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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 20, Iss. 2 — Jan. 16, 2012
  • pp: 1360–1369
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Mitigation of intra-channel nonlinearities using a frequency-domain Volterra series equalizer

Fernando P. Guiomar, Jacklyn D. Reis, António L. Teixeira, and Armando N. Pinto  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 20, Issue 2, pp. 1360-1369 (2012)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.20.001360


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Abstract

We address the issue of intra-channel nonlinear compensation using a Volterra series nonlinear equalizer based on an analytical closed-form solution for the 3rd order Volterra kernel in frequency-domain. The performance of the method is investigated through numerical simulations for a single-channel optical system using a 20 Gbaud NRZ-QPSK test signal propagated over 1600 km of both standard single-mode fiber and non-zero dispersion shifted fiber. We carry on performance and computational effort comparisons with the well-known backward propagation split-step Fourier (BP-SSF) method. The alias-free frequency-domain implementation of the Volterra series nonlinear equalizer makes it an attractive approach to work at low sampling rates, enabling to surpass the maximum performance of BP-SSF at 2× oversampling. Linear and nonlinear equalization can be treated independently, providing more flexibility to the equalization subsystem. The parallel structure of the algorithm is also a key advantage in terms of real-time implementation.

© 2011 OSA

1. Introduction

The need for higher bandwidth in optical core networks is currently causing a race on the optimization of spectral efficiency. High-order advanced modulation formats require enhanced signal-to-noise ratio, obtained at the expense of increased power per channel. Bandwidth compatibility with the installed amplifiers imposes to reduce the inter-channel spacing. These requirements are clearly pushing signal transmission to the nonlinear regime. Therefore, digital post-compensation of nonlinear impairments in high-speed optical networks is currently attracting an increasingly attention.

In 2008, universal digital post-compensation of fiber impairments was proposed for the first time, using a backward propagation split-step Fourier (BP-SSF) method [1

1. E. Ip and J. M. Kahn, “Compensation of dispersion and nonlinear impairments using digital backpropagation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(20), 3416–3425 (2008). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/jlt/abstract.cfm?URI=jlt-26-20-3416 [CrossRef]

, 2

2. X. Li, X. Chen, G. Goldfarb, E. Mateo, I. Kim, F. Yaman, and G. Li, “Electronic post-compensation of WDM transmission impairments using coherent detection and digital signal processing,” Opt. Express 16(2), 880–888 (2008). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-2-880 [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. This technique is based on an iterative procedure that separately evaluates the linear and nonlinear operators governing signal backward propagation over a certain spatial step. Despite of providing a remarkable improvement over linear equalization, this iterative technique still requires high computational power and imposes to jointly compensate for linear and nonlinear impairments.

Back in 1997, a Volterra series transfer function (VSTF) was proposed to solve the nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation for single-mode fibers, in frequency-domain [8

8. K. Peddanarappagari and M. Brandt-Pearce, “Volterra series transfer function of single-mode fibers,” J. Light-wave Technol. 15(12), 2232–2241 (1997). [CrossRef]

]. This numerical approach has been recently reassessed within the scope of coherent optical systems, proving that a third-order truncated VSTF is an accurate model for the analysis of nonlinear effects [9

9. J. D. Reis and A. L. Teixeira, “Unveiling nonlinear effects in dense coherent optical WDM systems with Volterra series,” Opt. Express 18(8), 8660–8670 (2010). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-8-8660 [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. In [10

10. F. P. Guiomar, J. D. Reis, A. L. Teixeira, and A. N. Pinto, “Digital postcompensation using Volterra series transfer function,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(19), 1412–1414 (2011). [CrossRef]

] an inverse modified VSTF has been applied to describe digital backward propagation in order to compensate for fiber impairments, showing a 2 dB improvement on the nonlinear tolerance over BP-SSF when only 2 samples per symbol are used. Retaining only its third-order nonlinear transfer function, a frequency-domain Volterra series nonlinear equalizer (FD-VSNE) can be obtained from the backward propagation VSTF (BP-VSTF), providing a more flexible way of compensating nonlinearities.

