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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 20, Iss. 22 — Oct. 22, 2012
  • pp: 24115–24123
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Exploiting few mode-fibers for optical time-stretch confocal microscopy in the short near-infrared window

Yi Qiu, Jingjiang Xu, Kenneth K. Y. Wong, and Kevin K. Tsia  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 20, Issue 22, pp. 24115-24123 (2012)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.20.024115


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Abstract

Dispersive fiber is well-regarded as the most viable candidate for realizing efficient optical time-stretch process – an ultrafast spectroscopic measurement technique based on the wavelength-to-time mapping via group velocity dispersion (GVD). Despite optical time-stretch has been anticipated to benefit a wide range of high-throughput biomedical diagnoses, the lack of commercially-available dispersive fibers which can operate in the “biomedically-favorable” short near-infrared (~800 nm – 1100 nm) range hinders practical time-stretch-based biomedical spectroscopy and microscopy. We here explore and demonstrate the feasibility of using the standard telecommunication single-mode fibers (e.g. SMF28 and dispersion compensation fiber (DCF)) as few-mode fibers (FMFs) for optical time-stretch confocal microscopy in the 1μm range. By evaluating GVD of different FMF modes and thus the corresponding time-stretch performances, we show that the fundamental modes (LP01) of SMF28 and DCF, having sufficiently high dispersion-to-loss ratios, are particularly useful for practical time-stretch spectroscopy and microscopy at 1 μm, without the need for the specialty 1 μm SMF. More intriguingly, we also show that the higher-order FMF modes (e.g. LP11) could be excited and utilized for time-stretch imaging. Such additional degree of freedom creates a new avenue for optimizing and designing the time-stretch operations, such as by tailored engineering of the modal-dispersion as well as the GVD of the individual FMF modes.

© 2012 OSA

1. Introduction

Optical spectral measurements and analyses are nowadays pervasive in basic life science research and clinical diagnostics, such as optical spectroscopy (e.g. absorption, fluorescence and Raman), optical coherence tomography (OCT), and hyper-spectral imaging. In spite of these technological advancements, boosting the spectral measurement speed, and thus the throughput, without compromising the accuracy has long been hindered by the fundamental tradeoff between sensitivity and speed in the traditional spectrometers. Based on an entirely different measurement strategy, dispersive Fourier transform (DFT), also known as optical time-stretch, has been developed to deliver ultrafast real-time spectral measurement with a high spectral acquisition rate as high as >MHz – a speed not achievable with conventional spectrometers [1

1. D. R. Solli, J. Chou, and B. Jalali, “Amplified wavelength-time transformation for real-time spectroscopy,” Nat. Photonics 2(1), 48–51 (2008). [CrossRef]

3

3. J. Chou, D. R. Solli, and B. Jalali, “Real-time spectroscopy with subgigahertz resolution using amplified dispersive Fourier transformation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(11), 111102 (2008). [CrossRef]

]. The same technique has also found applications in high-speed optical imaging, such as OCT [4

4. S. Moon and D. Y. Kim, “Ultra-high-speed optical coherence tomography with a stretched pulse supercontinuum source,” Opt. Express 14(24), 11575–11584 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,5

5. T.-J. Ahn, Y. Park, and J. Azaña, “Ultrarapid optical frequency-domain reflectometry based upon dispersion-induced time stretching: principle and applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(1), 148–165 (2012). [CrossRef]

] and serial time-encoded amplified microscopy (STEAM), or generically called time-stretch microscopy [6

6. K. Goda, K. K. Tsia, and B. Jalali, “Amplified dispersive Fourier-transform imaging for ultrafast displacement sensing and barcode reading,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(13), 131109 (2008). [CrossRef]

10

10. C. Zhang, Y. Qiu, R. Zhu, K. K. Y. Wong, and K. K. Tsia, “Serial time-encoded amplified microscopy based on picosecond supercontinuum source,” Opt. Express 19, 15810–15816 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. In the time-stretch process, an optical broadband pulse is stretched in time by group velocity dispersion (GVD) in a way that its spectral information is mapped into time. It thus facilitates ultrafast real-time spectral measurements by using a high-speed electronic digitizer, instead of the conventional spectrometer.

