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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 20, Iss. 2 — Jan. 16, 2012
  • pp: 1436–1443
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Optimally enhanced optical emission in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy by combining spatial confinement and dual-pulse irradiation

L. B. Guo, B. Y. Zhang, X. N. He, C. M. Li, Y. S. Zhou, T. Wu, J. B. Park, X. Y. Zeng, and Y. F. Lu  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 20, Issue 2, pp. 1436-1443 (2012)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.20.001436


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Abstract

In laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), a pair of aluminum-plate walls were used to spatially confine the plasmas produced in air by a first laser pulse (KrF excimer laser) from chromium (Cr) targets with a second laser pulse (Nd:YAG laser at 532 nm, 360 mJ/pulse) introduced parallel to the sample surface to re-excite the plasmas. Optical emission enhancement was achieved by combing the spatial confinement and dual-pulse LIBS (DP-LIBS), and then optimized by adjusting the distance between the two walls and the interpulse delay time between both laser pulses. A significant enhancement factor of 168.6 for the emission intensity of the Cr lines was obtained at an excimer laser fluence of 5.6 J/cm2 using the combined spatial confinement and DP-LIBS, as compared with an enhancement factor of 106.1 was obtained with DP-LIBS only. The enhancement mechanisms based on shock wave theory and reheating in DP-LIBS are discussed.

© 2012 OSA

1. Introduction

Over the last few decades, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been demonstrated as a promising and useful element analysis technique [1

1. L. J. Radziemski and D. A. Cremers, Laser Induced Plasma and Applications, (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1989).

8

8. R. Noll, H. Bette, A. Brysch, M. Kraushaar, I. Mönch, L. Peter, and V. Sturm,“ Laser-induced breakdown spectrometry — applications for production control and quality assurance in the steel industry,” Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc. 56(6), 637–649 (2001). [CrossRef]

]. By focusing a powerful pulsed laser beam onto a sample surface, a hot luminous spark, forming a plasma, is generated, emission from the plasma used to identify and quantify within the sample. LIBS offers a simple and fast method of elemental analysis. The ability to form a plasma on unprocessed samples makes LIBS an amazingly versatile diagnostic tool [9

9. X. K. Shen, J. Sun, H. Ling, and Y. F. Lu, “Spatial confinement effects in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(8), 081501 (2007). [CrossRef]

11

11. R. E. Neuhauser, U. Panne, and R. Niessner, “Laser-induced plasma spectroscopy (LIPS): a versatile tool for monitoring heavy metal aerosols,” Anal. Chim. Acta 392(1), 47–54 (1999). [CrossRef]

]. It is one of the few techniques that can be used for non-contact elemental analysis, making LIBS uniquely suited to measurements of hazardous materials and materials in difficult-to-reach locations [12

12. B. J. Marquardt, B. M. Cullum, T. J. Shaw, and S. M. Angel, “Fiber optic probe for determining heavy metals in solids based on laser-induced plasmas,” Proc. SPIE 3105, 203–212 (1997).

,13

13. C. M. Davies, H. H. Telle, and A. W. Williams, “Remote in situ analytical spectroscopy and its applications in the nuclear industry,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 355(7-8), 895–899 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. In recent years, LIBS has been successfully applied in many areas such as civilian and military environmental monitoring, cultural heritage analysis and characterization, biological and medical identification, and even space exploration [14

14. K. Y. Yamamoto, D. A. Cremers, M. J. Ferris, and L. E. Foster, “Detection of metals in the environment using a portable laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy instrument,” Appl. Spectrosc. 50(2), 222–233 (1996). [CrossRef]

17

17. A. K. Knight, N. L. Scherbarth, D. A. Cremers, and M. J. Ferris, “Characterization of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for application to space exploration,” Appl. Spectrosc. 54(3), 331–340 (2000). [CrossRef]