In this paper, we provide a detailed analysis of the FD-VSNE technique including performance assessment via numerical results and computational effort comparisons with other compensation techniques.

2. Frequency-domain Volterra series equalizer - theoretical formulation

Before proceeding with the FD-VSNE theoretical formulation we shall first identify the adopted analytical description for the NLS equation that governs signal propagation in fiber,
Az=α2Aiβ222At2+iγ|A|2A,
(1)
where A is an abbreviation of A(t,z) describing the slowly varying complex envelope of the optical field at time t and position z, α is the attenuation coefficient of the fiber, β2 accounts for the group velocity dispersion and γ is the nonlinear coefficient accounting for the Kerr effect.

For each fiber span of length Lspan, the third-order truncated BP-VSTF gives an estimative of the input field spectrum, Ãin(ω), at the expense of the output field spectrum, Ãout (ω) [10

10. F. P. Guiomar, J. D. Reis, A. L. Teixeira, and A. N. Pinto, “Digital postcompensation using Volterra series transfer function,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(19), 1412–1414 (2011). [CrossRef]

],
A˜in(ω)H1(ω)A˜out(ω)+H3(ω1,ω2,ωω1+ω2)×A˜out(ω1)A˜out*(ω2)A˜out(ωω1+ω2)dω1dω2,
(2)
where H1(ω) and H3(ω1, ω2, ωω1 + ω2) are the inverse linear kernel and the inverse third-order nonlinear kernel, respectively given by
H1(ω)=exp(α2Lspaniβ22ω2Lspan),
(3)
and
H3(ω1,ω2,ωω1+ω2)=iγH1(ω)1exp(αLspaniβ2(ω1ω)(ω1ω2)Lspan)α+iβ2(ω1ω)(ω1ω2).
(4)

Retaining only the third-order nonlinear term in Eq. (2) we obtain the discrete FD-VSNE. Consider a block of NFFT signal samples, taken with sampling rate Fs = NFFT/T, where T is the time window. This block of samples is transformed into frequency domain, employing a discrete Fourier transform (DFT), which has to be consistent with the previously defined NLS equation,
A˜(ωn)=1NFFTk=1NFFTA(tk)exp(i2π(n1)(k1)NFFT),
(5)
where ωn is the n-th sample of the angular frequency vector, ω. Since the DFT definition is based on a discretization of the continuous Fourier transform using a left Riemann sum, we may directly substitute the double integral in Eq. (2) by two algebraic sums over the entire integration range. In a span-by-span basis, each sample of the nonlinearly equalized input field spectrum, ÃeqNL (ωn), is then obtained at the expense of an NFFT-length fast-Fourier transform (FFT) of the output field, by applying the transfer function
A˜eqNL(ωn)=n2=1NFFTn1=1NFFTH3(ωn1,ωn2,ωnωn1+ωn2)A˜out(ωn1)A˜out*(ωn2)A˜out(ωnωn1+ωn2),
(6)
where n1 and n2 are auxiliary indices used to evaluate the double sum for each block of frequency samples.

In Fig. 1, we present an implementation schematic of the FD-VSNE. The received samples are stored in a NFFT-length buffer and transformed into frequency domain using an FFT. Then, three delay lines are used to evaluate the double summation in Eq. (6) and the obtained value is sent to the accumulation block. Each time Eq. (6) is completed, a sample is released to the output frequency buffer. Finally, when the output frequency buffer is full, the time domain nonlinearly equalized signal is obtained by applying an inverse FFT (IFFT).

Fig. 1 FD-VSNE implementation for each fiber span. Black solid lines represent the equalizer operations; Blue dashed lines represent the equalizer control plan.

