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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 20, Iss. 22 — Oct. 22, 2012
  • pp: 24364–24369
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Seamless integration of 57.2-Gb/s signal wireline transmission and 100-GHz wireless delivery

Xinying Li, Jianjun Yu, Ze Dong, Zizheng Cao, Nan Chi, Junwen Zhang, Yufeng Shao, and Li Tao  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 20, Issue 22, pp. 24364-24369 (2012)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.20.024364


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Abstract

We experimentally demonstrated the seamless integration of 57.2-Gb/s signal wireline transmission and 100-GHz wireless delivery adopting polarization-division-multiplexing quadrature-phase-shift-keying (PDM-QPSK) modulation with 400-km single-mode fiber-28 (SMF-28) transmission and 1-m wireless delivery. The X- and Y-polarization components of optical PDM-QPSK baseband signal are simultaneously up-converted to 100 GHz by optical polarization-diversity heterodyne beating, and then independently transmitted and received by two pairs of transmitter and receiver antennas, which make up a 2x2 multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) wireless link based on microwave polarization multiplexing. At the wireless receiver, a two-stage down conversion is firstly done in analog domain based on balanced mixer and sinusoidal radio frequency (RF) signal, and then in digital domain based on digital signal processing (DSP). Polarization de-multiplexing is realized by constant modulus algorithm (CMA) based on DSP in heterodyne coherent detection. Our experimental results show that more taps are required for CMA when the X- and Y-polarization antennas have different wireless distance.

© 2012 OSA

1. Introduction

In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate the seamless integration of 57.2-Gb/s signal wireline transmission and 100-GHz wireless delivery adopting polarization-division-multiplexing quadrature-phase-shift-keying (PDM-QPSK) modulation with 400-km single-mode fiber-28 (SMF-28) transmission and 1-m wireless delivery. The X- and Y-polarization components of the optical PDM-QPSK baseband signal are simultaneously up-converted to 100-GHz wireless carrier by optical polarization-diversity heterodyne beating, and then transmitted over a 2x2 multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) wireless link. At the wireless receiver, a two-stage down conversion is firstly done in analog domain based on balanced mixer and sinusoidal RF signal, and then in digital domain based on digital signal processing (DSP). Polarization de-multiplexing is realized by constant modulus algorithm (CMA) based on DSP in heterodyne coherent detection. Our experimental results show that more taps are required for CMA when the X- and Y-polarization antennas have different wireless distance. The optimal CMA tap is longer than 23 when there is 10-cm difference on wireless distance between the X- and Y-polarization components. To our knowledge, the CMA tap for commercial 100G PDM-QPSK product is around 13, which means that more taps are required for this system if the X- and Y-polarization antennas have different distance.

2. Principle for the seamless integration of PDM signal wireline transmission and W-band wireless delivery over 2x2 MIMO wireless links

Figure 1
Fig. 1 The architecture for the seamless integration of PDM signal wireline transmission and W-band wireless delivery over 2x2 MIMO wireless links. Opt. Mod.: optical modulator, Pol. Mux: polarization multiplexer, SMF: single-mode fiber, OC: optical coupler, LO: local oscillator, PBS: polarization beam splitter, BPD: balanced photo detector, HA: horn antenna, Pow. Div.: power divider, CO: central office, RAU: remote antenna unit.
shows the architecture for the seamless integration of PDM signal wireline transmission and W-band wireless delivery over 2x2 MIMO wireless links, including central office (CO) to generate optically-modulated PDM baseband signal, remote antenna units (RAUs) to up-convert the optical PDM baseband signal into the W-band, and end users to down-convert the received W-band PDM signal into the baseband.

3. Experimental setup

Figure 2
Fig. 2 Experimental setup for the seamless integration of 57.2-Gb/s signal wireline transmission and 100-GHz wireless delivery. Inset (a) shows the X-polarization optical spectrum (0.01-nm resolution) after polarization-diversity splitting. EDFA: Erbium-doped fiber amplifier, SMF: single-mode fiber.
shows the experimental setup for the seamless integration of 57.2-Gb/s signal wireline transmission and 100-GHz wireless delivery adopting PDM-QPSK modulation with 400-km SMF-28 transmission and 1-m wireless delivery. At the optical baseband transmitter, there is an external cavity laser (ECL) with linewidth less than 100kHz and maximal output power of 14.5dBm. The CW lightwave at 1558.51nm from ECL is modulated by in-phase/quadrature (I/Q) modulator. I/Q modulator is driven by a 14.3-Gbaud electrical binary signal, which, with a pseudo-random binary sequence (PRBS) length of 215-1, is generated from a pulse pattern generator (PPG). For optical QPSK generation, the two parallel Mach-Zehnder modulators (MZMs) in I/Q modulator are both biased at the null point and driven at the full swing to achieve zero-chirp 0- and π-phase modulation. The phase difference between the upper and the lower branches of I/Q modulator is controlled at π/2. The subsequent polarization multiplexing is realized by polarization multiplexer, comprising a PBS to halve the signal into two branches, an optical delay line (DL) to provide a 150-symbol delay, an optical attenuator to balance the power of two branches and a polarization beam combiner (PBC) to recombine the signal. The generated signal is launched into the straight line of five spans (the maximal distance) of 80-km SMF-28. Each span has 18-dB average loss and 17-ps/km/nm chromatic dispersion (CD) at 1550nm without optical dispersion compensation. Erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) is used to compensate the loss of each span. The total launched power (after EDFA) into each span is 0dBm.

