OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 20, Iss. 20 — Sep. 24, 2012
  • pp: 22563–22568
« Show journal navigation

Hybrid lasing in an ultra-long ring fiber laser

Y. J. Rao, W. L. Zhang, J. M. Zhu, Z. X. Yang, Z. N. Wang, and X. H. Jia  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 20, Issue 20, pp. 22563-22568 (2012)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.20.022563


View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (1530 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

In this paper, we reported the realization of an ultra-long ring fiber laser (RFL) with hybrid emission related to both random lasing and cavity resonance. Compared with a linear random fiber laser (LRFL), the Rayleigh scattering (RS) inducting distributed feedback effect and the cavity inducting resonance effect exist simultaneously in the laser, which reduces the lasing threshold considerably and provides a hybrid way to form random lasing (RL). The laser output can be purely modeless RL when pump power is high enough. It is also discovered that the laser is insensitive to temperature variation and mechanical disturbance, this is unique and quite different from conventional RFLs which are environmentally unstable due to existence of the cavity modes.

© 2012 OSA

1. Introduction

As a typical kind of fiber lasers, ring fiber lasers (RFLs) have drawn significant attention in optical communication and sensing. In the ring cavity, various gain media, such as erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFAs) and Raman amplifiers [1

1. N. Park, J. W. Dawson, K. J. Vahala, and C. Miller, “All fiber,low threshold, widely tunable single-frequency fiber ring laser with a tandem fiber Fabry–Perot filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2639–2671 (1991). [CrossRef]

6

6. S. A. Babin, D. V. Churkin, A. E. Ismagulov, S. I. Kablukov, and E. V. Podivilov, “Four-wave-mixing-induced turbulent spectral broadening in a long Raman fiber laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24(8), 1729–1738 (2007). [CrossRef]

], are used to generate lasing. The Raman amplification based RFL is one of the attractive research topics due to its low noise and lasing wavelength flexibility. However, conventional Raman RFLs usually use a relative short (compared with the 125km cavity length used in this work) ring cavity with a high nonlinear fiber to enhance the Raman scattering and a wavelength filtering component (i.e., FBG) to select light. Hence, the emitting light has mode resonance characteristics that induce mode competition instability and environmental perturbation instability, as described in reference [5

5. M. Fernández-Vallejo, S. Diaz, R. A. Perez-Herrera, R. Unzu, M. A. Quintela, J. M. López-Higuera, and M. López-Amo, “Comparison of the stability of ring resonator structures for multiwavelength fiber lasers using Raman or er-doped fiber amplification,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(12), 1551–1557 (2009). [CrossRef]

] and references therein.

In this paper, we propose a modeless RFL with hybrid emission characteristics, where random lasing (RL) arise from Raman amplified Rayleigh scattering (RS) and the ring resonance play different roles in laser generation, depending on the length of the cavity and the value of the pump power. For conventional random lasers, the feedback is provided by light scattering in a disordered gain medium [7

7. V. S. Letokhov, “Generation of light a scattering medium with negative resonance absorption,” Sov. Phys 26, 835–840 (1968).

9

9. M. A. Noginov, “Random lasers resonance control,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 397–398 (2008). [CrossRef]

], wherein the output is irregular and unidirectional. Low-dimensional structures were proposed to guide the output direction [10

10. E. S. P. Leong, S. F. Yu, and S. P. Lau, “Directional edge-emitting UV random laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(22), 221109 (2006). [CrossRef]

, 11

11. C. J. S. de Matos, L. de S Menezes, A. M. Brito-Silva, M. A. Martinez Gámez, A. S. Gomes, and C. B. de Araújo, “Random fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(15), 153903 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Recently, Turitsyn, et al. realized a stable CW random fiber laser in a standard single-mode fiber (SMF) based on Raman amplification and distributed RS feedback [12

12. S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, D. V. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, J. D. Ania-Castañón, V. Karalekas, and E. V. Podivilov, “Random distributed feedback fiber laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 231–235 (2010). [CrossRef]

16

16. S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, E. V. Podivilov, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Tunable random fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. A 84(2), 021805 (2011). [CrossRef]

]. In addition, another quasi-random lasing regime is reported in an ultra-long fiber Fabry-Perot cavity formed by two FBGs [17

17. S. K. Turitsyn, J. D. Ania-Castañón, S. A. Babin, V. Karalekas, P. Harper, D. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, A. E. El-Taher, E. V. Podivilov, and V. K. Mezentsev, “270-km ultralong raman fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(13), 133901 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], wherein the so called weak wave turbulence effect between numerous cavity modes provides a way to realize modeless quasi-random lasing.

