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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 20, Iss. 21 — Oct. 8, 2012
  • pp: 23320–23330
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Sensing characteristics of the rocking filters in microstructured fibers optimized for hydrostatic pressure measurements

A. Anuszkiewicz, G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, T. Borsukowski, J. Olszewski, T. Martynkien, W. Urbanczyk, P. Mergo, M. Makara, K. Poturaj, T. Geernaert, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 20, Issue 21, pp. 23320-23330 (2012)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.20.023320


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Abstract

We report on the sensing characteristics of rocking filters fabricated in two microstructured fibers with enhanced polarimetric sensitivity to hydrostatic pressure. The filter fabricated in the first fiber shows a very high sensitivity to pressure ranging from 16.2 to 43.4 nm/MPa, depending on the resonance order and features an extremely low cross-sensitivity between pressure and temperature 28 ÷ 89 × 103 K/MPa. The filter fabricated in the second fiber has an extreme sensitivity to pressure ranging from −72.6 to −177 nm/MPa, but a less favorable cross-sensitivity between pressure and temperature of 1.05 ÷ 3.50 × 103 K/MPa. These characteristics allow using the rocking filters for pressure measurements with mbar resolution.

© 2012 OSA

1. Introduction

The concept of using rocking filters elliptical core and side-hole fibers for hydrostatic pressure measurements was studied earlier in [12

12. R. Kaul, “Pressure sensitivity of rocking filters fabricated in an elliptical-core optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 20(9), 1000–1001 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and [13

13. J. A. Croucher, L. Gomez-Rojas, S. Kanellopoulos, and V. A. Handerek, “Approach to highly sensitive pressure measurements using side-hole fibre,” Electron. Lett. 34(2), 208–209 (1998). [CrossRef]

], respectively. The sensitivity to pressure reported for the filter in the elliptical core fiber was only 0.5 nm/MPa. The sensitivity of the rocking filer in the side-hole fiber was about 100 nm/MPa at 720 nm. However, due to the small birefringence of this fiber, the filter length was about 1 m, which made it unpractical for actual applications. Moreover the low birefringence deteriorated the resonance depth and limited the measurement resolution.

The rocking filters described in this paper feature several advantages compared to those already reported in literature. These include an extremely low cross-sensitivity between pressure and temperature exceeding 104 K/MPa, a reasonable length of only a few centimeters, and a high quality of the resonances, which allows determining the resonance wavelength with 10 pm resolution. These advantages, combined with the sensitivity exceeding 100 nm/MPa, make our filters excellent sensors for temperature insensitive high resolution pressure measurements.

2. Microstructured fiber used for rocking filter fabrication

3. Rocking filter fabrication and characterization

The rocking filters were then subjected to pressure changes in the range of 0.1 ÷ 10 MPa (0.1 MPa corresponds to atmospheric pressure). In Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Pressure-induced displacement of the third order resonance registered for the rocking filter fabricated in the first (a) and the second (b) fiber. The opposite directions of the resonance shifts indicated by black arrows stem from the different signs of the polarimetric pressure sensitivity in both fibers.
we show the shift of the third order resonances observed in response to increasing pressure. According to Eq. (2), in the first filter the pressure-induced resonance shift is clearly towards longer wavelengths, which corresponds to a positive sign of dλ/dp. The pressure-induced displacement of the resonances in the second filter is towards shorter wavelengths, which corresponds to a negative sign of dλ/dp. For both filters the resonance depth and the FWHM of the resonance peaks remain almost unchanged at increased pressure.

In Table 1

Table 1. Sensitivity of the rocking filters measured at different resonances and calculated cross-sensitivity coefficients. The pressure sensitivities were determined for low and high pressure ranges.

table-icon
View This Table
we gathered the sensing parameters of both rocking filters determined for all the resonances. As the response to pressure is nonlinear, the sensitivity coefficients dλ/dp were calculated for low and high pressure ranges. The pressure sensitivity of the filter fabricated in the first fiber is very high and ranges from 16.2 to 43.4 nm/MPa, depending on the resonance order.

The temperature characteristic for the third order resonance of this filter is shown in Fig. 9(b-c). The additive effect owing to the orientation of the elliptical inclusion with respect to the microstructured cladding yields a relatively high filter sensitivity to temperature dλ/dT ranging from −28.0 to −79 pm/K. These values are almost two orders of magnitude greater than the sensitivity of the first filter and consequently the cross-sensitivity to temperature drops to 1.05 ÷ 3.50 × 103 K/MPa, depending on the resonance order.

