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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 20, Iss. 20 — Sep. 24, 2012
  • pp: 22531–22536
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Fabrication and characterization of suspended SiO2 ridge optical waveguides and the devices

Pengxin Chen, Yunpeng Zhu, Yaocheng Shi, Daoxin Dai, and Sailing He  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 20, Issue 20, pp. 22531-22536 (2012)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.20.022531


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Abstract

Novel suspended SiO2 ridge optical waveguides on silicon are fabricated and characterized. The present suspended SiO2 ridge optical waveguide has a SiO2 ridge core surrounded by air. The propagation loss and the bend loss measured are about 0.385dB/cm and 0.037dB/90° respectively for the fabricated 1μm-wide waveguides with a bending radius of 100μm when operating at the wavelength of 1550 nm. With the present suspended SiO2 optical waveguides, a small racetrack resonator with a radius of 100μm is also demonstrated and the measured Q-factor is about 3160.

© 2012 OSA

1. Introduction

The demand of photonic integrated circuits (PICs) keeps increasing for optical communication, optical interconnects as well as optical sensing. In order to satisfy the demands, various material systems and optical waveguide types have been developed, like LiNbO3 [1

1. A. Majkic, M. Koechlin, G. Poberaj, and P. Günter, “Optical microring resonators in fluorineimplanted lithium niobate,” Opt. Express 16(12), 8769–8779 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], silica [2

2. T. Miya, “Silica-based planar lightwave circuits: passive and thermally active devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 38–45 (2000). [CrossRef]

5

5. D. Dai and Y. Shi, “Deeply etched SiO2 ridge waveguide for sharp bends,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(12), 5019–5024 (2006). [CrossRef]

], silicon-on-insulator [6

6. W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Dumon, J. Van Campenhout, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, V. Wiaux, and S. Beckx, “Basic structures for photonic integrated circuits in Silicon-on-insulator,” Opt. Express 12(8), 1583–1591 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8

8. Q. Xu and M. Lipson, “All-optical logic based on silicon micro-ring resonators,” Opt. Express 15(3), 924–929 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], III-V semiconductor [9

9. T. Ibrahim, W. Cao, Y. Kim, J. Li, J. Goldhar, P.-T. Ho, and C. Lee, “All-optical switching in a laterally coupled microring resonator by carrier injection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(1), 36–38 (2003). [CrossRef]

, 10

10. T. H. Stievater, W. S. Rabinovich, D. Park, J. B. Khurgin, S. Kanakaraju, and C. J. K. Richardson, “Low-loss suspended quantum well waveguides,” Opt. Express 16(4), 2621–2627 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], and polymers [11

11. B. Yang, L. Yang, R. Hu, Z. Sheng, D. Dai, Q. Liu, and S. He, “Fabrication and characterization of small optical ridge waveguides based on SU-8 polymer,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(18), 4091–4096 (2009). [CrossRef]

].

Among them, silicon-on-insulator (SOI) provides a good platform to have ultra-dense PICs by utilizing SOI nanowires which have a submicron cross section and ultra-high index-contrast [6

6. W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Dumon, J. Van Campenhout, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, V. Wiaux, and S. Beckx, “Basic structures for photonic integrated circuits in Silicon-on-insulator,” Opt. Express 12(8), 1583–1591 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 12

12. T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Ichi Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 232–240 (2005).

]. Thus, silicon photonics has been developed rapidly in the past years for optical interconnects [13

13. N. Sherwood-Droz, H. Wang, L. Chen, B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, K. Bergman, and M. Lipson, “Optical 4x4 hitless silicon router for optical networks-on-chip (NoC),” Opt. Express 16(20), 15915–15922 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], as well as optical sensing [14

14. D. X. Xu, A. Densmore, A. Delâge, P. Waldron, R. McKinnon, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, G. Lopinski, T. Mischki, E. Post, P. Cheben, and J. H. Schmid, “Folded cavity SOI microring sensors for highsensitivity and real time measurement of biomolecular binding,” Opt. Express 16(19), 15137–15148 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 15