]. Despite its obvious advantages, one of the major shortcomings of LIBS is its low detection sensitivity. Continuous studies have been made to improve the sensitivity of LIBS. These studies have led to investigations such as dual-pulse excitation and various plasma confinements [18

18. J. Scaffidi, W. Pearman, J. C. Carter, and S. M. Angel, “Observations in collinear femtosecond-nanosecond dual-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. 60(1), 65–71 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

25

25. L. B. Guo, C. M. Li, W. Hu, Y. S. Zhou, B. Y. Zhang, Z. X. Cai, X. Y. Zeng, and Y. F. Lu, “Plasma confinement by hemispherical cavity in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(13), 131501 (2011). [CrossRef]

].

2. Experimental methods

2.1 Experiment setup

The schematic diagram of the experimental setup of the spatially confined DP-LIBS is shown in Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic diagram of the experiment setup.
. The experiments were performed in ambient air. A KrF excimer laser (Lambda Physik, Compex 205, wavelength: 248 nm, pulse duration: 23 ns) was used for the first laser pulse to generate plasmas. The laser beam was reflected both by a reflector (Reflector 1) and a dichroic mirror, respectively. The dichroic mirror is reflective to the laser beam but transparent to the other wavelengths studied. The laser beam was then focused onto a chromium (Cr) sample, which was sandwiched by a pair of aluminum (Al) parallel walls, by an UV-grade quartz lens (L1) of 15 cm focal length. The laser beam was slightly focused to a spot size of about 2.6 × 0.5 mm2 to reach a laser fluence of 5.6 J/cm2. Plasma plumes with a size of several millimeters were generated between the walls. A Q-switched Nd:YAG laser operating at 532 nm (Continuum, Powerlite Precision II 8010, pulse duration of 6 ns) with a pulse energy of 360 mJ/pulse was introduced in parallel to the sample surfaces to reheat the plasmas generated by the first pulse. Both lasers were synchronized by a digital delay generator (Stanford Research System DG535, 5 ps delay resolution). The pulse repetition rate was set to 10 Hz. The Nd:YAG laser was focused by a convex lens (Lens 3 with f/10 cm focal length). The spatial position of the second pulse was adjusted by the Reflector 2 and Lens 3. The Nd:YAG laser was focused to a spot with a diameter of about 1 mm, around 2 mm above the sample surfaces. To avoid over ablation, the Cr target was mounted on a motorized translation stage, so that a new surface was exposed at each shot.

2.2 Spectral measurements

The optical emission from plasmas was coupled to an optical fiber by Lens 1 and another UV-grade quartz lens (Lens 2 with f/6 cm focal length). The optical fiber, with a core diameter of 100 μm, was coupled to a spectrometer (Andor Tech., Shamrock 303i) with three gratings of 150, 600, and 2400 lines/mm. The grating of 2400 lines/mm, with a spectral resolution of 0.04 nm at 435 nm, was used in this study. A 512 × 512 pixel intensified charge-coupled device (ICCD) (Andor Tech., iStar, DH-712) was attached to the exit focal plane of the spectrometer. The gate delay and width of the ICCD was adjusted so that the spectra at different time delays after the laser pulse can be obtained. Plasma reheating with different interpulse delays was studied to obtain the optimal enhancement. The spectrometer started to acquire spectra at 3 μs after the first-pulse plasma. For all experiments, the excimer laser was fired first to produce a plasma. The Nd:YAG laser at 532 nm was fired second for plasma reheating. The purity of the Cr targets is 99.95%.