2. Experimental set-up

In time-stretch confocal microscopy, the spatial coordinates of the specimen are first encoded in the wavelength spectrum of a broadband pulse with a “spectral shower” created by a spatial disperser, e.g. diffraction grating (DG) [6

6. K. Goda, K. K. Tsia, and B. Jalali, “Amplified dispersive Fourier-transform imaging for ultrafast displacement sensing and barcode reading,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(13), 131109 (2008). [CrossRef]

10

10. C. Zhang, Y. Qiu, R. Zhu, K. K. Y. Wong, and K. K. Tsia, “Serial time-encoded amplified microscopy based on picosecond supercontinuum source,” Opt. Express 19, 15810–15816 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The pulse is then time-stretched by GVD in a dispersive fiber (i.e. FMFs in our case) so that the image-encoded spectrum is mapped into the serial temporal waveform which is finally captured by the electronic digitizer in real time. In our setup (Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Experimental set up of time-stretch confocal microscopy at 1μm using FMF. Right upper inset: an image of the fused fiber (between a SMF and a FMF). The controlled offset between the two fibers can be observed at the connecting facets. SC: supercontimuum, BS: beam splitter, DG: transmission diffraction grating, OBJ: objective lens, FC: fiber collimator, PD: photodetector, OSC: real-time oscilloscope.
), the broadband source is a supercontinuum (SC) (~900nm – 1300nm) generated by a 20-m long photonic crystal fiber (PCF), which is pumped by a mode-locked laser (center wavelength = 1064nm and pulse width = 9ps). A transmission DG with a groove density of 1200 lines/mm and an objective lens (NA = 0.66) are employed to focus the one-dimensional (1D) spectral shower onto the sample [6

6. K. Goda, K. K. Tsia, and B. Jalali, “Amplified dispersive Fourier-transform imaging for ultrafast displacement sensing and barcode reading,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(13), 131109 (2008). [CrossRef]

10

10. C. Zhang, Y. Qiu, R. Zhu, K. K. Y. Wong, and K. K. Tsia, “Serial time-encoded amplified microscopy based on picosecond supercontinuum source,” Opt. Express 19, 15810–15816 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 15

15. T. T. W. Wong, A. K. S. Lau, K. K. Y. Wong, and K. K. Tsia, “Optical time-stretch confocal microscopy at 1um,” Opt. Lett. 37(16), 3330–3332 (2012). [CrossRef]

]. The back-scattered spectral shower is collected by a short SMF (~1 m) which is fused with the FMF. Finally, the time-stretched signal generated in the FMF is captured by a real-time oscilloscope (16 GHz, 80 GS/s). Note that the aperture of the SMF serves as the pinhole providing the confocal imaging feature. The entire 2D images can be obtained by line-scanning of the sample or the spectral shower in the orthogonal direction (y-direction in Fig. 1). We emphasize that this 1D line-scan mode can readily be applied in high-speed flow cell imaging (at a MHz line-scan rate), in which the unidirectional cell flow automatically facilitates all the 1D line-scans of individual cells without beam scanning of the spectral shower [7

7. A. M. Fard, A. Mahjoubfar, K. Goda, D. R. Gossett, D. Di Carlo, and B. Jalali, “Nomarski serial time-encoded amplified microscopy for high-speed contrast-enhanced imaging of transparent media,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(12), 3387–3392 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 9

9. K. Goda, K. K. Tsia, and B. Jalali, “Serial time-encoded amplified imaging for real-time observation of fast dynamic phenomena,” Nature 458(7242), 1145–1149 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 16

16. K. Goda, A. Mahjoubfar, C. Wang, A. Fard, J. Adam, D. R. Gossett, A. Ayazi, E. Sollier, O. Malik, E. Chen, Y. Liu, R. Brown, N. Sarkhosh, D. Di Carlo, and B. Jalali, “Hybrid dispersion laser Scanner,” Sci Rep 2(445), 1–8 (2012). [PubMed]

].