15. D.-X. Xu, M. Vachon, A. Densmore, R. Ma, A. Delâge, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, Y. Li, G. Lopinski, D. Zhang, Q. Y. Liu, P. Cheben, and J. H. Schmid, “Label-free biosensor array based on silicon-on-insulator ring resonators addressed using a WDM approach,” Opt. Lett. 35(16), 2771–2773 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. However, because silicon is not transparent in the wavelength range of less than 1.1μm [4

4. Z. Sheng, B. Yang, L. Yang, J. Hu, D. Dai, and S. He, “Experimental demonstration of deeply-etched SiO2 ridge optical waveguides and devices,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(1), 28–34 (2010). [CrossRef]

], SOI nanowires do not work in the visible range, which is very important for some applications like optical.

A deeply-etched SiO2 optical waveguide is a potential choice for solving these issues because it has an air cladding so that it enables sharp bending as well as optical sensing with relatively high-sensitivity [4

4. Z. Sheng, B. Yang, L. Yang, J. Hu, D. Dai, and S. He, “Experimental demonstration of deeply-etched SiO2 ridge optical waveguides and devices,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(1), 28–34 (2010). [CrossRef]

, 5

5. D. Dai and Y. Shi, “Deeply etched SiO2 ridge waveguide for sharp bends,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(12), 5019–5024 (2006). [CrossRef]

, 16

16. M. Popovic, K. Wada, S. Akiyama, H. A. Haus, and J. Michel, “Air trenches for sharp silica waveguide bends,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20(9), 1762–1772 (2002). [CrossRef]

]. However, it requires very deep etching (~16μm or more), which makes it not easy to achieve a low-loss light waveguiding because the deeply-etched sidewall is relatively rough.

In the present paper, we propose a novel suspended SiO2 optical waveguide on silicon substrate so that it could work in a broad wavelength band ranging from the visible light to the infrared light. Suspended optical waveguides have been demonstrated before with the materials of silicon [17

17. L. Martinez and M. Lipson, “High confinement suspended micro-ring resonators in silicon-on-insulator,” Opt. Express 14(13), 6259–6263 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], III-V semiconductor [10

10. T. H. Stievater, W. S. Rabinovich, D. Park, J. B. Khurgin, S. Kanakaraju, and C. J. K. Richardson, “Low-loss suspended quantum well waveguides,” Opt. Express 16(4), 2621–2627 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 18

18. M. Garrigues, J. Danglot, J.-L. Leclercq, and O. Parillaud, “Tunable high-finesse InP/air MOEMs filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(7), 1471–1473 (2005). [CrossRef]

], etc. Ultra-high Q suspended micro-disks on silica has been also demonstrated [19

19. D. K. Armani, T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, “Ultra-high-Q toroid microcavity on a chip,” Nature 421(6926), 925–928 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Kei Watanabe, et al realizes ultralow power consumption silica-based PLC-VOA/switches using suspended narrow ridge structure [20

20. K. Watanabe, Y. Hashizume, Y. Nasu, M. Kohtoku, M. Itoh, and Y. Inoue, “Ultralow power consumption silica-based PLC-VOA/switches,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(14), 2235–2244 (2008). [CrossRef]

]. Our proposed suspended SiO2 optical waveguide has a small SiO2 ridge region surrounded by air, which introduces a relatively high index-contrast ∆ and consequently enables the bending radius as small as 100μm (or smaller). The surrounding air region also makes it very attractive for optical sensing. Furthermore, for the present suspended SiO2 optical waveguides, only a layer of SiO2 thin film whose thickness is around 1μm is needed to be formed on a silicon substrate. This makes the fabrication very simple and cheap potentially because a simple and short-time thermal oxidation process is enough for forming the SiO2 thin film and a shallowly etching is needed only. In contrast, for the conventional SiO2-on-Si buried rectangular waveguide and the structure in [20

20. K. Watanabe, Y. Hashizume, Y. Nasu, M. Kohtoku, M. Itoh, and Y. Inoue, “Ultralow power consumption silica-based PLC-VOA/switches,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(14), 2235–2244 (2008). [CrossRef]

], which has ~40μm-thick SiO2 films (including an under-cladding, a core region as well as an upper-cladding), one needs some expensive technologies. For example, in order to form the thick SiO2 film, one usually needs the plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) or flame hydrogen deposition (FHD) technologies, and Ge-doping is required for the core layer with a higher index than the cladding layer. Furthermore, the deep etching technology is also needed. In this paper, we have designed and fabricated the proposed suspended SiO2 optical waveguides as well as race-track resonators as an example.