3. Results and discussion

3.1 Time-integrated OES from the pure Cr targets

The time-integrated emission spectra of the laser-induced Cr plasmas in a spectral range of 419-432 nm were recorded with the presence of the walls in the DP-LIBS, (solid curves), DP-LIBS only (dashed curves), and excimer laser only (dotted curves), as shown in Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Time-integrated spectra from Cr targets with combined walls and dual pulse (solid curve), with dual-pulse laser (short dashed curve) and with excimer laser only (short dotted curve). Excimer laser fluence: 5.6 J/cm2; Nd:YAG laser pulse energy: 360 mJ/pulse.
. The distance between the two flat walls was 13 mm. All the spectra were averaged over 30 shots to reduce the standard deviation. The time delay between the excimer laser and Nd:YAG laser was 0 μs. The gate delay and width of the ICCD detector was 3 and 30 μs, respectively. The emission intensities for the Cr atomic lines (425.44, 427.48, and 428.97 nm) were all obviously enhanced in the DP-LIBS with and without the presence of the walls, comparing to the excimer laser only. Enhancement factors of about 8 and 6 were obtained in the DP-LIBS with and without the walls. This clearly shows the difference cases with and without the walls in the DP-LIBS. The transition configuration for the three Cr atomic lines is 3d5(6S)4s - 3d5(6S)4p, where the 3d5(6S)4s is the ground state of the Cr atom.

3.2 Temporal evolution of emission intensities for Cr atomic lines from the pure Cr target

A better understanding of the process of plasma emission enhancement with walls in the DP-LIBS was obtained. Figure 3
Fig. 3 Emission intensity of Cr atomic lines (425.44 nm) as a function of time delay, using both dual-pulse and walls (square dots and solid curve), using dual-pulse (circle dots and short dashed curve) and excimer only (triangle dots and short dotted curve), at excimer laser fluence of 5.6 J/cm2, Nd:YAG laser: 360 mJ/pulse.
shows the temporal evolution of the emission intensities of the Cr atomic line (425.44 nm) in DP-LIBS with the walls (square dots and solid curve), DP-LIBS without the walls (circle dots and short dashed curve), and LIBS using excimer laser only (triangle dots and short dotted). The time delay between the excimer laser and Nd:YAG laser was 9 μs. The ICCD started to acquire spectra from 3 μs after the first laser pulse and ended at 63 μs, with a gate width of 2 μs and a step of 2 μs. There were two significant enhancement peaks in the DP-LIBS with the walls. The two peaks occurred during the time periods from 7 to 17 μs and from 19 to 47 μs, while only one peak occurred from 7 to 17 μs in under DP-LIBS without the walls for comparison. The first peak was due to the enhancement by the reheating of Nd:YAG laser, whereas the second enhancement peak was due to the spatial confinement of the plasmas. Dual-pulse enhancement factors of about 12 (with aluminum walls) and 10 (without aluminum walls) have been acquired in DP-LIBS.

3.3 The optimization of the distance between the plate-walls

To optimize the distance between the two walls in the DP-LIBS, Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Emission intensity for Cr atomic lines (All with 425.44 nm) as a function of time delay. The distance between the walls are 11 mm, 13 mm, 15 mm, and 17 mm, at excimer laser fluence of 5.6 J/cm2, Nd:YAG laser: 360 mJ/pulse.
shows the evolutions of the emission intensity as a function of the time delay with different wall distances of 11 (square dots and curve), 13 (circle dots and curve), 15 (pentagon dots and curve), and 17 mm (triangle dots and curve), respectively. The intensity of LIBS using excimer laser only (diamond dots and curve) was also plotted for comparison. It is observed that the emission intensities were all enhanced although the enhancement factor depends on the wall distance. The maximum enhancement factor of the second peak decreased with a longer time delay as the wall distance increased. This is because the energy of the shock wave dissipates quickly with distance, and the traveling time increases as the wall distance increases. The best distance between the two flat walls is 11 mm.

