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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 20, Iss. 20 — Sep. 24, 2012
  • pp: 22327–22333
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Enhanced photoluminescence and electroluminescence of multilayer GeSi islands on Si(001) substrates by phosphorus-doping

Zhi Liu, Weixuan Hu, Shaojian Su, Chong Li, Chuanbo Li, Chunlai Xue, Yaming Li, Yuhua Zuo, Buwen Cheng, and Qiming Wang  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 20, Issue 20, pp. 22327-22333 (2012)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.20.022327


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Abstract

Ge/Si heterojunction light emitting diodes with 20-bilayers undoped or phosphorus in situ doped GeSi islands were fabricated on n+-Si(001) substrates by ultrahigh vacuum chemical vapor deposition (UHV-CVD). Enhanced room temperature photoluminescence (PL) and electroluminescence (EL) around 1.5 μm were observed from the devices with phosphorus-doped GeSi islands. Theoretical calculations indicated that the emission is from the radiative recombination in GeSi islands. The intensity enhancement of PL and EL is attributed to the sufficient supply of electrons in active layer for radiative recombination.

© 2012 OSA

1. Introduction

Room-temperature Si-based light source is one of the most important components for Si-based photonic integration. Although many progresses have been made for silicon-based light emitting in recent years [1

1. J. Liu, X. Sun, R. Camacho-Aguilera, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Ge-on-Si laser operating at room temperature,” Opt. Lett. 35(5), 679–681 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4

4. A. G. Cullis and L. T. Canham, “Visible light emission due to quantum size effects in highly porous crystalline silicon,” Nature 353(6342), 335–338 (1991). [CrossRef]

], it is still a big challenge to overcome the inefficient band-to-band radiative recombination of silicon. The confinement of charge carriers in low-dimensional Ge/Si heterostructures is promising to increase the efficiency of the radiative recombination. In the past two decades, due to their compatibility with CMOS processes, self-assembled GeSi quantum dots (QDs) or islands have been widely studied for Si-based optoelectronic device applications [5

5. J. Stangl, V. Holy, and G. Bauer, “Structural properties of self-organized semiconductor nanostructures,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 76(3), 725–783 (2004). [CrossRef]

7

7. W. H. Chang, A. T. Chou, W. Y. Chen, H. S. Chang, T. M. Hsu, Z. Pei, P. S. Chen, S. W. Lee, L. S. Lai, S. C. Lu, and M. J. Tsai, “Room-temperature electroluminescence at 1.3 and 1.5 mu m from Ge/Si self-assembled quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(14), 2958–2960 (2003). [CrossRef]

]. Unfortunately, the insufficient concentration of electrons for radiative recombination in GeSi islands limits its emission efficiency as the band offset at Ge/Si interface is mainly lied on valance band, which can provide good confinement for the holes [8

8. M. L. W. Thewalt, D. A. Harrison, C. F. Reinhart, J. A. Wolk, and H. Lafontaine, “Type II band alignment in Si1-xGex/Si(001) quantum wells: The ubiquitous type I luminescence results from band bending,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79(2), 269–272 (1997). [CrossRef]

, 9

9. S. Fukatsu, H. Sunamura, Y. Shiraki, and S. Komiyama, “Phononless radiative recombination of indirect excitons in a Si/Ge type-II quantum dot,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(2), 258–260 (1997). [CrossRef]

] while electrons are hard to be confined in GeSi islands layer. Many efforts had been made to increase luminescence of GeSi islands/Si(001) multilayer structure [10

10. M. El Kurdi, S. David, P. Boucaud, C. Kammerer, X. Li, V. Le Thanh, S. Sauvage, and J. M. Lourtioz, “Strong 1.3–1.5 μm luminescence from Ge/Si self-assembled islands in highly confining microcavities on silicon on insulator,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(2), 997–1000 (2004). [CrossRef]