To the best of our knowledge, RL with the company of cavity resonance in a RFL has not been investigated yet. Hence, this paper reported a hybrid-emitting RFL (HERFL) with an ultra-long cavity. Such a novel HERFL has a much lower threshold compared with linear random fiber lasers (LRFL). When the pump power of the laser is high enough, the dominant RL makes the laser to become purely modeless and environmentally stable in spectrum and output power, providing an efficient and simple way of generating low threshold, spectrum stable, broadband RL. These characteristics make the HERFL an ideal light source for potential applications to low-coherence interferometry [18

18. Y. J. Rao and D. A. Jackson, “Recent progress in fiber optic low-coherence interferometry,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 7(7), 981–999 (1996). [CrossRef]

, 19

19. Y. J. Rao, “Study on fiber-optic low-coherence interferometric and fiber Bragg grating sensors,” Photon. Sens. 1(4), 382–400 (2011). [CrossRef]

], such as optical coherence tomography (OCT) and optic fiber gyroscopes etc [20

20. F. E. Robles, C. Wilson, G. Grant, and A. Wax, “Molecular imaging true-colour spectroscopic optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 744–747 (2011). [CrossRef]

22

22. A. Podoleanu, “Route to OCT from OFS at university of Kent,” Photon. Sens. 1(2), 166–186 (2011). [CrossRef]

].

2. Experimental results

The schematic diagram of the HERFL is given in Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic of the hybrid-emitting ring fiber laser. WDM: wavelength division multiplexer. OSA: optical spectrum analyzer; SMF: single-mode fiber
. A Raman fiber laser with central wavelength of 1366 nm is used as the pump. The pump is launched into the fiber spool through a 1365/1461 nm wavelength division multiplexer (WDM). A 125 km SMF spool is spliced between the common port and the 1461 nm port of the WDM, forming a resonant ring cavity for the 1st-order Raman Stokes light. To monitor the laser generation, a 1: 99 coupler is spliced between the 1461 nm port of the WDM and the SMF. Thus, clockwise-propagating light coupled to the 1% port of the coupler is used as the output of the laser.

With the increase in pump power, the Raman Stokes light occurs. In the fiber ring, there exist two regimes of resonance modes of the Stokes light. The first regime is due to the ring cavity effect. Namely, the generated light propagates periodically in the ring cavity, giving birth to resonance modes with frequencies, mc /nL (where n ≈1.45 is the refractive index of the fiber, L is the fiber length, and m is an integer). The second regime corresponds to the RS effect. Namely, the generated light is scattered forwardly and backwardly due to the distributed RS effect, which forms a multitude of resonance modes with random frequencies [12

12. S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, D. V. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, J. D. Ania-Castañón, V. Karalekas, and E. V. Podivilov, “Random distributed feedback fiber laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 231–235 (2010). [CrossRef]

, 13

13. A. A. Fotiadi, “Random lasers: an incoherent fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 204–205 (2010). [CrossRef]

]. Obviously, with the increase in fiber length, the first (second) regime would play a more subordinate (dominant) role in lasing generation due to the increased cavity attenuation and the RS feedback, and meanwhile this also depends on the pump power applied.