The original VSTF method, as it is presented in [8

8. K. Peddanarappagari and M. Brandt-Pearce, “Volterra series transfer function of single-mode fibers,” J. Light-wave Technol. 15(12), 2232–2241 (1997). [CrossRef]

], may suffer from energy divergence problems when the input power is relatively high, limiting its practical application. In order to solve this issue, a modified VSTF method is presented in [11

11. B. Xu and M. Brandt-Pearce, “Modified Volterra series transfer function method,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(1), 47–49 (2002). [CrossRef]

], based on a phase correction of the output optical field. A similar strategy can be employed to enhance the applicability of the FD-VSNE, extending the power operating range for equalization. Thereby, after applying the FD-VSNE as in Eq. (6), we may obtain the equalized optical field, Aeq, as follows,
Aeq={AeqLIexp(AeqNLAeqLI),if|AeqNL|<|AeqLI|AeqLI+AeqNL,otherwise,
where AeqLI is the linearly equalized field, obtained using any linear equalization method of choice, and AeqNL is the nonlinearly equalized field, as given by Eq. (6).

3. Performance assessment

3.1. System model

A general model of an optical coherent system with single polarization transmission is shown in Fig. 2.

Fig. 2 Coherent NRZ-QPSK optical system model adopted in this work. DSP - Digital Signal Processor; ADC - Analog-to-Digital Converter; LPF - Low-Pass Filter.

We have used the symmetric SSF method with a step-size of 10 m and a sampling rate of 640 GHz to solve the NLS equation, thereby emulating the propagation of a 20 Gbaud NRZ-QPSK signal over 20 × 80 km of both standard single-mode fiber (SSMF) and non-zero dispersion shifted fiber (NZDSF). No in-line dispersion compensation is used in this work. Optical amplification with ideal gain coefficient and 5 dB noise figure is applied at the end of each fiber span. Laser phase noise has been neglected. The 90 degree optical hybrid and the pair of balanced photodiodes are assumed to perform optical-to-electrical down-conversion without distorting the received signal. The SSMF was set with an attenuation of α = 0.2 dB/km, group velocity dispersion of β2 = −20.4 ps2/km and Kerr coefficient of γ = 1.3 W−1km−1. In turn, for the NZDSF we have α = 0.2 dB/km, β2 = −6.0 ps2/km and γ = 1.5 W−1km−1. As a figure of merit for compensation performance we use the error vector magnitude (EVM) percentage relatively to the optimal constellation, defined as EVM=(|AeqAtx|2/|Atx|2)1/2, where Atx and Aeq are the transmitted and equalized optical fields, respectively.

After coherent detection, the baseband signal is passed through a third-order low-pass Butterworth filter with cutoff frequency at 80% of the symbol rate, in order to filter the out-of-band ASE noise and reduce the aliasing effect due to downsampling. Finally, the digital equalization stage follows. Linear equalization is performed with a frequency-domain chromatic dispersion equalizer (FD-CDE). Full compensation of linear and nonlinear impairments is achieved by BP-SSF and by FD-CDE in conjunction with FD-VSNE. We denote BP-SSF with Nsteps steps per fiber span as BP-SSFNsteps.

3.2. Performance comparison with BP-SSF

In order to assess the performance of the third-order truncated FD-VSNE we have performed a set of numerical simulations exploiting the evolution of EVM as a function of the input power in the fiber for both SSMF and NZDSF links. We also provide a direct comparison of performance with the well-known BP-SSF method.