3.4 The optimization of the interpulse delay time between the excimer laser and Nd:YAG laser

After the optimization of the wall distance, the time delay between the excimer laser and Nd:YAG laser pulses was adjusted to further optimize the enhancement effects. Figure 5(a)
Fig. 5 (a) Temporal evolution of DP-LIBS spectra with 50 μs interpulse delay; time-integrated LIBS spectra of plasmas from a Cr target under first-pulse only condition [3 μs after plasma generation (dashed lines)] and with reablation [2 μs after second pulse (solid lines)] at different interpulse delays of (b) 17, (c) 25, and (d) 33 μs. At excimer laser fluence of 5.6 J/cm2, Nd:YAG laser: 360 J/pulse.
shows the temporal evolution of DP-LIBS spectra with walls with an interpulse delay of 17 μs. The first spectrum was acquired with a delay of 3 μs after the first pulse and a gate width of 2 μs, and the following spectra were acquired with an increment of 2 μs. In Figs. 5(b) - 5(d), time-integrated LIBS spectra of Cr lines from reheating were compared with the first-pulse LIBS spectra to show the enhancement with different interpulse delays. As indicated in Figs. 5(b) - 5(d), after reheating of the plasmas, the intensity of LIBS spectra of Cr lines increased significantly compared with first-pulse LIBS spectra. Time-integrated LIBS spectra from the plasma of the Cr targets were acquired under first-pulse only condition [3 μs after plasma generation (dashed lines)] and with reheating [2 μs after second pulse (solid lines)] at different interpulse delays: Figs. 5(b) 17, (c) 25, and (d) 33 μs. It is shown that the strongest emission intensity of the Cr atomic lines appeared with an interpulse delay of 25 μs, significantly higher than shorter or longer interpulse delays.

Therefore, the optimized interpulse delay time for DP-LIBS with confining walls is 25 μs. under the best interpulse delay of 25 μs, as is shown in Table 1

Table 1. The enhancement factors of emission intensity for Cr atomic lines (425.44 nm) in the DP-LIBS with and without walls

table-icon
View This Table
, the Cr line (425.44 nm) recorded by the spectrometer were acquired from 2 μs after the second-pulse plasma and with a gate width of 2 μs, the enhancement factor reached 168.6 when adding walls in DP-LIBS, while the enhancement factor was 106.1 only in DP-LIBS without confining walls. The reason can be explained by the combination of both spatial confinement of plasmas and dual-pulse reheating. When the plasma is generated by the first laser, the drastically increased pressure around the plasma induces a localized shock wave. The shock wave usually spreads out at a speed higher than the ordinary sound wave. When it reaches the walls, the shock wave is reflected by the parallel walls and travels back to the plasma center. Thus, the plasma is confined to a smaller size with increased emission intensity [32

32. F. F. Chen, Introduction to Plasma Physics, (Plenum, New York, 1974).

]. At the same time, the second laser pulse enters to reheat the plasma which is confined by the shock wave. As a result, the confined plasma is re-excited by the second laser pulse, leading to an increased number of excited atoms within the plasma, and consequently, temperature at the center of the plasma increases. Therefore, the LIBS spectra of the Cr plasmas with combined spatial confinement of plasmas and dual-pulse LIBS can be further enhanced, resulting in a high sensitivity.

4. Conclusions

In summary, the enhancement effects of optical emission in DP-LIBS with spatial confinement was studied. The significant enhancements in the atomic lines from Cr plasmas were observed. By the optimization of the distance between two Al walls and the interpulse delay time, the maximum enhancement factor for Cr atomic lines reached 168.6, as compared with an enhancement factor of 106.1 for DP-LIBS without Al walls. It is obvious that the combined enhancement effects of confinement walls and dual-pulse in LIBS is much stronger than that of DP-LIBS only. The results of this study provide a new pathway in improving the sensitivity of LIBS.

Acknowledgment

This research work was financially supported by National Natural Science Foundation China (grant number 51128501) and National Science Foundation (CMMI 0900419 and CMMI 1126208).

References and links

1.

L. J. Radziemski and D. A. Cremers, Laser Induced Plasma and Applications, (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1989).

2.