2. Structure and fabrication of the suspended SiO2 optical waveguide

Figure 1(a)
Fig. 1 (a) The cross section of the proposed suspended SiO2 optical waveguide; (b) the SEM top-view picture; (c) the TE mode profile for a straight waveguide; (d) the calculated bending loss and transition loss. The width wco = 1μm, the height hr = 660nm, the slab height h = 310nm.
shows the cross section of the proposed suspended SiO2 ridge optical waveguide, which has an air-cladded SiO2 ridge core on a silicon substrate. The air under-cladding is formed by removing the silicon beneath partially by using a second ICP dry etching process with the gases SF6, O2, CHF3 after the windows in the slab layer are open, as shown in Fig. 1(b). The slab layer is a very important part not only for forming a ridge waveguide but also supporting the suspended waveguides. It can be seen that silicon substrate is not removed in the region far away from the ridge so that the slab could be supported by the Si substrate. Therefore, the slab thickness should be thick enough to have good mechanical strength. In our design, we choose the slab thickness h to be around 300nm. The height hr of the air under-cladding is determined by the time of dry etching process. From Fig. 1(b), it can be seen that there are a row of windows at each side of the ridge. The distance dwin between the window edge and the ridge edge should large enough so that the light propagation along the ridge waveguide does not be influenced by the windows. According to the mode profile shown in Fig. 1(c), which gives the calculated TE-polarization mode profiles for a 1μm-wide straight waveguide, one sees that the distance dwin should be larger than e.g., 4μm. In our case, we choose dwin = 7μm as an example (see Fig. 1(b)). Here the waveguide parameters are chosen as follows: the SiO2 refractive index nSiO2 = 1.444, the ridge width wco = 1μm, the ridge height hr = 660nm, the slab height h = 310nm. Figure 1(d) shows the pure bending loss and the transition loss as the radius varies. One can see that the bending loss and transition loss is very small when the radius is 100μm.

Figure 3(a)-(d)
Fig. 3 SEM pictures of the structures. (a) the top view for the coupling region of a racetrack resonator. The waveguide width w = 1μm, and the gap width wgap = 1μm; (b) a straight waveguide; (c) the cross section of a fabricated waveguide; (d) the enlarged view for the cross section.
show the SEM (scanning electron microscope) pictures for the fabricated suspended waveguides and structures. Figure 3(a) shows the coupling region consisting of two paralleled suspend optical waveguides for a racetrack resonator. Figure 3(b)-(c) shows the sidewall and the cross section of the fabricated suspended optical waveguide, respectively. From Fig. 3(b), it can be seen that the waveguide has quite smooth sidewalls, which is beneficial to obtain a low propagation loss. From cross section of the fabricated suspended optical waveguide shown in Fig. 3(c), it can be seen clearly that the silicon substrate beneath the waveguide ridge is removed. The height of the air region under the silica ridge is about 20μm, which could be varied by controlling the time of ICP etching with SF6. It can also be seen that there is significant buckling in the SiO2 after it is released from the from the silicon, which is due to the high temperature during oxidation around 1100°C [23

23. E. Kobeda and E. A. Irene, “Intrinsic SiO2 film stress measurements on thermally oxidized Si,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 5(1), 15–19 (1987). [CrossRef]

], as shown in Fig. 3(c). The estimated stress is about 1.2 × 109 dyn/cm2 according to the result given in [23

23. E. Kobeda and E. A. Irene, “Intrinsic SiO2 film stress measurements on thermally oxidized Si,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 5(1), 15–19 (1987). [CrossRef]

]. This caused a large coupling loss partially due to the numerical aperture mismatch when light is coupled between a fiber and the waveguides, which will be seen from the measured loss given below.