In Fig. 3(a), we present the obtained results for a 20×80 km SSMF link, taking 3 samples per symbol (Nsp = 3) to perform digital equalization. We may see that the three best performance curves corresponding to BP-SSF8, BP-SSF64 and CDE+VSNE are completely overlaid. This fact enables us to draw two main conclusions. First, it becomes clear that BP-SSF reaches its performance limit at approximately 8 steps per span. This happens because the low temporal resolution sets an upper limit for compensation performance, above which it becomes useless to increase the spatial resolution. Secondly, we may also observe that the third-order approximation used to derive the FD-VSNE is sufficient to reach the best performance possible at this sampling rate. In turn, using only 2 samples per symbol (see Fig. 3(b)) we observe a significative degradation of performance in BP-SSF. This is due to the generation of high frequencies when the nonlinear operator is applied in time-domain, giving place to aliasing components when the signal is subsequently transposed to frequency-domain, in order to apply the linear step. In fact, this limitation has been already identified in [12

12. L. B. Du and A. J. Lowery, “Improved single channel backpropagation for intra-channel fiber nonlinearity compensation in long-haul optical communication systems,” Opt. Express 18(16), 17075–17088 (2010). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-16-17075 [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], where a BP-SSF modified version is proposed to partially overcome this issue by low-pass filtering the intensity waveform that phase modulates the signal in each nonlinear step.

Fig. 3 Equalization results (in terms of EVM) obtained for a 20 Gbaud NRZ-QPSK signal transmitted over 20 × 80 km. a) SSMF link with Nsp = 3; b) SSMF link with Nsp = 2; c) NZDSF link with Nsp = 3; d) NZDSF link with Nsp = 2. For simplicity, both FD-CDE and FD-VSNE have been abbreviated to CDE and VSNE respectively.

3.3. Required bandwidth for nonlinear equalization

Fig. 4 EVM after nonlinear equalization as a function of the LPF cutoff frequency. a) Nsp = 3; b) Nsp = 2. Input optical power is 6 dBm.
Fig. 5 Optical spectra of the propagated signal before and after the LPF and after down-sampling at 3 samples per symbol. The LPF cutoff frequency is placed at 18 GHz.

Consider now that 3 samples per symbol are available for digital equalization. The FD-VSNE method can then be applied over a total bandwidth of 60 GHz, as shown in Fig. 5. However, the double summation indices in Eq. (6) can be redefined in order to apply the method over a narrower bandwidth, thereby avoiding excessive computational effort. In Fig. 6, we can see more clearly how the spectral support extent used in the FD-VSNE evaluation impacts on its performance. We have gradually reduced the spectral region used for nonlinear equalization from 60 GHz (full spectrum at 3 samples per symbol) down to 25 GHz by adjusting the double summation range of the FD-VSNE.

Fig. 6 EVM as a function of the effective spectral support used to apply the FD-VSNE and LPF cutoff frequency (LPF3dB). The signal fed to the equalization block is sampled at 3 samples per symbol and the input power is 6 dBm.

Although the effect of the LPF cutoff frequency is minor, we may observe that a wider LPF tends to benefit equalization accuracy when FD-VSNE is evaluated over a broader spectral support, but it prejudices performance when a narrower spectral support is used. The EVM degradation between 60 GHz and 40 GHz is barely visible, confirming the FD-VSNE capability to operate at 2 samples per symbol with negligible loss of performance. However, as expected, a severe penalty quickly arises when the spectral support is further reduced, cutting higher power spectral components. In fact, we observe that at least 80–90% of two times the symbol rate is required for an accurate nonlinear equalization.

4. Computational effort

Computational effort is a key measure for digital equalization of fiber impairments since real-time implementation is limited by currently available processing speeds. Most of the computations required by the FD-VSNE arise from the double summation in Eq. (6), which can be viewed as dot product of square matrices containing NFFT2 elements. Although some operations are redundant and therefore can be suppressed, the overall numerical complexity is always proportional to O(NFFT2) per sample. In contrast, the number of complex multiplies per sample required by BP-SSF evolves logarithmically with the FFT block-size, as O(log2(NFFT)). In Fig. 7, we show how the computational effort of both methods evolves with NFFT, where it becomes clear that reduced FFT block-sizes must be considered in order to keep FD-VSNE in a tolerable region of complexity. However, it is well known that there is a limit for reducing the FFT block-size without incurring inter-block interference.