13

13. J. Xia, Y. Takeda, N. Usami, T. Maruizumi, and Y. Shiraki, “Room-temperature electroluminescence from Si microdisks with Ge quantum dots,” Opt. Express 18(13), 13945–13950 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], but the radiative recombination in GeSi islands is still weak. It has been proven that impurity doping improves the light emission characteristics of QDs in III–V materials by providing suitable carriers to increase quasi-Fermi level separation for radiative recombination [14

14. K. J. Vahala and C. E. Zah, “Effect of doping on the optical gain and the spontaneous noise enhancement factor in quantum well amplifiers and lasers studied by simple analytical expressions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52(23), 1945–1947 (1988). [CrossRef]

]. However, in Ge/Si(001) system, although impurity doping has applied in the enhancement of areal density, self-organization [15

15. B. Cho, J. Bareno, I. Petrov, and J. E. Greene, “Enhanced Ge/Si(001) island areal density and self-organization due to P predeposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(9), 093526–093528 (2011). [CrossRef]

, 16

16. W. H. Shi, C. B. Li, L. P. Luo, B. W. Cheng, and Q. M. Wang, “Growth of Ge quantum dot mediated by boron on Ge wetting layer,” J. Cryst. Growth 279(3-4), 329–334 (2005). [CrossRef]

], and infrared photodetector [6

6. J. L. Liu, W. G. Wu, A. Balandin, G. L. Jin, and K. L. Wang, “Intersubband absorption in boron-doped multiple Ge quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(2), 185–187 (1999). [CrossRef]

, 17

17. C. H. Lin, C. Y. Yu, P. S. Kuo, C. C. Chang, T. H. Guo, and C. W. Liu, “δ-Doped MOS Ge/Si quantum dot/well infrared photodetector,” Thin Solid Films 508(1-2), 389–392 (2006). [CrossRef]

], there is only a limited investigation on the light emission enhancement.

In this work, we study the effects of phosphorus doping on the light emission of GeSi islands by fabricating light emitting diodes on in situ phosphorus-doped 20-bilayers GeSi islands multilayer structure on Si substrates. A significant enhancement on the room temperature PL and EL spectra of phosphorus-doped GeSi islands is observed. The improvement and emission mechanism is also discussed.

2. Material growth and device fabrication

Circular mesa with diameters of 100 μm was then fabricated by dry etching down to the n+-Si(001) substrate by using an inductively coupled plasma etcher. After a 700 nm thick SiO2 film was deposited, metal contacts were formed with a 100 nm nickel adhesion layer and a 700 nm thick aluminum layer. The cross-sectional view of the device is shown in Fig. 1(b). The current-voltage (I-V) characteristic of the device was obtained by using Keithley 4200 semiconductor characterization system. PL and EL measurements were performed with LabRam HR 800 Raman instrumentation with InGaAs photodetector within 0.775–1 eV range at room temperature. The photodetector has a low energy cut-off at 0.775 eV, which distorts the signal smaller than 0.785 eV. The PL measurements were using a 488 nm line of Ar+ laser with a power of 1 mW or 10 mW.

3. Experimental results

Room temperature PL spectra of GeSi islands with a laser power of 1 mW are depicted in Fig. 2(a)
Fig. 2 Room temperature PL spectra of samples. (a) the laser power is 1 mW, (b) the laser power is 10 mW. The spectra decrease around 0.85 eV induced by the color filter of instrumentation is marked by a line.
. Compared to the undoped islands sample, an appreciable PL intensity enhancement was observed for the phosphorus-doped GeSi islands sample. Although, as an impurity, phosphorus dopant in active area (GeSi islands) should have a negative impact for its light emission, the additional electrons provided by phosphorus improve the radiative recombination of GeSi islands and induce this PL enhancement. In order to confirm this effect, three 4-bilayers samples with undoped, phosphorus-doped, and boron-doped GeSi islands were grown without Si cap layer. Boron doping in GeSi islands was to reduce the concentration of electrons in active layer. It is noteworthy that a further reduction of their PL intensity is observed for boron-doped GeSi islands [21

21. See support documents for PL spectra of 4-bilayer samples with undoped, phosphorus-doped, and boron-doped GeSi islands.