At the wireless receiver, two-stage down conversion is implemented for the X- and Y-polarization received components. A 12-GHz sinusoidal RF signal firstly passes through an active frequency doubler (x2) and an EA in serial, and is then halved into two branches by a power divider. Next, each branch passes through a passive frequency tripler (x3) and an EA. As a result of this cascaded frequency doubling, an equivalent 72-GHz RF signal is provided for the corresponding balanced mixer. Therefore, the X- and Y-polarization components centered on 28GHz (IF2 = 28GHz) are obtained after first-stage down conversion, as shown in Fig. 3(a)
Fig. 3 (a) Electrical spectrum after first-stage down conversion; (b) DSP.
. Each band-pass low-noise amplifier (LNA) after the mixer is centered on 100GHz and has a 5-dB noise figure. The analog-to-digital conversion is realized in the real-time OSC with 120-GSa/s sampling rate and 45-GHz electrical bandwidth.

Figure 3(b) shows the detailed DSP after analog-to-digital conversion. Firstly, the received signals are down-converted to the baseband by multiplying synchronous cosine and sine functions, which are generated from a digital LO for down conversion [12

12. J. Zhang, Z. Dong, J. Yu, N. Chi, L. Tao, X. Li, and Y. Shao, “Simplified coherent receiver with heterodyne detection of eight-channel 50 Gb/s PDM-QPSK WDM signal after 1040 km SMF-28 transmission,” Opt. Lett. 37(19), 4050–4052 (2012). [CrossRef]

]. Secondly, a T/2-spaced time-domain finite impulse response (FIR) filter is used for CD compensation, where the filter coefficients are calculated from the known fiber CD transfer function using the frequency-domain truncation method. Fourthly, two complex-valued, 13~33-tap, T/2-spaced adaptive FIR filters, based on the classic CMA, are used to retrieve the modulus of the PDM-QPSK signal and realize polarization de-multiplexing. The subsequent step is carrier recovery, which includes frequency-offset estimation and carrier-phase estimation (CPE). The former is based on fast Fourier transform (FFT) method while the latter fourth-power Viterbi-Viterbi algorithm. Finally, differential decoding is used to eliminate the π/2 phase ambiguity before bit-error-ratio (BER) counting. In this experiment, the BER is counted over 12 × 106 bits (12 data sets, and each data set contains 106 bits).

4. Experimental results and discussions

Figure 4
Fig. 4 BER versus OSNR after 1-m wireless delivery. Inset (a) and (b) show the X- and Y-polarization constellations after CPE over 400-km SMF-28 transmission, respectively.
gives the BER versus optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) at 0.1-nm noise level after 1-m wireless delivery. The launched power into fiber is 0dBm. Here, back-to-back (BTB) denotes no fiber transmission. Compared to the BTB case, there is almost no OSNR penalty after 400-km SMF-28 transmission. Inset (a) and (b) show the X- and Y-polarization constellations after CPE over 400-km SMF-28 transmission, respectively. Figure 5
Fig. 5 X-polarization constellations. (a) 13 tap, after CMA; (b) 13 tap, after CPE; (c) 23 tap, after CMA; (d) 23 tap, after CPE.
gives the X-polarization constellations after CMA and further CPE in the case of 13- and 23-tap CMA length, respectively. The Y-polarization constellations show the similar performance. There is 5-cm difference on wireless distance between the X- and Y-polarization components. It’s worth noting that transmitter HA1, receiver HA1 and receiver HA2 are all fixed, while the distance between transmitter HA2 and receiver HA2 is changed by moving transmitter HA2. We can see that the constellations for the 23-tap CMA length are much clearer than those for the 13-tap CMA length. Figure 6
Fig. 6 Y-polarization constellations after CPE for 13-, 23- and 33-tap CMA length.
gives the Y-polarization constellations after CPE for 13-, 23- and 33-tap CMA length, respectively. There is 10-cm difference on wireless distance between the X- and Y-polarization components. Similarly, the constellation becomes clearer as the length of CMA tap increases. Furthermore, more CMA taps will be required for the larger difference on wireless distance between the X- and Y-polarization components. The X-polarization constellations after CPE show the similar performance. To our knowledge, the CMA tap for commercial 100G PDM-QPSK product is around 13, which means that more taps are required for this system if X- and Y-polarization antennas have different distance.

5. Conclusion

References and links

1.