Fig. 7 Number of complex multiplies required by FD-VSNE and BP-SSF as a function of the FFT block-size.

Fig. 8 Inter-block interference as a function of the FFT block-size. Red lines refer to the implementation of OS only at the link ends. Black lines are in respect with the span-by-span implementation of OS. Input power is 4 dBm; Nsp = 2.

This analysis suggests that a span-by-span implementation of the FD-VSNE can be preferable in terms of computational requirements. A sub-span approach can also be considered if a further reduction of FFT block-size is worth the required additional iterations. The high performance of the current version of the method gives margin for further computational savings by neglecting less significant elements in the Volterra kernel. However, this topic is still under investigation.

A key advantage of the FD-VSNE approach over BP-SSF, which is not depicted in Fig. 7, lies in its parallel structure. Most operations within the FD-VSNE method are completely independent between themselves, which eases the application of parallel processing strategies in order to enable real-time implementation. Besides, the FD-VSNE is also independent from linear equalization, enabling to apply nonlinear compensation as an add-on for the equalization subsystem, bringing more flexibility and ease of implementation.

5. Conclusion

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank Marco Forzati and Hou-Man Chin for the fruitful discussions. This work was supported in part by PT Inovação, SA through the projects “PosDig” and “Adapt-Dig”, and by the European Union within the framework of the EURO-FOS project, a Network of Excellence funded by the EU 7th ICT-Framework Programme. Fernando P. Guiomar also acknowledges his PhD grant from FCT (SFRH/BD/74049/2010, “Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia”).

References and links

1.

E. Ip and J. M. Kahn, “Compensation of dispersion and nonlinear impairments using digital backpropagation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(20), 3416–3425 (2008). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/jlt/abstract.cfm?URI=jlt-26-20-3416 [CrossRef]

2.

X. Li, X. Chen, G. Goldfarb, E. Mateo, I. Kim, F. Yaman, and G. Li, “Electronic post-compensation of WDM transmission impairments using coherent detection and digital signal processing,” Opt. Express 16(2), 880–888 (2008). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-2-880 [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3.

M. Schetzen, The Volterra and Wiener Theories of Nonlinear Systems (Wiley, 1989).

4.

C. Xia and W. Rosenkranz, “Nonlinear electrical equalization for different modulation formats with optical filtering,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(4), 996–1001 (2007). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/jlt/abstract.cfm?URI=jlt-25-4-996 [CrossRef]

5.

Y. Gao, F. Zgang, L. Dou, Z. Chen, and A. Xu, “Intra-channel nonlinearities mitigation in pseudo-linear coherent QPSK transmission systems via nonlinear electrical equalizer,” Opt. Commun. 282(12), 2421–2425 (2009). [CrossRef]

6.

Z. Pan, B. Châtelain, M. Chagnon, and D. V. Plant, “Volterra filtering for nonlinearity impairment mitigation in DP-16QAM and DP-QPSK fiber optic communication systems,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper JThA040. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OFC-2011-JThA040

7.

R. Weidenfeld, M. Nazarathy, R. Noe, and I. Shpantzer, “Volterra nonlinear compensation of 100G coherent OFDM with baud-rate ADC, tolerable complexity and low intra-channel FWM/XPM error propagation,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper OTuE3. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OFC-2010-OTuE3

8.

K. Peddanarappagari and M. Brandt-Pearce, “Volterra series transfer function of single-mode fibers,” J. Light-wave Technol. 15(12), 2232–2241 (1997). [CrossRef]

9.

J. D. Reis and A. L. Teixeira, “Unveiling nonlinear effects in dense coherent optical WDM systems with Volterra series,” Opt. Express 18(8), 8660–8670 (2010). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-8-8660 [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

F. P. Guiomar, J. D. Reis, A. L. Teixeira, and A. N. Pinto, “Digital postcompensation using Volterra series transfer function,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(19), 1412–1414 (2011). [CrossRef]

11.