3. Experimental results

3.1 Characterizations of the GVD and the wavelength-time mapping

The same time-stretch technique can also be utilized for characterizing the GVD of different FMF modes. This is simply based on the relation δτ = DοΔλ, where Δλ is the bandwidth of the input source to the FMF (in nm), L is the length of the FMF (in km), Dο) is the GVD at the center wavelength λο (in ps/nm-km) and δτ is the temporal duration of the time-stretched pulse. Having excited the particular FMF mode, we can readily measure the corresponding δτ and thus obtain Dο) for an input bandwidth Δλ centered at λο. The complete GVD profile as a function of wavelength can then be obtained by scanning the bandpassed spectrum across the SC (1050 nm – 1140 nm) using a tunable filter, which is based on a grating-pair configuration with a filtered bandwidth of 8 nm in our case (see Fig. 2(a)
Fig. 2 (a) Measured GVD curves and the loss values of different fiber modes in the FMFs and the 1μm SMF. (b)-(e) Captured images of the fiber output mode patterns using the NIR camera. (f) Measured output spectra of the SMF28 when an alignment offset is varied at the fiber input. The fringes are attributed to the beating between the fundamental mode (LP01) and higher-order mode (LP11).
). Compared to the previously reported methods [11

11. T.-J. Ahn, Y. Jung, K. Oh, and D. Y. Kim, “Optical frequency-domain chromatic dispersion measurement method for higher-order modes in an optical fiber,” Opt. Express 13(25), 10040–10048 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,17

17. P. Hamel, Y. Jaouën, R. Gabet, and S. Ramachandran, “Optical low-coherence reflectometry for complete chromatic dispersion characterization of few-mode fibers,” Opt. Lett. 32(9), 1029–1031 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], this time-stretch approach, without the need for interferometric configurations, provides a simple and straightforward in-line measurement of the GVD of the individual FMF modes using the same time-stretch microscopy setup. We verified the fiber modes by imaging the fiber output mode patterns using the NIR camera (Figs. 2(b)-2(e)). The alignment was also checked by monitoring the interference fringe pattern in the spectrum – a consequence of the beating between the LP01 mode and the higher-order LP11 mode [11

11. T.-J. Ahn, Y. Jung, K. Oh, and D. Y. Kim, “Optical frequency-domain chromatic dispersion measurement method for higher-order modes in an optical fiber,” Opt. Express 13(25), 10040–10048 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13

13. F. Yaman, N. Bai, Y. K. Huang, M. F. Huang, B. Zhu, T. Wang, and G. Li, “10 x 112Gb/s PDM-QPSK transmission over 5032 km in few-mode fibers,” Opt. Express 18(20), 21342–21349 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,17

17. P. Hamel, Y. Jaouën, R. Gabet, and S. Ramachandran, “Optical low-coherence reflectometry for complete chromatic dispersion characterization of few-mode fibers,” Opt. Lett. 32(9), 1029–1031 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The fringes vanish when the two fibers are well-aligned, indicating that only the fundamental mode (LP01) of the FMF is excited (see the blue curve in Fig. 2(f)).