U. Panne, R. E. Neuhauser, M. Theisen, H. Fink, and R. Niessner, “Analysis of heavy metal aerosols on filters by laser-induced plasma spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc. 56(6), 839–850 (2001). [CrossRef]

3.

L. M. Cabalín and J. J. Laserna, “Surface stoichiometry of manganin coatings prepared by pulsed laser deposition as described by laser-induced breakdown spectrometry,” Anal. Chem. 73(6), 1120–1125 (2001). [CrossRef]

4.

A. C. Samuels, F. C. DeLucia Jr, K. L. McNesby, and A. W. Miziolek, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of bacterial spores, molds, pollens, and protein: initial studies of discrimination potential,” Appl. Opt. 42(30), 6205–6209 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

N. J. McMillan, R. S. Harmon, F. C. De Lucia, and A. M. Miziolek, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy analysis of minerals: Carbonates and silicates,” Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc. 62B(12), 1528–1536 (2007). [CrossRef]

6.

F. C. De Lucia Jr, J. L. Gottfried, and A. W. Miziolek, “Evaluation of femtosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for explosive residue detection,” Opt. Express 17(2), 419–425 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

F. Hilbk-Kortenbruck, R. Noll, P. Wintjens, H. Falk, and C. Becker, “Analysis of heavy metals in soils using laser-induced breakdown spectrometry combined with laser-induced fluorescence,” Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc. 56(6), 933–945 (2001). [CrossRef]

8.

R. Noll, H. Bette, A. Brysch, M. Kraushaar, I. Mönch, L. Peter, and V. Sturm,“ Laser-induced breakdown spectrometry — applications for production control and quality assurance in the steel industry,” Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc. 56(6), 637–649 (2001). [CrossRef]

9.

X. K. Shen, J. Sun, H. Ling, and Y. F. Lu, “Spatial confinement effects in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(8), 081501 (2007). [CrossRef]

10.

J. Gruber, J. Heitz, H. Strasser, D. Bäuerle, and N. Ramaseder, “Rapid in-situ analysis of liquid steel by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc. 56(6), 685–693 (2001). [CrossRef]

11.

R. E. Neuhauser, U. Panne, and R. Niessner, “Laser-induced plasma spectroscopy (LIPS): a versatile tool for monitoring heavy metal aerosols,” Anal. Chim. Acta 392(1), 47–54 (1999). [CrossRef]

12.

B. J. Marquardt, B. M. Cullum, T. J. Shaw, and S. M. Angel, “Fiber optic probe for determining heavy metals in solids based on laser-induced plasmas,” Proc. SPIE 3105, 203–212 (1997).

13.

C. M. Davies, H. H. Telle, and A. W. Williams, “Remote in situ analytical spectroscopy and its applications in the nuclear industry,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 355(7-8), 895–899 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

K. Y. Yamamoto, D. A. Cremers, M. J. Ferris, and L. E. Foster, “Detection of metals in the environment using a portable laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy instrument,” Appl. Spectrosc. 50(2), 222–233 (1996). [CrossRef]

15.

D. Anglos, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy in art and archaeology,” Appl. Spectrosc. 55(6), 186A–205A (2001). [CrossRef]

16.

M. Corsi, G. Cristoforetti, M. Hidalgo, S. Legnaioli, V. Palleschi, A. Salvetti, E. Tognoni, and C. Vallebona, “Application of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy technique to hair tissue mineral analysis,” Appl. Opt. 42(30), 6133–6137 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

17.

A. K. Knight, N. L. Scherbarth, D. A. Cremers, and M. J. Ferris, “Characterization of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for application to space exploration,” Appl. Spectrosc. 54(3), 331–340 (2000). [CrossRef]

18.

J. Scaffidi, W. Pearman, J. C. Carter, and S. M. Angel, “Observations in collinear femtosecond-nanosecond dual-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. 60(1), 65–71 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

19.