We first studied the output characteristics of the HERFL. In a 125 km long cavity, the ring resonance effect of the cavity is much weakened due to large attenuation of light per circle, while a considerable amount of RS feedback plays a more important role in lasing generation. Figure 2
Fig. 2 Output power of the HERFL as a function of the pump power.
shows the output power of the laser as a function of the pump power, while the output power of a corresponding LRFL is also presented for comparison. The LRFL has a similar setup as the HERFL, except that the 99% port of the coupler and the SMF are disconnected. In addition, the ends of LRFL were also angle cleaved to eliminate Fresnel reflection, so the feedback of LRFL is only from RS. It is observed that the threshold power of the HERFL is ~0.85 W, which is about three fifth of the threshold of the LRFL. But, the HERFL has smaller slope efficiency. This is due to the power distribution differences in the two cavities that induce different spontaneous emission rates.

Figure 4(a)
Fig. 4 RF spectra [(a) and (b)] under different pump power, output power versus cavity length [(c)], where the symbol Pp denotes the pump power
and 4(b) give the experimental RF spectra of the HERFL under different values of the pump power. In Fig. 4(a), when the pump is near the lasing threshold, a peak at 1.65 kHz can be seen, which exactly corresponds to the cavity effect. As pump power increases (larger than ~1.25 W), the cavity resonance disappears. This is because the cavity effect supports large amount of resonance modes with spacing c/nL, while the RS distributed feedback builds up numerous resonance modes with random frequencies. The output of HERFL is the sum of these two effects. At low pump power, the cavity resonance manifests itself as a peak in the RF spectrum of the output, seeing Fig. 4(a). As the pump power increases, the fiber nonlinearity (e.g. four-wave mixing, phase modulation, etc) causes interacting, de-phasing, broadening and superimposing of these modes [6

6. S. A. Babin, D. V. Churkin, A. E. Ismagulov, S. I. Kablukov, and E. V. Podivilov, “Four-wave-mixing-induced turbulent spectral broadening in a long Raman fiber laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24(8), 1729–1738 (2007). [CrossRef]

, 13

13. A. A. Fotiadi, “Random lasers: an incoherent fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 204–205 (2010). [CrossRef]

, 17

17. S. K. Turitsyn, J. D. Ania-Castañón, S. A. Babin, V. Karalekas, P. Harper, D. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, A. E. El-Taher, E. V. Podivilov, and V. K. Mezentsev, “270-km ultralong raman fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(13), 133901 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. This provides a route towards modeless RL. Hence, no resonance peak is observed in the RF spectrum, seeing Fig. 4(b).

Since the RS (cavity) effect is enhanced (weakened) with increase in the cavity length, there exists one critical length regime beyond which the RS feedback (cavity resonance) plays the dominant (negligible) role and the output power does not change with further increase in the cavity length. Figure 4(c) indicates that the critical lengths for pump at 1, 1.5 and 3 W are ~200, 175 and 130 km, respectively. In our case, the cavity length is 125 km, thus the output of the RRFL is hybrid RL for the most pump power applied.

We also investigated the thermal and mechanical stability of the 125 km HERFL. Figure 6
Fig. 6 Output spectra of the random ring fiber laser operating under different environmental temperatures. The pump power used is 1.4 W.
gives the output spectra of the laser operating under different environmental temperatures. It is seen that the output spectrum as well as the power keeps almost unchanged for the temperature variation from −40 to 50 °C. To test the mechanical stability, we vibrated the 125 km fiber spool, and stretched a section of the fiber, and little change was observed in the output spectrum. Since the acceleration, strain, and refractive index would vary accordingly while shaking the fiber, the HERFL is believed to be insensitive to these parameters, i.e., it is environmentally stable in both spectrum and output power.

4. Discussions and conclusions

Compared with the reported LRFLs [12

12. S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, D. V. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, J. D. Ania-Castañón, V. Karalekas, and E. V. Podivilov, “Random distributed feedback fiber laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 231–235 (2010). [CrossRef]

, 15

15. D. V. Churkin, A. E. El-Taher, I. D. Vatnik, J. D. Ania-Castañón, P. Harper, E. V. Podivilov, S. A. Babin, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Experimental and theoretical study of longitudinal power distribution in a random DFB fiber laser,” Opt. Express 20(10), 11178–11188 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], the HERFL has similar output spectrum, however, its threshold pump power is much lower thanks to its hybrid emission characteristic. In the HERFL, the contribution of the cavity resonance and the RS feedback varies with the cavity length and the pump power, hence, the coherence degree of the output light as well as the route towards the modeless RL can be controlled by these two parameters. Besides, the spectrum of HERFL is determined by the Raman gain profile rather than a point reflector as in an ultra-long fiber laser with a liner cavity formed by FBGs [14