3.2 FMF-based time-stretch confocal microscopy

We performed time-stretch confocal microscopy to image a resolution target (USAF-1951) based on different fiber modes in the FMFs and the 1μm SMF (Figs. 4(a)
Fig. 4 Time-stretch confocal images of a resolution target (USAF-1951) captured based on different fiber modes: (a) LP01 mode of a 9km-long SMF28, (b) LP01 mode of a 5 km-long 1μm SMF, (c) LP01 mode of a 1.44km-long DCF, and (d) LP11 mode of a 0.35km-long SMF 28. The input misalignment offset is 4 μm in (d). The scale bars represent 50 μm in (a)-(c), and 100μm in (d)
-4(d)). By performing 200 line-scans with a step size of 0.5 μm (along the y-direction), the field-of-view (FOV) is as large as ~0.44 mm × 0.1 mm. The captured time-stretch images based on the LP01 modes in the SMF28 and DCF (Figs. 4(b)-4(c)) show the similar image quality compared with that using 1μm SMF (Fig. 4(a)) and resolve well the smallest line feature (a linewidth of 2μm in Group 7). As mentioned before, the spatial resolution of time-stretchmicroscopy is determined by the three limiting cases: (1) spatial-dispersion limited δxsd, (ii) SPA-limited δxSPA, or (iii) digitizer-limited δxdig. The actual resolution δx is thus the maximum value in the three cases, i.e. δx=max{δxsd,δxSPA,δxdig}. Table 2

Table 2. Three different limiting regimes governing the spatial resolution of time-stretch microscopy based on different fiber modes. The final resolution is defined as δx = max{ δxsd , δxSPA, δxdig}, where δxSPA = C·δλSPA and δxdig = C·δλdig. C is the conversion factor between the space and wavelength [9].

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summarizes the resolution values of each limiting case based on different fiber modes. Time-stretch imaging based on the LP01 modes in SMF28 and DCF achieves the resolution of ~2μm, which is primarily digitizer-limited. As we show later that this resolution is high enough for cellular imaging based on time-stretch microscopy. The highest resolution, i.e. the spatial-dispersion-limited resolution, can be attained if the dispersion is further enhanced > 180 ps/nm. This can be achieved by using a longer fiber in conjunction with the optical amplification to compensate the inherent dispersive loss. Indeed, an incredibly large dispersion of > 10ns/nm has been demonstrated in time-stretch spectroscopy [3

3. J. Chou, D. R. Solli, and B. Jalali, “Real-time spectroscopy with subgigahertz resolution using amplified dispersive Fourier transformation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(11), 111102 (2008). [CrossRef]

]. It should be emphasized that all the time-stretch images were captured here at an ultrafast spectral acquisition rate (i.e. line-scan rate) of 10 MHz, determined by the repetition rate of the SC source. This is orders-of-magnitude faster than that achievable in the conventional spectrometers. In addition, each single-shot line scan (along the x-direction) of the time-stretch image is obtained only within few ns (i.e. a duty cycle of ~4% given a scan rate of 10MHz), determined by the GVD and the illumination bandwidth. Such duty cycle is already sufficient for achieve high-resolution time-stretch imaging.

Interestingly, despite of having the limited dispersion, time-stretch imaging based on the LP11 mode in SMF28 (Fig. 4(d)) is also possible with a limited resolving power, i.e. being able to resolve a minimum linewidth of 15μm (Group 6 of the resolution target). In addition, image quality is also affected by the “ghosting effect”. Such ghosting effect indicates that the presence of ambiguous wavelength-time mapping during the time-stretch process, i.e. one wavelength can be mapped to more than one time points. We here attribute two possible mechanisms resulting in such mapping ambiguity: (1) mode coupling and (2) polarization mode dispersion (PMD) of the degenerate LP11 modes due to perturbation along the FMF [18

18. S. Ramachandran, Fiber Based Dispersion Compensation, 1st ed. (Springer, 2007).

]. Despite of the ghosting effect, the image in Fig. 4(d) should be predominantly contributed by LP11 mode. It can be evident from the measured loss of this image, which considerably higher than other images based on LP01 modes (Figs. 4(a)-4(c)). Moreover, the GVD estimated from the FOV of the image in Fig. 4(d) is in excellent agreement with the GVD of the LP11 mode measured in Fig. 2(a).