J. Scaffidi, J. Pender, W. Pearman, S. R. Goode, B. W. Colston Jr, J. C. Carter, and S. M. Angel, “Dual-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy with combinations of femtosecond and nanosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Opt. 42(30), 6099–6106 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

20.

R. E. Russo, X. L. Mao, J. J. Gonzalez, and S. S. Mao, “Femtosecond laser ablation ICR-MS,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 17(9), 1072–1075 (2002). [CrossRef]

21.

X. K. Shen, H. Wang, Z. Q. Xie, Y. Gao, H. Ling, and Y. F. Lu, “Detection of trace phosphorus in steel using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy combined with laser-induced fluorescence,” Appl. Opt. 48(13), 2551–2558 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

22.

X. N. He, W. Hu, C. M. Li, L. B. Guo, and Y. F. Lu, “Generation of high-temperature and low-density plasmas for improved spectral resolutions in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10997–11006 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

23.

A. M. Popov, F. Colao, and R. Fantoni, “Enhancement of LIBS signal by spatially confining the laser-induced plasma,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 24(5), 602–604 (2009). [CrossRef]

24.

A. M. Popov, F. Colao, and R. Fantoni, “Spatial confinement of laser-induced plasma to enhance LIBS sensitivity for trace elements determination in soils,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 25(6), 837–848 (2010). [CrossRef]

25.

L. B. Guo, C. M. Li, W. Hu, Y. S. Zhou, B. Y. Zhang, Z. X. Cai, X. Y. Zeng, and Y. F. Lu, “Plasma confinement by hemispherical cavity in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(13), 131501 (2011). [CrossRef]

26.

S. Singha, Z. Hu, and R. J. Gordon, “Ablation and plasma emission produced by dual femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(11), 113520 (2008). [CrossRef]

27.

J. Uebbing, J. Brust, W. Sdorra, F. Leis, and K. Niemax, “Reheating of a laser-produced plasma by a second pulse laser,” Appl. Spectrosc. 45(9), 1419–1423 (1991). [CrossRef]

28.

A. De Giacomo, M. Dell’Aglio, O. De Pascale, and M. Capitelli, “From single pulse to double pulse ns-laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy under water: elemental analysis of aqueous solutions and submerged solid samples,” Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc. 62(8), 721–738 (2007). [CrossRef]

29.

X. K. Shen, J. Sun, H. Ling, and Y. F. Lu, “Spectroscopic study of laser-induced Al plasmas with cylindrical confinement,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(9), 093301 (2007). [CrossRef]

30.

L. B. Guo, W. Hu, B. Y. Zhang, X. N. He, C. M. Li, Y. S. Zhou, Z. X. Cai, X. Y. Zeng, and Y. F. Lu, “Enhancement of optical emission from laser-induced plasmas by combined spatial and magnetic confinement,” Opt. Express 19(15), 14067–14075 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

31.

D. K. Killinger, S. D. Allen, R. D. Waterbury, C. Stefano, and E. L. Dottery, “Enhancement of Nd:YAG LIBS emission of a remote target using a simultaneous CO(2) laser pulse,” Opt. Express 15(20), 12905–12915 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

32.

F. F. Chen, Introduction to Plasma Physics, (Plenum, New York, 1974).

OCIS Codes
(350.5400) Other areas of optics : Plasmas
(300.6365) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy, laser induced breakdown

ToC Category:
Spectroscopy

History
Original Manuscript: November 3, 2011
Revised Manuscript: November 23, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: November 24, 2011
Published: January 9, 2012

Citation
L. B. Guo, B. Y. Zhang, X. N. He, C. M. Li, Y. S. Zhou, T. Wu, J. B. Park, X. Y. Zeng, and Y. F. Lu, "Optimally enhanced optical emission in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy by combining spatial confinement and dual-pulse irradiation," Opt. Express 20, 1436-1443 (2012)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-20-2-1436