14. D. V. Churkin, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, S. I. Kablukov, V. Karalekas, J. D. Ania-Castañón, E. V. Podivilov, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Raman fiber lasers with a random distributed feedback based on Rayleigh scattering,” Phys. Rev. A 82(3), 033828 (2010). [CrossRef]

, 17

17. S. K. Turitsyn, J. D. Ania-Castañón, S. A. Babin, V. Karalekas, P. Harper, D. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, A. E. El-Taher, E. V. Podivilov, and V. K. Mezentsev, “270-km ultralong raman fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(13), 133901 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], so it has larger bandwidth if the pump power is high enough.

Acknowledgment

This work is supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grants (61106045, 61205048)

References and links

1.

N. Park, J. W. Dawson, K. J. Vahala, and C. Miller, “All fiber,low threshold, widely tunable single-frequency fiber ring laser with a tandem fiber Fabry–Perot filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2639–2671 (1991). [CrossRef]

2.

D. N. Wang, F. W. Tong, X. Fang, W. Jin, P. K. A. Wai, and J. M. Gong, “Multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber ring laser source with a hybrid gain medium,” Opt. Commun. 228(4-6), 295–301 (2003). [CrossRef]

3.

C. H. Yeh and C. W. Chow, “Single-longitudinal-mode erbium-doped fiber laser with novel scheme utilizing fiber Bragg grating inside ring cavity,” Laser Phys. 20(2), 512–515 (2010). [CrossRef]

4.

X. Dong, P. Shum, N. Q. Ngo, and C. C. Chan, “Multiwavelength Raman fiber laser with a continuously-tunable spacing,” Opt. Express 14(8), 3288–3293 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

M. Fernández-Vallejo, S. Diaz, R. A. Perez-Herrera, R. Unzu, M. A. Quintela, J. M. López-Higuera, and M. López-Amo, “Comparison of the stability of ring resonator structures for multiwavelength fiber lasers using Raman or er-doped fiber amplification,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(12), 1551–1557 (2009). [CrossRef]

6.

S. A. Babin, D. V. Churkin, A. E. Ismagulov, S. I. Kablukov, and E. V. Podivilov, “Four-wave-mixing-induced turbulent spectral broadening in a long Raman fiber laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24(8), 1729–1738 (2007). [CrossRef]

7.

V. S. Letokhov, “Generation of light a scattering medium with negative resonance absorption,” Sov. Phys 26, 835–840 (1968).

8.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999). [CrossRef]

9.

M. A. Noginov, “Random lasers resonance control,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 397–398 (2008). [CrossRef]

10.

E. S. P. Leong, S. F. Yu, and S. P. Lau, “Directional edge-emitting UV random laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(22), 221109 (2006). [CrossRef]

11.

C. J. S. de Matos, L. de S Menezes, A. M. Brito-Silva, M. A. Martinez Gámez, A. S. Gomes, and C. B. de Araújo, “Random fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(15), 153903 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, D. V. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, J. D. Ania-Castañón, V. Karalekas, and E. V. Podivilov, “Random distributed feedback fiber laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 231–235 (2010). [CrossRef]

13.

A. A. Fotiadi, “Random lasers: an incoherent fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 204–205 (2010). [CrossRef]

14.

D. V. Churkin, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, S. I. Kablukov, V. Karalekas, J. D. Ania-Castañón, E. V. Podivilov, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Raman fiber lasers with a random distributed feedback based on Rayleigh scattering,” Phys. Rev. A 82(3), 033828 (2010). [CrossRef]

15.

D. V. Churkin, A. E. El-Taher, I. D. Vatnik, J. D. Ania-Castañón, P. Harper, E. V. Podivilov, S. A. Babin, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Experimental and theoretical study of longitudinal power distribution in a random DFB fiber laser,” Opt. Express 20(10), 11178–11188 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

16.