]. This phenomenon also suggests that lacking of electrons in GeSi islands limits its emission efficiency and phosphorus doped in GeSi islands benefits its radiative recombination.

Figure 2(b) gives the PL spectra of phosphors-doped and undoped GeSi islands at higher laser power of 10 mW. The two PL spectra have an identical shape, which indicates that doping in the GeSi islands do not change the emission mechanism of the GeSi islands. A clear blue shift is observed compared in Fig. 2(a). The PL peaks are located at around 0.82 eV and 0.83 eV with the laser power of 1 mW and 10 mW respectively. This pump power-dependent blueshift behavior can induce by band-filling effect. This is a characteristic of radiative recombination between conduction and valence band [22

22. J. I. Pankove, Electroluminescence (Springer, Berlin, 1977).

]. This PL peak is from the radiative recombination of GeSi islands. The high-energy shoulder (> 0.86 eV) are attributed to the disunity size distribution of GeSi islands [23

23. Y. H. Peng, C. H. Hsu, C. H. Kuan, C. W. Liu, P. S. Chen, M. J. Tsai, and Y. W. Suen, “The evolution of electroluminescence in Ge quantum-dot diodes with the fold number,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(25), 6107–6109 (2004). [CrossRef]

] and Si-Ge interdiffusion [7

7. W. H. Chang, A. T. Chou, W. Y. Chen, H. S. Chang, T. M. Hsu, Z. Pei, P. S. Chen, S. W. Lee, L. S. Lai, S. C. Lu, and M. J. Tsai, “Room-temperature electroluminescence at 1.3 and 1.5 mu m from Ge/Si self-assembled quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(14), 2958–2960 (2003). [CrossRef]

, 24

24. M. W. Dashiell, U. Denker, C. Muller, G. Costantini, C. Manzano, K. Kern, and O. G. Schmidt, “Photoluminescence of ultrasmall Ge quantum dots grown by molecular-beam epitaxy at low temperatures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(7), 1279–1281 (2002). [CrossRef]

]. Note that the valley in the PL spectra around 0.85 eV is induced by the color filter of instrumentation. The PL spectra of the 20-bilayers phosphorus-doped GeSi islands sample with 10mW laser pump power at different temperatures (30°C~60°C) are shown in Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The PL spectra of the 20-bilayers phosphorus-doped GeSi islands sample with 10 mW laser pump power at different temperatures (30°C~60°C).
. The measurements were carried out under external control of the sample temperature. A redshift of PL peak energy from 0.83 eV to 0.822 eV between 30°C and 60°C is observed. Theoretically, wavelength-shift would not be observed for luminescence from defects [22

22. J. I. Pankove, Electroluminescence (Springer, Berlin, 1977).

].

In order to confirm the emission energy of GeSi islands, the radiative recombination energy of GeSi islands is given by [12

12. S. Das, K. Das, R. K. Singha, S. Manna, A. Dhar, S. K. Ray, and A. K. Raychaudhuri, “Improved infrared photoluminescence characteristics from circularly ordered self-assembled Ge islands,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 6(1), 416 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]:
E=Egap,SiΔEv+ΔE(nmk)
(1)
where Egap,Si is the bulk Si band gap, ΔEv is the valence band offset of Ge on Si which depended on the Ge composition in the GeSi islands, and ΔE(nmk) is the confinement energy shift of the GeSi islands which depended on the size of the GeSi islands. The average Ge composition of GeSi islands is about 68% [25

25. See support documents for the Raman spectra of two samples.

], which calculated from the ratio between the integrated intensities of the Raman peaks corresponding to the Ge-Ge and Ge-Si bonds by Raman scattering measurements [26

26. P. M. Mooney, F. H. Dacol, J. C. Tsang, and J. O. Chu, “Raman scattering analysis of relaxed GexSi1−x alloy layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(17), 2069–2071 (1993). [CrossRef]