We also demonstrated cellular imaging using FMF-based time-stretch microscopy (based on the LP01 mode in a 6-km SMF28). The specimen is the nasopharyngeal epithelial cell lines, which were treated with methanol and 6% acetic acid before fixation to increase the image contrast of the nuclei [19

19. A. F. Zuluaga, R. Drezek, T. Collier, R. Lotan, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Contrast agents for confocal microscopy: how simple chemicals affect confocal images of normal and cancer cells in suspension,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 398–403 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Clearly, the time-stretch image is able to reveal the cellular structures, such as the nuclei (Fig. 5(b)
Fig. 5 Raw images of the nasopharyngeal epithelial cells captured by (a) the spectrally-encoding approach, and (b) time-stretch confocal microscopy based on the LP01 mode of a 6km SMF28. The scale bars represent 50 μm.
). For comparison, we also performed the imaging of the same specimen based on spectral-encoding [20

20. D. Yelin, C. Boudoux, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Large area confocal microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 32(9), 1102–1104 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

22

22. C. Boudoux, S. Yun, W. Oh, W. White, N. Iftimia, M. Shishkov, B. Bouma, and G. Tearney, “Rapid wavelength-swept spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Opt. Express 13(20), 8214–8221 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], i.e. the spectrally-encoded information is directed to the spectrometer without undergoing the time-stretch process in the FMFs (Fig. 5(a)). We emphasize that the spectrally-encoded image was captured by a spectrometer at a spectral acquisition rate of 5 Hz whereas the time-stretch image, with a comparable image quality, is captured at an order-of-magnitude higher speed – a core feature of time-stretch confocal microscopy.

4. Conclusion

Acknowledgments

The present work is partially supported by grants from the Research Grants Council of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China (Project No. HKU 7183/09E, HKU 717510E and HKU 717911E) and University Development Fund of HKU (2009/10). The authors also acknowledge Tony C. K. Chan for his assistance of the cell line preparation.

References and links

1.

D. R. Solli, J. Chou, and B. Jalali, “Amplified wavelength-time transformation for real-time spectroscopy,” Nat. Photonics 2(1), 48–51 (2008). [CrossRef]

2.

K. Goda, D. R. Solli, K. Tsia, and B. Jalali, “Theory of amplified dispersive Fourier transformation,” Phys. Rev. A 80(4), 043821 (2009). [CrossRef]

3.

J. Chou, D. R. Solli, and B. Jalali, “Real-time spectroscopy with subgigahertz resolution using amplified dispersive Fourier transformation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(11), 111102 (2008). [CrossRef]

4.

S. Moon and D. Y. Kim, “Ultra-high-speed optical coherence tomography with a stretched pulse supercontinuum source,” Opt. Express 14(24), 11575–11584 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

T.-J. Ahn, Y. Park, and J. Azaña, “Ultrarapid optical frequency-domain reflectometry based upon dispersion-induced time stretching: principle and applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(1), 148–165 (2012). [CrossRef]

6.

K. Goda, K. K. Tsia, and B. Jalali, “Amplified dispersive Fourier-transform imaging for ultrafast displacement sensing and barcode reading,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(13), 131109 (2008). [CrossRef]

7.

A. M. Fard, A. Mahjoubfar, K. Goda, D. R. Gossett, D. Di Carlo, and B. Jalali, “Nomarski serial time-encoded amplified microscopy for high-speed contrast-enhanced imaging of transparent media,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(12), 3387–3392 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

K. K. Tsia, K. Goda, D. Capewell, and B. Jalali, “Performance of serial time-encoded amplified microscope,” Opt. Express 18(10), 10016–10028 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

K. Goda, K. K. Tsia, and B. Jalali, “Serial time-encoded amplified imaging for real-time observation of fast dynamic phenomena,” Nature 458(7242), 1145–1149 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

C. Zhang, Y. Qiu, R. Zhu, K. K. Y. Wong, and K. K. Tsia, “Serial time-encoded amplified microscopy based on picosecond supercontinuum source,” Opt. Express 19, 15810–15816 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