S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, E. V. Podivilov, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Tunable random fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. A 84(2), 021805 (2011). [CrossRef]

17.

S. K. Turitsyn, J. D. Ania-Castañón, S. A. Babin, V. Karalekas, P. Harper, D. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, A. E. El-Taher, E. V. Podivilov, and V. K. Mezentsev, “270-km ultralong raman fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(13), 133901 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18.

Y. J. Rao and D. A. Jackson, “Recent progress in fiber optic low-coherence interferometry,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 7(7), 981–999 (1996). [CrossRef]

19.

Y. J. Rao, “Study on fiber-optic low-coherence interferometric and fiber Bragg grating sensors,” Photon. Sens. 1(4), 382–400 (2011). [CrossRef]

20.

F. E. Robles, C. Wilson, G. Grant, and A. Wax, “Molecular imaging true-colour spectroscopic optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 744–747 (2011). [CrossRef]

21.

S. W. Lloyd, V. Dangui, M. J. F. Digonnet, S. Fan, and G. S. Kino, “Measurement of reduced backscattering noise in laser-driven fiber optic gyroscopes,” Opt. Lett. 35(2), 121–123 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

22.

A. Podoleanu, “Route to OCT from OFS at university of Kent,” Photon. Sens. 1(2), 166–186 (2011). [CrossRef]

23.

J. D. Ania-Castañón, “Quasi-lossless transmission using second-order Raman amplification and fibre Bragg gratings,” Opt. Express 12(19), 4372–4377 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

24.

W. L. Zhang, Y. J. Rao, J. M. Zhu, Z. X. Yang, Z. N. Wang, and X. H. Jia, “Low threshold 2nd-order random lasing of a fiber laser with a half-opened cavity,” Opt. Express 20(13), 14400–14405 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

25.

H. Cao, “Review on latest developments in random lasers with coherent feedback,” J. Phys. Math. Gen. 38(49), 10497–10535 (2005). [CrossRef]

26.

B. Redding, M. A. Choma, and H. Cao, “Speckle-free laser imaging using random laser illumination,” Nat. Photonics 6(6), 355–359 (2012). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(140.3490) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, distributed-feedback
(140.3510) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, fiber
(140.3550) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, Raman

ToC Category:
Lasers and Laser Optics

History
Original Manuscript: July 18, 2012
Revised Manuscript: September 5, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: September 11, 2012
Published: September 18, 2012

Citation
Y. J. Rao, W. L. Zhang, J. M. Zhu, Z. X. Yang, Z. N. Wang, and X. H. Jia, "Hybrid lasing in an ultra-long ring fiber laser," Opt. Express 20, 22563-22568 (2012)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-20-20-22563


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. N. Park, J. W. Dawson, K. J. Vahala, and C. Miller, “All fiber,low threshold, widely tunable single-frequency fiber ring laser with a tandem fiber Fabry–Perot filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett.59, 2639–2671 (1991). [CrossRef]
  2. D. N. Wang, F. W. Tong, X. Fang, W. Jin, P. K. A. Wai, and J. M. Gong, “Multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber ring laser source with a hybrid gain medium,” Opt. Commun.228(4-6), 295–301 (2003). [CrossRef]
  3. C. H. Yeh and C. W. Chow, “Single-longitudinal-mode erbium-doped fiber laser with novel scheme utilizing fiber Bragg grating inside ring cavity,” Laser Phys.20(2), 512–515 (2010). [CrossRef]
  4. X. Dong, P. Shum, N. Q. Ngo, and C. C. Chan, “Multiwavelength Raman fiber laser with a continuously-tunable spacing,” Opt. Express14(8), 3288–3293 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. Fernández-Vallejo, S. Diaz, R. A. Perez-Herrera, R. Unzu, M. A. Quintela, J. M. López-Higuera, and M. López-Amo, “Comparison of the stability of ring resonator structures for multiwavelength fiber lasers using Raman or er-doped fiber amplification,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.45(12), 1551–1557 (2009). [CrossRef]
  6. S. A. Babin, D. V. Churkin, A. E. Ismagulov, S. I. Kablukov, and E. V. Podivilov, “Four-wave-mixing-induced turbulent spectral broadening in a long Raman fiber laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B24(8), 1729–1738 (2007). [CrossRef]
  7. V. S. Letokhov, “Generation of light a scattering medium with negative resonance absorption,” Sov. Phys26, 835–840 (1968).
  8. H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett.82(11), 2278–2281 (1999). [CrossRef]
  9. M. A. Noginov, “Random lasers resonance control,” Nat. Photonics2(7), 397–398 (2008). [CrossRef]
  10. E. S. P. Leong, S. F. Yu, and S. P. Lau, “Directional edge-emitting UV random laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(22), 221109 (2006). [CrossRef]
  11. C. J. S. de Matos, L. de S Menezes, A. M. Brito-Silva, M. A. Martinez Gámez, A. S. Gomes, and C. B. de Araújo, “Random fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett.99(15), 153903 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, D. V. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, J. D. Ania-Castañón, V. Karalekas, and E. V. Podivilov, “Random distributed feedback fiber laser,” Nat. Photonics4(4), 231–235 (2010). [CrossRef]
  13. A. A. Fotiadi, “Random lasers: an incoherent fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics4(4), 204–205 (2010). [CrossRef]
  14. D. V. Churkin, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, S. I. Kablukov, V. Karalekas, J. D. Ania-Castañón, E. V. Podivilov, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Raman fiber lasers with a random distributed feedback based on Rayleigh scattering,” Phys. Rev. A82(3), 033828 (2010). [CrossRef]
  15. D. V. Churkin, A. E. El-Taher, I. D. Vatnik, J. D. Ania-Castañón, P. Harper, E. V. Podivilov, S. A. Babin, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Experimental and theoretical study of longitudinal power distribution in a random DFB fiber laser,” Opt. Express20(10), 11178–11188 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, E. V. Podivilov, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Tunable random fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. A84(2), 021805 (2011). [CrossRef]
  17. S. K. Turitsyn, J. D. Ania-Castañón, S. A. Babin, V. Karalekas, P. Harper, D. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, A. E. El-Taher, E. V. Podivilov, and V. K. Mezentsev, “270-km ultralong raman fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(13), 133901 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. Y. J. Rao and D. A. Jackson, “Recent progress in fiber optic low-coherence interferometry,” Meas. Sci. Technol.7(7), 981–999 (1996). [CrossRef]
  19. Y. J. Rao, “Study on fiber-optic low-coherence interferometric and fiber Bragg grating sensors,” Photon. Sens.1(4), 382–400 (2011). [CrossRef]
  20. F. E. Robles, C. Wilson, G. Grant, and A. Wax, “Molecular imaging true-colour spectroscopic optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Photonics5(12), 744–747 (2011). [CrossRef]
  21. S. W. Lloyd, V. Dangui, M. J. F. Digonnet, S. Fan, and G. S. Kino, “Measurement of reduced backscattering noise in laser-driven fiber optic gyroscopes,” Opt. Lett.35(2), 121–123 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. A. Podoleanu, “Route to OCT from OFS at university of Kent,” Photon. Sens.1(2), 166–186 (2011). [CrossRef]
  23. J. D. Ania-Castañón, “Quasi-lossless transmission using second-order Raman amplification and fibre Bragg gratings,” Opt. Express12(19), 4372–4377 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. W. L. Zhang, Y. J. Rao, J. M. Zhu, Z. X. Yang, Z. N. Wang, and X. H. Jia, “Low threshold 2nd-order random lasing of a fiber laser with a half-opened cavity,” Opt. Express20(13), 14400–14405 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. H. Cao, “Review on latest developments in random lasers with coherent feedback,” J. Phys. Math. Gen.38(49), 10497–10535 (2005). [CrossRef]
  26. B. Redding, M. A. Choma, and H. Cao, “Speckle-free laser imaging using random laser illumination,” Nat. Photonics6(6), 355–359 (2012). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited