OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 20, Iss. 2 — Jan. 16, 2012
  • pp: 1385–1391
« Show journal navigation

Elliptical defected core photonic crystal fiber with high birefringence and negative flattened dispersion

So Eun Kim, Bok Hyeon Kim, Chung Ghiu Lee, Sejin Lee, Kyunghwan Oh, and Chul-Sik Kee  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 20, Issue 2, pp. 1385-1391 (2012)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.20.001385


View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (1129 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

We propose a novel design of photonic crystal fiber (PCF) using an elliptical air hole in the core as a defected core in order to enhance the performance of modal birefringence and to control the properties of chromatic dispersion at the same time. From the simulation results, it is shown that the proposed fiber has high birefringence up to the order of 10−2, negative flattened chromatic dispersion in a broad range of wavelengths, and low confinement loss less than that of the single mode fiber. The outstanding advantage of the proposed PCF is that high birefringence, negative flattened dispersion, and low confinement loss can be achieved just by adding a small sized elliptical air hole in the core to the elliptical air hole PCF, especially at the same time.

© 2012 OSA

1. Introduction

Photonic crystal fibers with the flexibility for the cross section design have been intensively studied due to their unique properties which would be difficult to realize in conventional optical fibers [1

1. J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, and D. M. Atkin, “All-silica single-mode optical fiber with photonic crystal cladding,” Opt. Lett. 21(19), 1547–1549 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5

5. A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, J. Arriaga, B. J. Mangan, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, “Highly birefringent photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Lett. 25(18), 1325–1327 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Especially, due to the large index contrast of a PCF compared to the conventional fiber, several designs based on the asymmetric microstructure in either cladding or the core region of PCFs have been reported to achieve high birefringence up to the order of 10−3 [5

5. A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, J. Arriaga, B. J. Mangan, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, “Highly birefringent photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Lett. 25(18), 1325–1327 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7

7. T. P. Hansen, J. Broeng, S. E. B. Libori, E. Knudsen, A. Bjarklew, J. R. Jensen, and H. Simonsen, “Highly brefringent index-guiding photonic crystal fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(6), 588–590 (2001). [CrossRef]

]. Furthermore, in order to enhance the birefringence up to the order of 10−2, elliptical air hole PCF (EPCF) was reported by M. J. Steel in 2001 for the first time [8

8. M. J. Steel and R. M. Osgood, “Elliptical-hole photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Lett. 26(4), 229–231 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,9

9. M. J. Steel and P. M. Osgood Jr, “Polarization and dispersive properties of elliptical hole photonic crystal fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 19(4), 495–503 (2001). [CrossRef]

]. After that, several designs using elliptical air holes have been investigated theoretically [10

10. L. Wang and D. Yang, “Highly birefringent elliptical-hole rectangular-lattice photonic crystal fibers with modified air holes near the core,” Opt. Express 15(14), 8892–8897 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,11

11. Y. C. Liu and Y. Lai, “Optical birefringence and polarization dependent loss of square- and rectangular-lattice holey fibers with elliptical air holes: numerical analysis,” Opt. Express 13(1), 225–235 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and realized experimentally [12

12. P. Falkenstein, C. D. Merritt, and B. L. Justus, “Fused preforms for the fabrication of photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Lett. 29(16), 1858–1860 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,13

13. N. A. Issa, M. A. van Eijkelenborg, M. Fellew, F. Cox, G. Henry, and M. C. Large, “Fabrication and study of microstructured optical fibers with elliptical holes,” Opt. Lett. 29(12), 1336–1338 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. However, PCFs with elliptical air holes in the cladding have a weakness in mode confinement in the core since the bulk of the mode energy is in the fiber cladding. To overcome the weakness of poor mode confinement, novel designs of EPCF have been reported by adding the asymmetry in the fiber core using sub-wavelength elliptical air hole array [14

14. D. Chen and L. Shen, “Ultrahigh birefringent photonic crystal fiber with ultralow confinement loss,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(4), 185–187 (2007). [CrossRef]

,15

15. L. An, Z Zheng, Z. Li, T. Zhou, and J. Chen, “Ultrahigh birefringent photonic crystal fiber with ultralow confinement loss using four air holes in the core,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(15), 3175–3180 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. However, in this structure, it is impossible to realize two different kinds of air holes (circular and elliptical) in PCFs using present fabrication techniques.

In fiber optic communication system, control of chromatic dispersion is no less important than control of polarization. To achieve ultra-flattened chromatic dispersion, several intriguing designs have been proposed [16

16. A. Ferrando, E. Silvestre, J. J. Miret, and P. Andrés, “Nearly zero ultraflattened dispersion in photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Lett. 25(11), 790–792 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

19

19. K. Saitoh, N. Florous, and M. Koshiba, “Ultra-flattened chromatic dispersion controllability using a defected-core photonic crystal fiber with low confinement losses,” Opt. Express 13(21), 8365–8371 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Among them, the most simple and effective design to achieve ultra-flattened chromatic dispersion is reported by K. Saitoh using a single small sized air hole in the fiber core [19

19. K. Saitoh, N. Florous, and M. Koshiba, “Ultra-flattened chromatic dispersion controllability using a defected-core photonic crystal fiber with low confinement losses,” Opt. Express 13(21), 8365–8371 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The basic idea relies on introducing a defected air hole in the core of PCF structure, which can enhance the waveguide dispersion in conjunction to the material dispersion in purpose to succeed the mutual cancellation between them and thus to obtain nearly zero dispersion characteristics over a wide wavelength range.

2. Design, simulation results and discussion

The schematic cross section of the proposed EPCF is shown in Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Cross-section of the proposed EPCF with an elliptical air hole in the core with N = 6, and (b) Illustration of the structure parameters.
. It is composed of elliptical air holes in the cladding arranged in a triangular array and an elliptical defected core, where Λ is the center-to-center spacing between the air holes, Dx ( = D) and Dy are the air hole diameters of the x and y axes in the cladding, respectively, and the ellipticity ratio η = Dy/Dx = dcy/dcx, where dcx ( = dc) and dcy are the air hole diameters of the x- and y-axes in the core.

Figure 2
Fig. 2 Electric field distribution of (a), (c) y- and (b),(d) x-polarized mode for the conventional and proposed EPCF, respectively.
shows that the electric field distributions of the x- and y-polarized fundamental modes for the conventional and the proposed EPCF with the parameter of Λ = 1.6μm, D / Λ = 0.6, dc = D / 2, and η = 2. The excitation wavelength is 1.55μm. It can be observed in Fig. 2 that the x- and y- polarized modes of the conventional EPCF in Fig. 2(a) and (b) are more strongly confined in the core region than those of the proposed EPCF in Fig. 3(c)
Fig. 3 Modal birefringence of the fundamental modes for the conventional and proposed EPCF with Λ = 1.6μm, D / Λ = 0.6, dc = D / 2, and η = 2.
and 3(d) .

Next, we investigate the impact of the design parameters, Λ, D and dc on the chromatic dispersion of the proposed fiber. Figure 6(a)
Fig. 6 Influences of structure parameters for the proposed EPCF, (a) Λ (b) D and (c) dc on the chromatic dispersion
shows the impact of varying Λ to the total dispersion of the proposed EPCF with D /Λ = 0.6, dc = D / 2, and η = 2. The simulation results show that the optimized value of Λ with most flattened dispersion from 1.0 to 2.0 μm in the wavelength region is 1.6μm. Figure 6 (b) shows the impact of varying D in the cladding to the total dispersion of the proposed EPCF with Λ = 1.6μm, dc = D / 2, and η = 2. For D / Λ = 0. 4 in the proposed EPCF, the slope of dispersion is negative and as D increases to possible maximum value, 0.6Λ, the slope of total dispersion becomes to be flattened. Finally, Fig. 6(c) shows the impact of variation of an elliptical air hole diameter in the core, dc, to the total dispersion of the proposed EPCF with Λ = 1.6 μm, D / Λ = 0.6, and η = 2. In the case of dc = 0, the fiber is the conventional EPCF and have positive value of total dispersion with negative slope. As dc increases to D / 2, the value of dispersion becomes negative and its slope to be flattened.

Finally, we briefly consider the possibility of fabrication for the proposed EPCF. In the fabrication process, the elliptical holes may be susceptible to collapse and to change into circular one due to the surface tension. To overcome these problems, the new fabrication method of the new multi-step process of forming perform was suggested by Falkenstein, P et al in 2004 and EPCF were experimentally realized in Ref [12

12. P. Falkenstein, C. D. Merritt, and B. L. Justus, “Fused preforms for the fabrication of photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Lett. 29(16), 1858–1860 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. In addition, by introducing new methods for fabrication PCFs such as performs drilling, sol-gel casting, and tapering [20

20. S. Guenneau, A. Nicolet, F. Zolla, and S. Lasquellec, “Numerical and theoretical study of photonic crystal fibers,” Prog. Electromagn. Res. 41, 271–305 (2003).