, 27

27. V. A. Volodin, A. I. Yakimov, A. V. Dvurechenskii, M. D. Efremov, A. I. Nikiforov, E. I. Gatskevich, G. D. Ivlev, and G. Y. Mikhalev, “Modification of quantum dots in Ge/Si nanostructures by pulsed laser irradiation,” Semiconductors 40(2), 202–209 (2006). [CrossRef]

]. We calculate the energy shift in islands by the well known expression:
ΔE(nmk)=π22m*(n2h2+m2w2+k2w2)
(2)
where n, m, k = 1, 2,… are the quantum numbers for coordinates z, x and y, respectively. m* = 0.28m0 is the effective mass of heavy holes of Ge (m0 is the mass of a free electron). According to the bimodal sizes of GeSi islands obtained from the AFM images, we calculate the GeSi islands’ emission energy is about 0.8 eV with the ΔE(111) = 7 meV. It’s a little smaller than the peak value from PL results. The difference between the calculated and observed transition energy of samples were mainly caused by the residual strain and Si-Ge interdiffusion in the GeSi islands.

The typical I-V characteristic of the devices is show in Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The typical I-V characteristic of the devices.
. The device with undoped GeSi islands exhibits a lower dark current than that of doped GeSi islands device. Larger dark current in phosphorus-doped device is attributed to higher defect density induced by doping. This effect was also observed in other studies [28

28. K. Drozdowicz-Tomsia, E. M. Goldys, L. Fu, and C. Jagadish, “Doping effect on dark currents in In0.5Ga0.5As/GaAs quantum dot infrared photodetectors grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(11), 113510 (2006). [CrossRef]

]. Although phosphorus doping in GeSi islands decreases the crystal quality, the dark currents of most devices are lower than 30 nA at −1 V reverse bias, which suggest the doped sample still have very high quality. The STEM image (Fig. 1(a)) confirms this viewpoint. It is found in Fig. 1(a) that the GeSi islands have a good vertical correlation. No stacking dislocations or threading dislocations in the multilayer structure is observed.

Room temperature EL results of two devices under 1.1 V forward bias are depicted in Fig. 5(a)
Fig. 5 (a) The Room temperature EL spectra of devices under 1.1 V forward bias, (b) The typical current dependent integrated EL intensity of devices.
. The injection current density is 40 A/cm2 and 32 A/cm2 for undoped GeSi islands device and phosphorus-doped GeSi islands device, respectively. Although, the injection current density of former is a little larger than the latter, the clear EL intensity enhancement was also observed from phosphorus-doped GeSi islands device.

The typical current dependent integrated EL intensities of the two devices are shown in Fig. 5(b). The dependence is characterized by L ~Jm, where L is the integrated EL intensity and J is the current density. The exponent m can be used to characterize the emission mechanism of the GeSi islands. When J<20 A/cm2, the exponent m is about 1.3, exhibiting a superlinear dependence. The superlinear dependence suggests that the radiative processes and the SRH processes are the most important recombination in this situation [7

7. W. H. Chang, A. T. Chou, W. Y. Chen, H. S. Chang, T. M. Hsu, Z. Pei, P. S. Chen, S. W. Lee, L. S. Lai, S. C. Lu, and M. J. Tsai, “Room-temperature electroluminescence at 1.3 and 1.5 mu m from Ge/Si self-assembled quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(14), 2958–2960 (2003). [CrossRef]

]. When J>20 A/cm2, EL intensity is trend to saturation, which shows that more carriers recombination through nonradiative processes.

4. Conclusions

In summary, we had observed the enhancement of room temperature PL and EL from the samples with phosphorus-doped GeSi islands. The additional electrons provided by phosphorus for GeSi islands’ emission is responsible for the enhancement. The theoretical calculations and the superlinear relationship of current dependent integrated EL intensity indicated that the emission is from the radiative recombination in GeSi islands. Phosphorus doping in GeSi islands is an effective way to improve the GeSi islands’ emission performance.