4. Conclusions

We have demonstrated the successful fabrication of higher order rocking filters in two specially designed birefringent fibers with a complex microstructure that yields high polarimetric sensitivity to hydrostatic pressure. The response of the rocking filters to pressure and temperature was measured at different resonances. Our studies reveal that the rocking filter fabricated in the first fiber has a high positive sensitivity to pressure, ranging from 16.2 up to 43.4 nm/MPa at low pressures, and an extremely low sensitivity to temperature of the order of a fraction of pm/K. As shown in Fig. 8(b-c), the rms deviation of the measurement points from the trend line is of the order of 10 pm. This figure can be considered as the resolution with which the position of the resonance wavelength can be determined. Taking into account the measured dλ/dp coefficients, one can estimate the pressure measurement resolution at 3 to 6 mbar, depending on the resonance order. Owing to the extremely low cross-sensitivity to temperature, ranging from 89 × 103 K/MPa to 28 × 103 K/MPa, the filter fabricated in the first fiber can be used for high resolution pressure measurements with no need for temperature compensation.

The pressure sensitivity of the filter fabricated in the second fiber has a negative sign and reaches record high values of −72.6 ÷ −97.3 nm/MPa, depending on the resonance order. An extremely high sensitivity of −178 nm/MPa in the pressure range from 7.4 to 10 MPa was demonstrated for the fourth order resonance at about 2.6 μm at atmospheric pressure. The cross-sensitivity to temperature in this filter is in the range 1.05 ÷ 3.50 × 103 K/MPa and therefore it is better suited for high resolution pressure measurements in less demanding temperature conditions. We expect that the cross-sensitivity to temperature of this filter can be significantly reduced by using a fiber with similar geometry but without germanium doped inclusion.

Acknowledgments

The work presented in this paper was carried out with support of the Polish Ministry of Science and Education under the grant no. NN 505 560 439 and of the PHOSFOS project funded by the 7th Framework Programme of the European Commission. A. Anuszkiewicz, G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, J. Olszewski and W. Urbanczyk acknowledge the support of the FNP Program “MISTRZ”. A. Anuszkiewicz acknowledges the support of the European Union’s European Social Fund. T. Geernaert is supported by the Research Foundation Flanders (FWO-Vlaanderen). The authors would also like to acknowledge financial support from the Institute for the Promotion of Innovation through Science and Technology, Flanders (IWT-Vlaanderen), the Interuniversity Attraction Poles (IAP)Belgian Science Policy and the Methusalem and Hercules Foundations Flanders. We also acknowledge the COST TD1001 action.

References and links

1.

W. J. Bock and A. W. Domanski, “High hydrostatic pressure effects in highly birefringent optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7(8), 1279–1283 (1989). [CrossRef]

2.

N. Fürstenau, M. Schmidt, W. J. Bock, and W. Urbanczyk, “Dynamic pressure sensing with a fiber-optic polarimetric pressure transducer with two-wavelength passive quadrature readout,” Appl. Opt. 37(4), 663–671 (1998). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3.

M. G. Xu, L. Reekie, Y. T. Chow, and J. P. Dakin, “Optical in-fiber grating high-pressure sensor,” Electron. Lett. 29(4), 398–399 (1993). [CrossRef]

4.

E. Chmielewska, W. Urbańczyk, and W. J. Bock, “Measurement of pressure and temperature sensitivities of a Bragg grating imprinted in a highly birefringent side-hole fiber,” Appl. Opt. 42(31), 6284–6291 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

Y. J. Rao, “Recent progress in fiber-optic extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric sensors,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 12(3), 227–237 (2006). [CrossRef]

6.

T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, J. Olszewski, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, T. Geernaert, C. Sonnenfeld, A. Anuszkiewicz, M. K. Szczurowski, K. Tarnowski, M. Makara, K. Skorupski, J. Klimek, K. Poturaj, W. Urbanczyk, T. Nasilowski, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Highly birefringent microstructured fibers with enhanced sensitivity to hydrostatic pressure,” Opt. Express 18(14), 15113–15121 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

S. Sulejmani, C. Sonnenfeld, T. Geernaert, P. Mergo, M. Makara, K. Poturaj, K. Skorupski, T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, J. Olszewski, W. Urbanczyk, C. Caucheteur, K. Chah, P. Megret, H. Terryn, J. Van Roosbroeck, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Control over the pressure sensitivity of Bragg grating-based sensors in highly birefringent microstructured optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(6), 527–529 (2012). [CrossRef]

8.

R. H. Stolen, A. Ashkin, W. Pleibel, and J. M. Dziedzic, “In-line fiber-polarization-rocking rotator and filter,” Opt. Lett. 9(7), 300–302 (1984). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

P. St. J. Russel and D. P. Hand, “Rocking filter formation in photosensitive high birefringence optical fibres,” Electron. Lett. 26(22), 1846–1848 (1990). [CrossRef]

10.

G. Kakarantzas, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, L. Farr, F. Couny, and B. J. Mangan, “Structural rocking filters in highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 28(3), 158–160 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, A. Anuszkiewicz, W. Urbanczyk, and J. Wojcik, “Sensing characteristics of rocking filter fabricated in microstructured birefringent fiber using fusion arc splicer,” Opt. Express 16(22), 17249–17257 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

R. Kaul, “Pressure sensitivity of rocking filters fabricated in an elliptical-core optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 20(9), 1000–1001 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

J. A. Croucher, L. Gomez-Rojas, S. Kanellopoulos, and V. A. Handerek, “Approach to highly sensitive pressure measurements using side-hole fibre,” Electron. Lett. 34(2), 208–209 (1998). [CrossRef]

14.