,21

21. P. Domachuk, A. Chapman, E. Mägi, M. J. Steel, H. C. Nguyen, and B. J. Eggleton, “Transverse characterization of high air-fill fraction tapered photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Opt. 44(19), 3885–3892 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], the possibility of drawing the proposed EPCF is enhanced.

3. Conclusions

Acknowledgment

This research was supported by Basic Science Research and the Happy tech. program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (No. 2011-004180, 2010-0001858, and 2010-0020794).

References and links

1.

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, and D. M. Atkin, “All-silica single-mode optical fiber with photonic crystal cladding,” Opt. Lett. 21(19), 1547–1549 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2.

T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 22(13), 961–963 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3.

J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, and A. J. Stentz, “Optical properties of high-delta air silica microstructure optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 25(11), 796–798 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4.

J. C. Knight and P. S. J. Russell, “Applied optics: New way to guide light,” Science 296, 276–277 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, J. Arriaga, B. J. Mangan, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, “Highly birefringent photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Lett. 25(18), 1325–1327 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

J. Ju, W. Jin, and M. S. Demokan, “Properties of a highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(10), 1375–1377 (2003). [CrossRef]

7.

T. P. Hansen, J. Broeng, S. E. B. Libori, E. Knudsen, A. Bjarklew, J. R. Jensen, and H. Simonsen, “Highly brefringent index-guiding photonic crystal fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(6), 588–590 (2001). [CrossRef]

8.

M. J. Steel and R. M. Osgood, “Elliptical-hole photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Lett. 26(4), 229–231 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

M. J. Steel and P. M. Osgood Jr, “Polarization and dispersive properties of elliptical hole photonic crystal fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 19(4), 495–503 (2001). [CrossRef]

10.

L. Wang and D. Yang, “Highly birefringent elliptical-hole rectangular-lattice photonic crystal fibers with modified air holes near the core,” Opt. Express 15(14), 8892–8897 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

Y. C. Liu and Y. Lai, “Optical birefringence and polarization dependent loss of square- and rectangular-lattice holey fibers with elliptical air holes: numerical analysis,” Opt. Express 13(1), 225–235 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

P. Falkenstein, C. D. Merritt, and B. L. Justus, “Fused preforms for the fabrication of photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Lett. 29(16), 1858–1860 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

N. A. Issa, M. A. van Eijkelenborg, M. Fellew, F. Cox, G. Henry, and M. C. Large, “Fabrication and study of microstructured optical fibers with elliptical holes,” Opt. Lett. 29(12), 1336–1338 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

D. Chen and L. Shen, “Ultrahigh birefringent photonic crystal fiber with ultralow confinement loss,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(4), 185–187 (2007). [CrossRef]

15.

L. An, Z Zheng, Z. Li, T. Zhou, and J. Chen, “Ultrahigh birefringent photonic crystal fiber with ultralow confinement loss using four air holes in the core,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(15), 3175–3180 (2009). [CrossRef]

16.

A. Ferrando, E. Silvestre, J. J. Miret, and P. Andrés, “Nearly zero ultraflattened dispersion in photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Lett. 25(11), 790–792 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

17.

W. H. Reeves, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, and P. J. Roberts, “Demonstration of ultra-flattened dispersion in photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 10(14), 609–613 (2002). [PubMed]

18.

T. L. Wu and C. H. Chao, “Novel ultraflattened dispersion photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(1), 67–69 (2005). [CrossRef]

19.

K. Saitoh, N. Florous, and M. Koshiba, “Ultra-flattened chromatic dispersion controllability using a defected-core photonic crystal fiber with low confinement losses,” Opt. Express 13(21), 8365–8371 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

20.

S. Guenneau, A. Nicolet, F. Zolla, and S. Lasquellec, “Numerical and theoretical study of photonic crystal fibers,” Prog. Electromagn. Res. 41, 271–305 (2003).

21.