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61036003, 61176013, 60906035, and 61177038), the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2011AA010302) and by Tsinghua National Laboratory for Information Science and Technology(TNList)Cross-discipline Foundation.

References and links

1.

J. Liu, X. Sun, R. Camacho-Aguilera, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Ge-on-Si laser operating at room temperature,” Opt. Lett. 35(5), 679–681 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2.

W. Hu, B. Cheng, C. Xue, H. Xue, S. Su, A. Bai, L. Luo, Y. Yu, and Q. Wang, “Electroluminescence from Ge on Si substrate at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(9), 092102 (2009). [CrossRef]

3.

M. A. Green, J. Zhao, A. Wang, P. J. Reece, and M. Gal, “Efficient silicon light-emitting diodes,” Nature 412(6849), 805–808 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4.

A. G. Cullis and L. T. Canham, “Visible light emission due to quantum size effects in highly porous crystalline silicon,” Nature 353(6342), 335–338 (1991). [CrossRef]

5.

J. Stangl, V. Holy, and G. Bauer, “Structural properties of self-organized semiconductor nanostructures,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 76(3), 725–783 (2004). [CrossRef]

6.

J. L. Liu, W. G. Wu, A. Balandin, G. L. Jin, and K. L. Wang, “Intersubband absorption in boron-doped multiple Ge quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(2), 185–187 (1999). [CrossRef]

7.

W. H. Chang, A. T. Chou, W. Y. Chen, H. S. Chang, T. M. Hsu, Z. Pei, P. S. Chen, S. W. Lee, L. S. Lai, S. C. Lu, and M. J. Tsai, “Room-temperature electroluminescence at 1.3 and 1.5 mu m from Ge/Si self-assembled quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(14), 2958–2960 (2003). [CrossRef]

8.

M. L. W. Thewalt, D. A. Harrison, C. F. Reinhart, J. A. Wolk, and H. Lafontaine, “Type II band alignment in Si1-xGex/Si(001) quantum wells: The ubiquitous type I luminescence results from band bending,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79(2), 269–272 (1997). [CrossRef]

9.

S. Fukatsu, H. Sunamura, Y. Shiraki, and S. Komiyama, “Phononless radiative recombination of indirect excitons in a Si/Ge type-II quantum dot,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(2), 258–260 (1997). [CrossRef]

10.

M. El Kurdi, S. David, P. Boucaud, C. Kammerer, X. Li, V. Le Thanh, S. Sauvage, and J. M. Lourtioz, “Strong 1.3–1.5 μm luminescence from Ge/Si self-assembled islands in highly confining microcavities on silicon on insulator,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(2), 997–1000 (2004). [CrossRef]

11.

M. Shaleev, A. Novikov, N. Baydakova, A. Yablonskiy, O. Kuznetsov, Y. Drozdov, D. Lobanov, and Z. Krasilnik, “Narrow photoluminescence peak from Ge(Si) islands embedded between tensile-strained Si layers,” Phys. Status Solidi C, 1055–1059 (2011).

12.

S. Das, K. Das, R. K. Singha, S. Manna, A. Dhar, S. K. Ray, and A. K. Raychaudhuri, “Improved infrared photoluminescence characteristics from circularly ordered self-assembled Ge islands,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 6(1), 416 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

J. Xia, Y. Takeda, N. Usami, T. Maruizumi, and Y. Shiraki, “Room-temperature electroluminescence from Si microdisks with Ge quantum dots,” Opt. Express 18(13), 13945–13950 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

K. J. Vahala and C. E. Zah, “Effect of doping on the optical gain and the spontaneous noise enhancement factor in quantum well amplifiers and lasers studied by simple analytical expressions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52(23), 1945–1947 (1988). [CrossRef]

15.