T.-J. Ahn, Y. Jung, K. Oh, and D. Y. Kim, “Optical frequency-domain chromatic dispersion measurement method for higher-order modes in an optical fiber,” Opt. Express 13(25), 10040–10048 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

F. Yaman, N. Bai, B. Zhu, T. Wang, and G. Li, “Long distance transmission in few-mode fibers,” Opt. Express 18(12), 13250–13257 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

F. Yaman, N. Bai, Y. K. Huang, M. F. Huang, B. Zhu, T. Wang, and G. Li, “10 x 112Gb/s PDM-QPSK transmission over 5032 km in few-mode fibers,” Opt. Express 18(20), 21342–21349 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

S. Ramachandran, “Dispersion-tailored few-mode Fibers: A versatile platform for in-fiber photonic devices,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(11), 3426–3443 (2005). [CrossRef]

15.

T. T. W. Wong, A. K. S. Lau, K. K. Y. Wong, and K. K. Tsia, “Optical time-stretch confocal microscopy at 1um,” Opt. Lett. 37(16), 3330–3332 (2012). [CrossRef]

16.

K. Goda, A. Mahjoubfar, C. Wang, A. Fard, J. Adam, D. R. Gossett, A. Ayazi, E. Sollier, O. Malik, E. Chen, Y. Liu, R. Brown, N. Sarkhosh, D. Di Carlo, and B. Jalali, “Hybrid dispersion laser Scanner,” Sci Rep 2(445), 1–8 (2012). [PubMed]

17.

P. Hamel, Y. Jaouën, R. Gabet, and S. Ramachandran, “Optical low-coherence reflectometry for complete chromatic dispersion characterization of few-mode fibers,” Opt. Lett. 32(9), 1029–1031 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18.

S. Ramachandran, Fiber Based Dispersion Compensation, 1st ed. (Springer, 2007).

19.

A. F. Zuluaga, R. Drezek, T. Collier, R. Lotan, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Contrast agents for confocal microscopy: how simple chemicals affect confocal images of normal and cancer cells in suspension,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 398–403 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

20.

D. Yelin, C. Boudoux, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Large area confocal microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 32(9), 1102–1104 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

21.

K. K. Tsia, K. Goda, D. Capewell, and B. Jalali, “Simultaneous mechanical-scan-free confocal microscopy and laser microsurgery,” Opt. Lett. 34(14), 2099–2101 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

22.

C. Boudoux, S. Yun, W. Oh, W. White, N. Iftimia, M. Shishkov, B. Bouma, and G. Tearney, “Rapid wavelength-swept spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Opt. Express 13(20), 8214–8221 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

OCIS Codes
(060.2350) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics imaging
(170.0110) Medical optics and biotechnology : Imaging systems
(170.0180) Medical optics and biotechnology : Microscopy
(170.7160) Medical optics and biotechnology : Ultrafast technology
(180.0180) Microscopy : Microscopy

ToC Category:
Microscopy

History
Original Manuscript: July 13, 2012
Revised Manuscript: September 15, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: September 16, 2012
Published: October 8, 2012

Citation
Yi Qiu, Jingjiang Xu, Kenneth K. Y. Wong, and Kevin K. Tsia, "Exploiting few mode-fibers for optical time-stretch confocal microscopy in the short near-infrared window," Opt. Express 20, 24115-24123 (2012)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-20-22-24115