P. Domachuk, A. Chapman, E. Mägi, M. J. Steel, H. C. Nguyen, and B. J. Eggleton, “Transverse characterization of high air-fill fraction tapered photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Opt. 44(19), 3885–3892 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

OCIS Codes
(060.2270) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber characterization
(060.2280) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber design and fabrication
(060.2420) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fibers, polarization-maintaining
(060.5295) Fiber optics and optical communications : Photonic crystal fibers

ToC Category:
Fiber Optics and Optical Communications

History
Original Manuscript: October 14, 2011
Revised Manuscript: November 29, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: December 22, 2011
Published: January 9, 2012

Citation
So Eun Kim, Bok Hyeon Kim, Chung Ghiu Lee, Sejin Lee, Kyunghwan Oh, and Chul-Sik Kee, "Elliptical defected core photonic crystal fiber with high birefringence and negative flattened dispersion," Opt. Express 20, 1385-1391 (2012)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-20-2-1385


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, and D. M. Atkin, “All-silica single-mode optical fiber with photonic crystal cladding,” Opt. Lett.21(19), 1547–1549 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett.22(13), 961–963 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, and A. J. Stentz, “Optical properties of high-delta air silica microstructure optical fibers,” Opt. Lett.25(11), 796–798 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. C. Knight and P. S. J. Russell, “Applied optics: New way to guide light,” Science296, 276–277 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, J. Arriaga, B. J. Mangan, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, “Highly birefringent photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Lett.25(18), 1325–1327 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. Ju, W. Jin, and M. S. Demokan, “Properties of a highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.15(10), 1375–1377 (2003). [CrossRef]
  7. T. P. Hansen, J. Broeng, S. E. B. Libori, E. Knudsen, A. Bjarklew, J. R. Jensen, and H. Simonsen, “Highly brefringent index-guiding photonic crystal fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.13(6), 588–590 (2001). [CrossRef]
  8. M. J. Steel and R. M. Osgood, “Elliptical-hole photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Lett.26(4), 229–231 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. J. Steel and P. M. Osgood Jr, “Polarization and dispersive properties of elliptical hole photonic crystal fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol.19(4), 495–503 (2001). [CrossRef]
  10. L. Wang and D. Yang, “Highly birefringent elliptical-hole rectangular-lattice photonic crystal fibers with modified air holes near the core,” Opt. Express15(14), 8892–8897 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. Y. C. Liu and Y. Lai, “Optical birefringence and polarization dependent loss of square- and rectangular-lattice holey fibers with elliptical air holes: numerical analysis,” Opt. Express13(1), 225–235 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. P. Falkenstein, C. D. Merritt, and B. L. Justus, “Fused preforms for the fabrication of photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Lett.29(16), 1858–1860 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. N. A. Issa, M. A. van Eijkelenborg, M. Fellew, F. Cox, G. Henry, and M. C. Large, “Fabrication and study of microstructured optical fibers with elliptical holes,” Opt. Lett.29(12), 1336–1338 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. D. Chen and L. Shen, “Ultrahigh birefringent photonic crystal fiber with ultralow confinement loss,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.19(4), 185–187 (2007). [CrossRef]
  15. L. An, Z Zheng, Z. Li, T. Zhou, and J. Chen, “Ultrahigh birefringent photonic crystal fiber with ultralow confinement loss using four air holes in the core,” J. Lightwave Technol.27(15), 3175–3180 (2009). [CrossRef]
  16. A. Ferrando, E. Silvestre, J. J. Miret, and P. Andrés, “Nearly zero ultraflattened dispersion in photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Lett.25(11), 790–792 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. W. H. Reeves, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, and P. J. Roberts, “Demonstration of ultra-flattened dispersion in photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express10(14), 609–613 (2002). [PubMed]
  18. T. L. Wu and C. H. Chao, “Novel ultraflattened dispersion photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(1), 67–69 (2005). [CrossRef]
  19. K. Saitoh, N. Florous, and M. Koshiba, “Ultra-flattened chromatic dispersion controllability using a defected-core photonic crystal fiber with low confinement losses,” Opt. Express13(21), 8365–8371 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. S. Guenneau, A. Nicolet, F. Zolla, and S. Lasquellec, “Numerical and theoretical study of photonic crystal fibers,” Prog. Electromagn. Res.41, 271–305 (2003).
  21. P. Domachuk, A. Chapman, E. Mägi, M. J. Steel, H. C. Nguyen, and B. J. Eggleton, “Transverse characterization of high air-fill fraction tapered photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Opt.44(19), 3885–3892 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited