thomas, H. Zhang, J. Jágerská, V. Zabelin, R. Houdré, I. Sagnes, and A. Talneau, “Light transport regimes in slow light photonic crystal waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 80(12), 125332 (2009). [CrossRef]

19.

C. Zinoni, B. Alloing, L. H. Li, F. Marsili, A. Fiore, L. Lunghi, A. Gerardino, Yu. B. Vakhtomin, K. V. Smirnov, and G. N. Gol’tsman, “Single-photon experiments at telecommunication wavelengths using nanowire superconducting detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(3), 031106 (2007). [CrossRef]

20.

P. W. Fry, I. E. Itskevich, D. J. Mowbray, M. S. Skolnick, J. J. Finley, J. A. Barker, E. P. O’Reilly, L. R. Wilson, I. A. Larkin, P. A. Maksym, M. Hopkinson, M. Al-Khafaji, J. P. R. David, A. G. Cullis, G. Hill, and J. C. Clark, “Inverted electron-hole alignment in InAs-GaAs self-assembled quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(4), 733–736 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

21.

I. E. Itskevich, S. I. Rybchenko, I. I. Tartakovskii, S. T. Stoddart, A. Levin, P. C. Main, L. Eaves, M. Henini, and S. Parnell, “Stark shift in electroluminescence of individual InAs quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(26), 3932–3934 (2000). [CrossRef]

22.

P. Jin, C. M. Li, Z. Y. Zhang, F. Q. Liu, Y. H. Chen, X. L. Ye, B. Xu, and Z. G. Wang, “Quantum-confined Stark effect and built-in dipole moment in self-assembled InAs/GaAs quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(14), 2791–2793 (2004). [CrossRef]

23.

T. M. Hsu, W.-H. Chang, C. C. Huang, N. T. Yeh, and J.-I. Chyi, “Quantum-confined Stark shift in electroreflectance of InAs/InxGa1−xAs self-assembled quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(12), 1760 (2001). [CrossRef]

24.

J. D. Mar, X. L. Xu, J. J. Baumberg, F. S. F. Brossard, A. C. Irvine, C. Stanley, and D. A. Williams, “Bias-controlled single-electron charging of a self-assembled quantum dot in a two-dimensional-electron-gas-based n-i-Schottky diode,” Phys. Rev. B 83(7), 075306 (2011). [CrossRef]

25.

N. Chauvin, C. Zinoni, M. Francardi, A. Gerardino, L. Balet, B. Alloing, L. H. Li, and A. Fiore, “Controlling the charge environment of single quantum dots in a photonic-crystal cavity,” Phys. Rev. B 80(24), 241306 (2009). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(250.5300) Optoelectronics : Photonic integrated circuits
(270.0270) Quantum optics : Quantum optics
(130.5296) Integrated optics : Photonic crystal waveguides

ToC Category:
Integrated Optics

History
Original Manuscript: July 30, 2012
Revised Manuscript: August 29, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: August 29, 2012
Published: September 6, 2012

Citation
Thang B. Hoang, Johannes Beetz, Matthias Lermer, Leonardo Midolo, Martin Kamp, Sven Höfling, and Andrea Fiore, "Widely tunable, efficient on-chip single photon sources at telecommunication wavelengths," Opt. Express 20, 21758-21765 (2012)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-20-19-21758


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References

  1. E. Purcell, “Spontaneous emission probabilities at radio frequencies,” Phys. Rev.69, 681. (1946).
  2. E. Viasnoff-Schwoob, C. Weisbuch, H. Benisty, S. Olivier, S. Varoutsis, I. Robert-Philip, R. Houdré, and C. J. M. Smith, “Spontaneous emission enhancement of quantum dots in a photonic crystal wire,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95(18), 183901 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. V. S. C. Manga Rao and S. Hughes, “Single quantum-dot Purcell βfactor and factor in a photonic crystal waveguide,” Phys. Rev. B75(20), 205437 (2007).
  4. V. S. Rao and S. Hughes, “Single quantum dot spontaneous emission in a finite-size photonic crystal waveguide: proposal for an efficient “on chip” single photon gun,” Phys. Rev. Lett.99(19), 193901 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. G. Lecamp, P. Lalanne, and J. P. Hugonin, “Very large spontaneous-emission β− factors in photonic-crystal waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett.99(2), 023902 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. T. Lund-Hansen, S. Stobbe, B. Julsgaard, H. Thyrrestrup, T. Sünner, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, and P. Lodahl, “Experimental realization of highly efficient broadband coupling of single quantum dots to a photonic crystal waveguide,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101(11), 113903 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. S. J. Dewhurst, D. Granados, D. J. P. Ellis, A. J. Bennett, R. B. Patel, I. Farrer, D. Anderson, G. A. C. Jones, D. A. Ritchie, and A. J. Shields, “Slow-light-enhanced single quantum dot emission in a unidirectional photonic crystal waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(3), 031109 (2010). [CrossRef]
  8. H. Thyrrestrup, L. Sapienz, and P. Lodahl, “Extraction of the β-factor for single quantum dots coupled to a photonic crystal waveguide, ” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(23), 231106 (2010). [CrossRef]
  9. A. Schwagmann, S. Kalliakos, I. Farrer, J. P. Griffiths, G. A. C. Jones, D. A. Ritchie, and A. J. Shields, “On-chip single photon emission from an integrated semiconductor quantum dot into a photonic crystal waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(26), 261108 (2011). [CrossRef]
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