H. M. Xie, P. H. Dabkiewicz, R. Ulrich, and K. Okamoto, “Side-hole fiber for fiber-optic pressure sensing,” Opt. Lett. 11(5), 333–335 (1986). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15.

K. Bohnert, A. Frank, E. Rochat, K. Haroud, and H. Brändle, “Polarimetric fiber laser sensor for hydrostatic pressure,” Appl. Opt. 43(1), 41–48 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

OCIS Codes
(060.2370) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics sensors
(060.4005) Fiber optics and optical communications : Microstructured fibers
(280.5475) Remote sensing and sensors : Pressure measurement

ToC Category:
Sensors

History
Original Manuscript: August 6, 2012
Revised Manuscript: August 29, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: August 29, 2012
Published: September 26, 2012

Citation
A. Anuszkiewicz, G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, T. Borsukowski, J. Olszewski, T. Martynkien, W. Urbanczyk, P. Mergo, M. Makara, K. Poturaj, T. Geernaert, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, "Sensing characteristics of the rocking filters in microstructured fibers optimized for hydrostatic pressure measurements," Opt. Express 20, 23320-23330 (2012)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-20-21-23320


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References

  1. W. J. Bock and A. W. Domanski, “High hydrostatic pressure effects in highly birefringent optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol.7(8), 1279–1283 (1989). [CrossRef]
  2. N. Fürstenau, M. Schmidt, W. J. Bock, and W. Urbanczyk, “Dynamic pressure sensing with a fiber-optic polarimetric pressure transducer with two-wavelength passive quadrature readout,” Appl. Opt.37(4), 663–671 (1998). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. M. G. Xu, L. Reekie, Y. T. Chow, and J. P. Dakin, “Optical in-fiber grating high-pressure sensor,” Electron. Lett.29(4), 398–399 (1993). [CrossRef]
  4. E. Chmielewska, W. Urbańczyk, and W. J. Bock, “Measurement of pressure and temperature sensitivities of a Bragg grating imprinted in a highly birefringent side-hole fiber,” Appl. Opt.42(31), 6284–6291 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. Y. J. Rao, “Recent progress in fiber-optic extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric sensors,” Opt. Fiber Technol.12(3), 227–237 (2006). [CrossRef]
  6. T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, J. Olszewski, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, T. Geernaert, C. Sonnenfeld, A. Anuszkiewicz, M. K. Szczurowski, K. Tarnowski, M. Makara, K. Skorupski, J. Klimek, K. Poturaj, W. Urbanczyk, T. Nasilowski, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Highly birefringent microstructured fibers with enhanced sensitivity to hydrostatic pressure,” Opt. Express18(14), 15113–15121 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. S. Sulejmani, C. Sonnenfeld, T. Geernaert, P. Mergo, M. Makara, K. Poturaj, K. Skorupski, T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, J. Olszewski, W. Urbanczyk, C. Caucheteur, K. Chah, P. Megret, H. Terryn, J. Van Roosbroeck, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Control over the pressure sensitivity of Bragg grating-based sensors in highly birefringent microstructured optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(6), 527–529 (2012). [CrossRef]
  8. R. H. Stolen, A. Ashkin, W. Pleibel, and J. M. Dziedzic, “In-line fiber-polarization-rocking rotator and filter,” Opt. Lett.9(7), 300–302 (1984). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. P. St. J. Russel and D. P. Hand, “Rocking filter formation in photosensitive high birefringence optical fibres,” Electron. Lett.26(22), 1846–1848 (1990). [CrossRef]
  10. G. Kakarantzas, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, L. Farr, F. Couny, and B. J. Mangan, “Structural rocking filters in highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett.28(3), 158–160 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, A. Anuszkiewicz, W. Urbanczyk, and J. Wojcik, “Sensing characteristics of rocking filter fabricated in microstructured birefringent fiber using fusion arc splicer,” Opt. Express16(22), 17249–17257 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. R. Kaul, “Pressure sensitivity of rocking filters fabricated in an elliptical-core optical fiber,” Opt. Lett.20(9), 1000–1001 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. J. A. Croucher, L. Gomez-Rojas, S. Kanellopoulos, and V. A. Handerek, “Approach to highly sensitive pressure measurements using side-hole fibre,” Electron. Lett.34(2), 208–209 (1998). [CrossRef]
  14. H. M. Xie, P. H. Dabkiewicz, R. Ulrich, and K. Okamoto, “Side-hole fiber for fiber-optic pressure sensing,” Opt. Lett.11(5), 333–335 (1986). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. K. Bohnert, A. Frank, E. Rochat, K. Haroud, and H. Brändle, “Polarimetric fiber laser sensor for hydrostatic pressure,” Appl. Opt.43(1), 41–48 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

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