3. Characterization of the fabricated suspended SiO2 optical waveguides and devices

A bent waveguide is one of the basic elements for various PICs. It is desirable to achieve a small bending radius with low bend loss especially for dense PICs. For the present suspended SiO2 optical waveguide, small bending radius is expected because of its relatively high index-contrast. In order to measure the propagation loss as well as the bending loss of the suspended SiO2 optical waveguides, we have designed a series of spiral structures with different lengths. All the bends in the spiral structure has the same radius of 100μm, as shown by the inset in Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The transmission for the suspended waveguides with different lengths. Inset is the micrographic photograph of a spiraled waveguide for measuring propagation loss and bend loss.
. A tunable laser is used for the measurement and a lens fiber is used to couple the light into the suspended optical waveguide. Since the measured total loss Ltot is not sensitive to the wavelength in the C-band, we only show the measured total losses Ltot at 1550nm for these spirals in Fig. 4. The total loss for a spiral waveguide is given by Ltot = Ls l + N LB + 2Lc, where Ls is the propagation loss per unit length, l is the total length of the spiral, N is the 90°-bend number, LB is the bend loss, and Lc is the coupling loss per facet between a fiber and the suspended waveguide. In order to extract the loss values, we assume that the bending section has the same propagation loss LS over a unit length (dB/cm) as the straight waveguide while the bending section has an addition pure bending loss (i.e., LB). Such an assumption is reasonable for the present case because the bending radius is very large so that the mode field profile in the bending section is very similar with that in the straight section. With such an assumption, we extracted the value for the losses LS, LB, and Lc by fitting the measured data shown in Fig. 4 with the least square method. Finally we obtain Ls = 0.38dB/cm, LB = 0.037dB/90° and Lc = 17.6dB/facet. The large coupling loss comes from the following sources. The first source is from the mode mismatch loss between the lens fiber and the suspended waveguide. For the present case, the lens fiber and the suspended waveguide have diameters of about 3~4μm and 1μm, respectively. Consequently the estimated mode mismatching loss is about 10dB. The second source for the coupling loss is the loss due to the facet reflection, which is about 0.236dB. The third source is the waveguide bending at the facet due to the thermal strain, as shown in Fig. 3(b).

Regarding that a ring resonator is an essential versatile block for various functionalities like optical modulators [7

7. Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], optical logic and switch [8

8. Q. Xu and M. Lipson, “All-optical logic based on silicon micro-ring resonators,” Opt. Express 15(3), 924–929 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 9

9. T. Ibrahim, W. Cao, Y. Kim, J. Li, J. Goldhar, P.-T. Ho, and C. Lee, “All-optical switching in a laterally coupled microring resonator by carrier injection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(1), 36–38 (2003). [CrossRef]

], optical sensors [14

14. D. X. Xu, A. Densmore, A. Delâge, P. Waldron, R. McKinnon, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, G. Lopinski, T. Mischki, E. Post, P. Cheben, and J. H. Schmid, “Folded cavity SOI microring sensors for highsensitivity and real time measurement of biomolecular binding,” Opt. Express 16(19), 15137–15148 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 15

15. D.-X. Xu, M. Vachon, A. Densmore, R. Ma, A. Delâge, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, Y. Li, G. Lopinski, D. Zhang, Q. Y. Liu, P. Cheben, and J. H. Schmid, “Label-free biosensor array based on silicon-on-insulator ring resonators addressed using a WDM approach,” Opt. Lett. 35(16), 2771–2773 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], wavelength filters [24

24. S. Chu, B. Little, W. Pan, T. Kaneko, S. Sato, and Y. Kokubun, “An eight-channel add-drop filter using vertically coupled microring resonators over a cross grid,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(6), 691–693 (1999). [CrossRef]

], power splitters [25

25. D. Dai and S. He, “Proposal of a coupled-microring-based wavelength-selective 1×N power splitter,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. L. 21(21), 1630–1632 (2009). [CrossRef]

], lasers [26

26. H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “An all-silicon Raman laser,” Nature 433(7023), 292–294 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], and so on, we design and fabricate a race-track resonator with our proposed suspended SiO2 optical waveguide, as shown in the inset of Fig. 5(b)
Fig. 5 The measured spectral response at the through port of the fabricated racetrack resonator. Inset is the SEM picture of the fabricated race-track resonator.
. The length for the coupling region is chosen as Ldc = 200μm, the gap width is wgap = 1μm, and the bending radius R = 100μm. Figure 5 shows the measured spectral responses at the through port of the fabricated racetrack resonators. The insert shows the SEM picture for the fabricated racetrack resonator. There are many small square windows locating at both sides of the waveguide (inside as well as outside of the racetrack) for partially removing the silicon substrate beneath. From this figure, it can be seen that the FSR is about 1.5nm, which is very close to the theoretical prediction. The extinction ratio is about 20dB, and the 3dB bandwidth is about 0.48nm, which corresponds to a loaded Q factor of about 3200. This relatively low loaded Q-value is mainly due to the large coupling ratio between the resonator and the access waveguides. It is possible to enhance the Q-factor by improving the design and fabrication of the coupling region.

4. Conclusion

In this paper, we have designed and fabricated novel suspended optical ridge waveguides on silica. The measured propagation loss and bending loss are about Ls = 0.38dB/cm, and LB = 0.037dB/90°, respectively. A racetrack resonator has been also fabricated by using the proposed novel suspended optical waveguide. It has shown that the fabricated racetrack ring resonance has shown that the present suspended waveguide can be used to realize compact PICs in comparison with those traditional buried silica waveguides and the performance can be improved with the optimized fabrication process and waveguide parameters.

Acknowledgments

This project was partially supported by the National Nature Science Foundation of China (No. 61077040), a 863 project (Ministry of Science and Technology of China, No. 2011AA010301), Zhejiang provincial grant (Z201121938, No. 2011 C11024) of China, and also supported by the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities.

References and links

1.

A. Majkic, M. Koechlin, G. Poberaj, and P. Günter, “Optical microring resonators in fluorineimplanted lithium niobate,” Opt. Express 16(12), 8769–8779 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2.

T. Miya, “Silica-based planar lightwave circuits: passive and thermally active devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 38–45 (2000). [CrossRef]

3.

M. R. Poulsen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, J. Hubner, M. Kristensen, J. H. Povlsen, K. Rottwitt, M. Svalgaard, and W. Svendsen, “Advances in silica-based integrated optics,” Opt. Eng. 42(10), 2821–2834 (2003). [CrossRef]

4.

Z. Sheng, B. Yang, L. Yang, J. Hu, D. Dai, and S. He, “Experimental demonstration of deeply-etched SiO2 ridge optical waveguides and devices,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(1), 28–34 (2010). [CrossRef]

5.

D. Dai and Y. Shi, “Deeply etched SiO2 ridge waveguide for sharp bends,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(12), 5019–5024 (2006). [CrossRef]

6.

W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Dumon, J. Van Campenhout, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, V. Wiaux, and S. Beckx, “Basic structures for photonic integrated circuits in Silicon-on-insulator,” Opt. Express 12(8), 1583–1591 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

Q. Xu and M. Lipson, “All-optical logic based on silicon micro-ring resonators,” Opt. Express 15(3), 924–929 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

T. Ibrahim, W. Cao, Y. Kim, J. Li, J. Goldhar, P.-T. Ho, and C. Lee, “All-optical switching in a laterally coupled microring resonator by carrier injection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(1), 36–38 (2003). [CrossRef]

10.

T. H. Stievater, W. S. Rabinovich, D. Park, J. B. Khurgin, S. Kanakaraju, and C. J. K. Richardson, “Low-loss suspended quantum well waveguides,” Opt. Express 16(4), 2621–2627 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

B. Yang, L. Yang, R. Hu, Z. Sheng, D. Dai, Q. Liu, and S. He, “Fabrication and characterization of small optical ridge waveguides based on SU-8 polymer,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(18), 4091–4096 (2009). [CrossRef]

12.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Ichi Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 232–240 (2005).

13.

N. Sherwood-Droz, H. Wang, L. Chen, B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, K. Bergman, and M. Lipson, “Optical 4x4 hitless silicon router for optical networks-on-chip (NoC),” Opt. Express 16(20), 15915–15922 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

D. X. Xu, A. Densmore, A. Delâge, P. Waldron, R. McKinnon, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, G. Lopinski, T. Mischki, E. Post, P. Cheben, and J. H. Schmid, “Folded cavity SOI microring sensors for highsensitivity and real time measurement of biomolecular binding,” Opt. Express 16(19), 15137–15148 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15.

D.-X. Xu, M. Vachon, A. Densmore, R. Ma, A. Delâge, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, Y. Li, G. Lopinski, D. Zhang, Q. Y. Liu, P. Cheben, and J. H. Schmid, “Label-free biosensor array based on silicon-on-insulator ring resonators addressed using a WDM approach,” Opt. Lett. 35(16), 2771–2773 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

16.

M. Popovic, K. Wada, S. Akiyama, H. A. Haus, and J. Michel, “Air trenches for sharp silica waveguide bends,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20(9), 1762–1772 (2002). [CrossRef]

17.

L. Martinez and M. Lipson, “High confinement suspended micro-ring resonators in silicon-on-insulator,” Opt. Express 14(13), 6259–6263 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18.

M. Garrigues, J. Danglot, J.-L. Leclercq, and O. Parillaud, “Tunable high-finesse InP/air MOEMs filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(7), 1471–1473 (2005). [CrossRef]

19.

D. K. Armani, T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, “Ultra-high-Q toroid microcavity on a chip,” Nature 421(6926), 925–928 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

20.

K. Watanabe, Y. Hashizume, Y. Nasu, M. Kohtoku, M. Itoh, and Y. Inoue, “Ultralow power consumption silica-based PLC-VOA/switches,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(14), 2235–2244 (2008). [CrossRef]

21.

L. Martinu and D. Poitras, “Plasma deposition of optical films and coatings: A review,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 18(6), 2619–2645 (2000). [CrossRef]

22.

A. Kilian, J. Kirchof, B. Kuhlow, G. Przyrembel, and W. Wischmann, “Birefringence free planar optical waveguide made by flame hydrolysis deposition (FHD) through tailoring of the overcladding,” J. Lightwave Technol. 18(2), 193–198 (2000). [CrossRef]

23.

E. Kobeda and E. A. Irene, “Intrinsic SiO2 film stress measurements on thermally oxidized Si,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 5(1), 15–19 (1987). [CrossRef]

24.

S. Chu, B. Little, W. Pan, T. Kaneko, S. Sato, and Y. Kokubun, “An eight-channel add-drop filter using vertically coupled microring resonators over a cross grid,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(6), 691–693 (1999). [CrossRef]

25.

D. Dai and S. He, “Proposal of a coupled-microring-based wavelength-selective 1×N power splitter,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. L. 21(21), 1630–1632 (2009). [CrossRef]

26.

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “An all-silicon Raman laser,” Nature 433(7023), 292–294 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

OCIS Codes
(230.3120) Optical devices : Integrated optics devices

ToC Category:
Optical Devices

History
Original Manuscript: June 13, 2012
Revised Manuscript: August 23, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: September 6, 2012
Published: September 17, 2012

Citation
Pengxin Chen, Yunpeng Zhu, Yaocheng Shi, Daoxin Dai, and Sailing He, "Fabrication and characterization of suspended SiO2 ridge optical waveguides and the devices," Opt. Express 20, 22531-22536 (2012)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-20-20-22531


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References

  1. A. Majkic, M. Koechlin, G. Poberaj, and P. Günter, “Optical microring resonators in fluorineimplanted lithium niobate,” Opt. Express16(12), 8769–8779 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. T. Miya, “Silica-based planar lightwave circuits: passive and thermally active devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.6(1), 38–45 (2000). [CrossRef]
  3. M. R. Poulsen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, J. Hubner, M. Kristensen, J. H. Povlsen, K. Rottwitt, M. Svalgaard, and W. Svendsen, “Advances in silica-based integrated optics,” Opt. Eng.42(10), 2821–2834 (2003). [CrossRef]
  4. Z. Sheng, B. Yang, L. Yang, J. Hu, D. Dai, and S. He, “Experimental demonstration of deeply-etched SiO2 ridge optical waveguides and devices,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.46(1), 28–34 (2010). [CrossRef]
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