B. Xu and M. Brandt-Pearce, “Modified Volterra series transfer function method,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(1), 47–49 (2002). [CrossRef]

12.

L. B. Du and A. J. Lowery, “Improved single channel backpropagation for intra-channel fiber nonlinearity compensation in long-haul optical communication systems,” Opt. Express 18(16), 17075–17088 (2010). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-16-17075 [CrossRef] [PubMed]

OCIS Codes
(060.1660) Fiber optics and optical communications : Coherent communications
(060.2330) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics communications

ToC Category:
Fibers, Fiber Devices, and Amplifiers

History
Original Manuscript: October 3, 2011
Revised Manuscript: December 17, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: December 19, 2011
Published: January 9, 2012

Virtual Issues
European Conference on Optical Communication 2011 (2011) Optics Express

Citation
Fernando P. Guiomar, Jacklyn D. Reis, António L. Teixeira, and Armando N. Pinto, "Mitigation of intra-channel nonlinearities using a frequency-domain Volterra series equalizer," Opt. Express 20, 1360-1369 (2012)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-20-2-1360


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References

  1. E. Ip and J. M. Kahn, “Compensation of dispersion and nonlinear impairments using digital backpropagation,” J. Lightwave Technol.26(20), 3416–3425 (2008). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/jlt/abstract.cfm?URI=jlt-26-20-3416 [CrossRef]
  2. X. Li, X. Chen, G. Goldfarb, E. Mateo, I. Kim, F. Yaman, and G. Li, “Electronic post-compensation of WDM transmission impairments using coherent detection and digital signal processing,” Opt. Express16(2), 880–888 (2008). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-2-880 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. M. Schetzen, The Volterra and Wiener Theories of Nonlinear Systems (Wiley, 1989).
  4. C. Xia and W. Rosenkranz, “Nonlinear electrical equalization for different modulation formats with optical filtering,” J. Lightwave Technol.25(4), 996–1001 (2007). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/jlt/abstract.cfm?URI=jlt-25-4-996 [CrossRef]
  5. Y. Gao, F. Zgang, L. Dou, Z. Chen, and A. Xu, “Intra-channel nonlinearities mitigation in pseudo-linear coherent QPSK transmission systems via nonlinear electrical equalizer,” Opt. Commun.282(12), 2421–2425 (2009). [CrossRef]
  6. Z. Pan, B. Châtelain, M. Chagnon, and D. V. Plant, “Volterra filtering for nonlinearity impairment mitigation in DP-16QAM and DP-QPSK fiber optic communication systems,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper JThA040. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OFC-2011-JThA040
  7. R. Weidenfeld, M. Nazarathy, R. Noe, and I. Shpantzer, “Volterra nonlinear compensation of 100G coherent OFDM with baud-rate ADC, tolerable complexity and low intra-channel FWM/XPM error propagation,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper OTuE3. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OFC-2010-OTuE3
  8. K. Peddanarappagari and M. Brandt-Pearce, “Volterra series transfer function of single-mode fibers,” J. Light-wave Technol.15(12), 2232–2241 (1997). [CrossRef]
  9. J. D. Reis and A. L. Teixeira, “Unveiling nonlinear effects in dense coherent optical WDM systems with Volterra series,” Opt. Express18(8), 8660–8670 (2010). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-8-8660 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. F. P. Guiomar, J. D. Reis, A. L. Teixeira, and A. N. Pinto, “Digital postcompensation using Volterra series transfer function,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(19), 1412–1414 (2011). [CrossRef]
  11. B. Xu and M. Brandt-Pearce, “Modified Volterra series transfer function method,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.14(1), 47–49 (2002). [CrossRef]
  12. L. B. Du and A. J. Lowery, “Improved single channel backpropagation for intra-channel fiber nonlinearity compensation in long-haul optical communication systems,” Opt. Express18(16), 17075–17088 (2010). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-16-17075 [CrossRef] [PubMed]

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