B. Cho, J. Bareno, I. Petrov, and J. E. Greene, “Enhanced Ge/Si(001) island areal density and self-organization due to P predeposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(9), 093526–093528 (2011). [CrossRef]

16.

W. H. Shi, C. B. Li, L. P. Luo, B. W. Cheng, and Q. M. Wang, “Growth of Ge quantum dot mediated by boron on Ge wetting layer,” J. Cryst. Growth 279(3-4), 329–334 (2005). [CrossRef]

17.

C. H. Lin, C. Y. Yu, P. S. Kuo, C. C. Chang, T. H. Guo, and C. W. Liu, “δ-Doped MOS Ge/Si quantum dot/well infrared photodetector,” Thin Solid Films 508(1-2), 389–392 (2006). [CrossRef]

18.

X. C. Liu and D. R. Leadley, “Silicon-germanium interdiffusion in strained Ge/SiGe multiple quantum well structures,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(50), 505303 (2010). [CrossRef]

19.

M. Meduňa, O. Caha, M. Keplinger, J. Stangl, G. Bauer, G. Mussler, and D. Grützmacher, “Interdiffusion in Ge rich SiGe/Ge multilayers studied by in situ diffraction,” Phys. Status Solidi A 206(8), 1775–1779 (2009). [CrossRef]

20.

Z. Liu, B. Cheng, W. Hu, S. Su, C. Li, and Q. Wang, “Enhanced photoluminescence of multilayer Ge quantum dots on Si(001) substrates by increased overgrowth temperature,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 7(1), 383 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

21.

See support documents for PL spectra of 4-bilayer samples with undoped, phosphorus-doped, and boron-doped GeSi islands.

22.

J. I. Pankove, Electroluminescence (Springer, Berlin, 1977).

23.

Y. H. Peng, C. H. Hsu, C. H. Kuan, C. W. Liu, P. S. Chen, M. J. Tsai, and Y. W. Suen, “The evolution of electroluminescence in Ge quantum-dot diodes with the fold number,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(25), 6107–6109 (2004). [CrossRef]

24.

M. W. Dashiell, U. Denker, C. Muller, G. Costantini, C. Manzano, K. Kern, and O. G. Schmidt, “Photoluminescence of ultrasmall Ge quantum dots grown by molecular-beam epitaxy at low temperatures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(7), 1279–1281 (2002). [CrossRef]

25.

See support documents for the Raman spectra of two samples.

26.

P. M. Mooney, F. H. Dacol, J. C. Tsang, and J. O. Chu, “Raman scattering analysis of relaxed GexSi1−x alloy layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(17), 2069–2071 (1993). [CrossRef]

27.

V. A. Volodin, A. I. Yakimov, A. V. Dvurechenskii, M. D. Efremov, A. I. Nikiforov, E. I. Gatskevich, G. D. Ivlev, and G. Y. Mikhalev, “Modification of quantum dots in Ge/Si nanostructures by pulsed laser irradiation,” Semiconductors 40(2), 202–209 (2006). [CrossRef]

28.

K. Drozdowicz-Tomsia, E. M. Goldys, L. Fu, and C. Jagadish, “Doping effect on dark currents in In0.5Ga0.5As/GaAs quantum dot infrared photodetectors grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(11), 113510 (2006). [CrossRef]

29.

Y. N. Drozdov, Z. F. Krasilnik, K. E. Kudryavtsev, D. N. Lobanov, A. V. Novikov, M. V. Shaleev, D. V. Shengurov, V. B. Shmagin, and A. N. Yablonskiy, “Comparative analysis of photo- and electroluminescence of multilayer structures with Ge(Si)/Si(001) self-assembled islands,” Thin Solid Films 517(1), 398–400 (2008). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(230.3670) Optical devices : Light-emitting diodes
(250.5590) Optoelectronics : Quantum-well, -wire and -dot devices

ToC Category:
Optical Devices

History
Original Manuscript: June 21, 2012
Revised Manuscript: September 5, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: September 6, 2012
Published: September 14, 2012