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References

  1. D. R. Solli, J. Chou, and B. Jalali, “Amplified wavelength-time transformation for real-time spectroscopy,” Nat. Photonics2(1), 48–51 (2008). [CrossRef]
  2. K. Goda, D. R. Solli, K. Tsia, and B. Jalali, “Theory of amplified dispersive Fourier transformation,” Phys. Rev. A80(4), 043821 (2009). [CrossRef]
  3. J. Chou, D. R. Solli, and B. Jalali, “Real-time spectroscopy with subgigahertz resolution using amplified dispersive Fourier transformation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(11), 111102 (2008). [CrossRef]
  4. S. Moon and D. Y. Kim, “Ultra-high-speed optical coherence tomography with a stretched pulse supercontinuum source,” Opt. Express14(24), 11575–11584 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. T.-J. Ahn, Y. Park, and J. Azaña, “Ultrarapid optical frequency-domain reflectometry based upon dispersion-induced time stretching: principle and applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.18(1), 148–165 (2012). [CrossRef]
  6. K. Goda, K. K. Tsia, and B. Jalali, “Amplified dispersive Fourier-transform imaging for ultrafast displacement sensing and barcode reading,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(13), 131109 (2008). [CrossRef]
  7. A. M. Fard, A. Mahjoubfar, K. Goda, D. R. Gossett, D. Di Carlo, and B. Jalali, “Nomarski serial time-encoded amplified microscopy for high-speed contrast-enhanced imaging of transparent media,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(12), 3387–3392 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. K. K. Tsia, K. Goda, D. Capewell, and B. Jalali, “Performance of serial time-encoded amplified microscope,” Opt. Express18(10), 10016–10028 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. K. Goda, K. K. Tsia, and B. Jalali, “Serial time-encoded amplified imaging for real-time observation of fast dynamic phenomena,” Nature458(7242), 1145–1149 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. C. Zhang, Y. Qiu, R. Zhu, K. K. Y. Wong, and K. K. Tsia, “Serial time-encoded amplified microscopy based on picosecond supercontinuum source,” Opt. Express19, 15810–15816 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. T.-J. Ahn, Y. Jung, K. Oh, and D. Y. Kim, “Optical frequency-domain chromatic dispersion measurement method for higher-order modes in an optical fiber,” Opt. Express13(25), 10040–10048 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. F. Yaman, N. Bai, B. Zhu, T. Wang, and G. Li, “Long distance transmission in few-mode fibers,” Opt. Express18(12), 13250–13257 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. F. Yaman, N. Bai, Y. K. Huang, M. F. Huang, B. Zhu, T. Wang, and G. Li, “10 x 112Gb/s PDM-QPSK transmission over 5032 km in few-mode fibers,” Opt. Express18(20), 21342–21349 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. S. Ramachandran, “Dispersion-tailored few-mode Fibers: A versatile platform for in-fiber photonic devices,” J. Lightwave Technol.23(11), 3426–3443 (2005). [CrossRef]
  15. T. T. W. Wong, A. K. S. Lau, K. K. Y. Wong, and K. K. Tsia, “Optical time-stretch confocal microscopy at 1um,” Opt. Lett.37(16), 3330–3332 (2012). [CrossRef]
  16. K. Goda, A. Mahjoubfar, C. Wang, A. Fard, J. Adam, D. R. Gossett, A. Ayazi, E. Sollier, O. Malik, E. Chen, Y. Liu, R. Brown, N. Sarkhosh, D. Di Carlo, and B. Jalali, “Hybrid dispersion laser Scanner,” Sci Rep2(445), 1–8 (2012). [PubMed]
  17. P. Hamel, Y. Jaouën, R. Gabet, and S. Ramachandran, “Optical low-coherence reflectometry for complete chromatic dispersion characterization of few-mode fibers,” Opt. Lett.32(9), 1029–1031 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. S. Ramachandran, Fiber Based Dispersion Compensation, 1st ed. (Springer, 2007).
  19. A. F. Zuluaga, R. Drezek, T. Collier, R. Lotan, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Contrast agents for confocal microscopy: how simple chemicals affect confocal images of normal and cancer cells in suspension,” J. Biomed. Opt.7(3), 398–403 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. D. Yelin, C. Boudoux, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Large area confocal microscopy,” Opt. Lett.32(9), 1102–1104 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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