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References

  1. L. J. Radziemski and D. A. Cremers, Laser Induced Plasma and Applications, (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1989).
  2. U. Panne, R. E. Neuhauser, M. Theisen, H. Fink, and R. Niessner, “Analysis of heavy metal aerosols on filters by laser-induced plasma spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc.56(6), 839–850 (2001). [CrossRef]
  3. L. M. Cabalín and J. J. Laserna, “Surface stoichiometry of manganin coatings prepared by pulsed laser deposition as described by laser-induced breakdown spectrometry,” Anal. Chem.73(6), 1120–1125 (2001). [CrossRef]
  4. A. C. Samuels, F. C. DeLucia, K. L. McNesby, and A. W. Miziolek, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of bacterial spores, molds, pollens, and protein: initial studies of discrimination potential,” Appl. Opt.42(30), 6205–6209 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. N. J. McMillan, R. S. Harmon, F. C. De Lucia, and A. M. Miziolek, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy analysis of minerals: Carbonates and silicates,” Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc.62B(12), 1528–1536 (2007). [CrossRef]
  6. F. C. De Lucia, J. L. Gottfried, and A. W. Miziolek, “Evaluation of femtosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for explosive residue detection,” Opt. Express17(2), 419–425 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. F. Hilbk-Kortenbruck, R. Noll, P. Wintjens, H. Falk, and C. Becker, “Analysis of heavy metals in soils using laser-induced breakdown spectrometry combined with laser-induced fluorescence,” Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc.56(6), 933–945 (2001). [CrossRef]
  8. R. Noll, H. Bette, A. Brysch, M. Kraushaar, I. Mönch, L. Peter, and V. Sturm,“ Laser-induced breakdown spectrometry — applications for production control and quality assurance in the steel industry,” Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc.56(6), 637–649 (2001). [CrossRef]
  9. X. K. Shen, J. Sun, H. Ling, and Y. F. Lu, “Spatial confinement effects in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(8), 081501 (2007). [CrossRef]
  10. J. Gruber, J. Heitz, H. Strasser, D. Bäuerle, and N. Ramaseder, “Rapid in-situ analysis of liquid steel by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc.56(6), 685–693 (2001). [CrossRef]
  11. R. E. Neuhauser, U. Panne, and R. Niessner, “Laser-induced plasma spectroscopy (LIPS): a versatile tool for monitoring heavy metal aerosols,” Anal. Chim. Acta392(1), 47–54 (1999). [CrossRef]
  12. B. J. Marquardt, B. M. Cullum, T. J. Shaw, and S. M. Angel, “Fiber optic probe for determining heavy metals in solids based on laser-induced plasmas,” Proc. SPIE3105, 203–212 (1997).
  13. C. M. Davies, H. H. Telle, and A. W. Williams, “Remote in situ analytical spectroscopy and its applications in the nuclear industry,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem.355(7-8), 895–899 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. K. Y. Yamamoto, D. A. Cremers, M. J. Ferris, and L. E. Foster, “Detection of metals in the environment using a portable laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy instrument,” Appl. Spectrosc.50(2), 222–233 (1996). [CrossRef]
  15. D. Anglos, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy in art and archaeology,” Appl. Spectrosc.55(6), 186A–205A (2001). [CrossRef]
  16. M. Corsi, G. Cristoforetti, M. Hidalgo, S. Legnaioli, V. Palleschi, A. Salvetti, E. Tognoni, and C. Vallebona, “Application of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy technique to hair tissue mineral analysis,” Appl. Opt.42(30), 6133–6137 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. A. K. Knight, N. L. Scherbarth, D. A. Cremers, and M. J. Ferris, “Characterization of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for application to space exploration,” Appl. Spectrosc.54(3), 331–340 (2000). [CrossRef]
  18. J. Scaffidi, W. Pearman, J. C. Carter, and S. M. Angel, “Observations in collinear femtosecond-nanosecond dual-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc.60(1), 65–71 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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