Citation
Zhi Liu, Weixuan Hu, Shaojian Su, Chong Li, Chuanbo Li, Chunlai Xue, Yaming Li, Yuhua Zuo, Buwen Cheng, and Qiming Wang, "Enhanced photoluminescence and electroluminescence of multilayer GeSi islands on Si(001) substrates by phosphorus-doping," Opt. Express 20, 22327-22333 (2012)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-20-20-22327


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References

  1. J. Liu, X. Sun, R. Camacho-Aguilera, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Ge-on-Si laser operating at room temperature,” Opt. Lett. 35(5), 679–681 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. W. Hu, B. Cheng, C. Xue, H. Xue, S. Su, A. Bai, L. Luo, Y. Yu, and Q. Wang, “Electroluminescence from Ge on Si substrate at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(9), 092102 (2009). [CrossRef]
  3. M. A. Green, J. Zhao, A. Wang, P. J. Reece, and M. Gal, “Efficient silicon light-emitting diodes,” Nature 412(6849), 805–808 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. A. G. Cullis and L. T. Canham, “Visible light emission due to quantum size effects in highly porous crystalline silicon,” Nature 353(6342), 335–338 (1991). [CrossRef]
  5. J. Stangl, V. Holy, and G. Bauer, “Structural properties of self-organized semiconductor nanostructures,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 76(3), 725–783 (2004). [CrossRef]
  6. J. L. Liu, W. G. Wu, A. Balandin, G. L. Jin, and K. L. Wang, “Intersubband absorption in boron-doped multiple Ge quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(2), 185–187 (1999). [CrossRef]
  7. W. H. Chang, A. T. Chou, W. Y. Chen, H. S. Chang, T. M. Hsu, Z. Pei, P. S. Chen, S. W. Lee, L. S. Lai, S. C. Lu, and M. J. Tsai, “Room-temperature electroluminescence at 1.3 and 1.5 mu m from Ge/Si self-assembled quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(14), 2958–2960 (2003). [CrossRef]
  8. M. L. W. Thewalt, D. A. Harrison, C. F. Reinhart, J. A. Wolk, and H. Lafontaine, “Type II band alignment in Si1-xGex/Si(001) quantum wells: The ubiquitous type I luminescence results from band bending,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79(2), 269–272 (1997). [CrossRef]
  9. S. Fukatsu, H. Sunamura, Y. Shiraki, and S. Komiyama, “Phononless radiative recombination of indirect excitons in a Si/Ge type-II quantum dot,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(2), 258–260 (1997). [CrossRef]
  10. M. El Kurdi, S. David, P. Boucaud, C. Kammerer, X. Li, V. Le Thanh, S. Sauvage, and J. M. Lourtioz, “Strong 1.3–1.5 ?m luminescence from Ge/Si self-assembled islands in highly confining microcavities on silicon on insulator,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(2), 997–1000 (2004). [CrossRef]
  11. M. Shaleev, A. Novikov, N. Baydakova, A. Yablonskiy, O. Kuznetsov, Y. Drozdov, D. Lobanov, and Z. Krasilnik, “Narrow photoluminescence peak from Ge(Si) islands embedded between tensile-strained Si layers,” Phys. Status Solidi C, 1055–1059 (2011).
  12. S. Das, K. Das, R. K. Singha, S. Manna, A. Dhar, S. K. Ray, and A. K. Raychaudhuri, “Improved infrared photoluminescence characteristics from circularly ordered self-assembled Ge islands,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 6(1), 416 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. J. Xia, Y. Takeda, N. Usami, T. Maruizumi, and Y. Shiraki, “Room-temperature electroluminescence from Si microdisks with Ge quantum dots,” Opt. Express 18(13), 13945–13950 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. K. J. Vahala and C. E. Zah, “Effect of doping on the optical gain and the spontaneous noise enhancement factor in quantum well amplifiers and lasers studied by simple analytical expressions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52(23), 1945–1947 (1988). [CrossRef]
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