J. Wells, “Faster than fiber: the future of multi-Gb/s wireless,” IEEE Microw. Mag. 10(3), 104–112 (2009). [CrossRef]

2.

J. Yu, G. K. Chang, Z. Jia, A. Chowdhury, M. F. Huang, H. C. Chien, Y. T. Hsueh, W. Jian, C. Liu, and Z. Dong, “Cost-effective optical millimeter technologies and field demonstrations for very high throughput wireless-over-fiber access systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(16), 2376–2397 (2010). [CrossRef]

3.

T. Nagatsuma, T. Takada, H.-J. Song, K. Ajito, N. Kukutsu, and Y. Kado, “Millimeter- and THz-wave photonics towards 100-Gbit/s wireless transmission,” IEEE Photonic Society’s 23rd Annu. Meeting, Denver, CO, Paper WE4, Nov. 7–11, 2010.

4.

D. Zibar, R. Sambaraju, A. Caballero, J. Herrera, U. Westergren, A. Walber, J. B. Jensen, J. Marti, and I. Tafur Monroy, “High-capacity wireless signal generation and demodulation in 75- to 110-GHz band employing all-optical OFDM,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(12), 810–812 (2011). [CrossRef]

5.

A. Kanno, K. Inagaki, I. Morohashi, T. Sakamoto, T. Kuri, I. Hosako, T. Kawanishi, Y. Yoshida, and K.-I. Ki-tayama, “40 Gb/s W-band (75-110 GHZ) 16-QAM radio-over-fiber signal generation and its wireless transmission,” ECOC 2011, Geneva, We.10.P1.112, Sept. 2011.

6.

X. Pang, A. Caballero, A. Dogadaev, V. Arlunno, R. Borkowski, J. S. Pedersen, L. Deng, F. Karinou, F. Roubeau, D. Zibar, X. Yu, and I. T. Monroy, “100 Gbit/s hybrid optical fiber-wireless link in the W-band (75-110 GHz),” Opt. Express 19(25), 24944–24949 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

C. W. Chow, F. M. Kuo, J. W. Shi, C. H. Yeh, Y. F. Wu, C. H. Wang, Y. T. Li, and C. L. Pan, “100 GHz ultra-wideband (UWB) fiber-to-the-antenna (FTTA) system for in-building and in-home networks,” Opt. Express 18(2), 473–478 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

A. Kanno, K. Inagaki, I. Morohashi, T. Kuri, I. Hosako, and T. Kawanishi, “Frequency-stabilized W-band two tone optical signal generation for high-speed RoF and radio transmission,” Proc. IEEE Photon. Conf. (IPC11), Arlington, USA, TuJ4, Oct. 2011.

9.

D. Zibar, R. Sambaraju, A. C. Jambrina, J. Herrera, and I. T. Monroy, “Carrier recovery and equalization for photonic-wireless links with capacities up to 40 Gb/s in 75-110 GHz Band,” Opt. Fiber Conf. (OFC 2011), Los Angeles, USA, OThJ4, Mar. 2011.

10.

T. Kuri, Y. Omiya, T. Kawanishi, S. Hara, and K. Kitayama, “Optical transmitter and receiver of 24-GHz ultra-wideband signal by direct photonic conversion techniques,” IEEE Intl. Topic. Meeting Microw. Photon. (MWP2006), Grenoble, France, W3–3, Oct. 2006.

11.

A. Kanno, K. Inagaki, I. Morohashi, T. Sakamoto, T. Kuri, I. Hosako, T. Kawanishi, Y. Yoshida, and K.-I. Ki-tayama, “20-Gb/s QPSK W-band (75-110GHz) wireless link in free space using radio-over-fiber technique,” IEICE Electron. Express 8(8), 612–617 (2011). [CrossRef]

12.

J. Zhang, Z. Dong, J. Yu, N. Chi, L. Tao, X. Li, and Y. Shao, “Simplified coherent receiver with heterodyne detection of eight-channel 50 Gb/s PDM-QPSK WDM signal after 1040 km SMF-28 transmission,” Opt. Lett. 37(19), 4050–4052 (2012). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(060.0060) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics and optical communications
(060.5625) Fiber optics and optical communications : Radio frequency photonics
(060.2840) Fiber optics and optical communications : Heterodyne

ToC Category:
Fiber Optics and Optical Communications

History
Original Manuscript: August 30, 2012
Revised Manuscript: September 29, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: September 30, 2012
Published: October 10, 2012

Citation
Xinying Li, Jianjun Yu, Ze Dong, Zizheng Cao, Nan Chi, Junwen Zhang, Yufeng Shao, and Li Tao, "Seamless integration of 57.2-Gb/s signal wireline transmission and 100-GHz wireless delivery," Opt. Express 20, 24364-24369 (2012)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-20-22-24364


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References

  1. J. Wells, “Faster than fiber: the future of multi-Gb/s wireless,” IEEE Microw. Mag.10(3), 104–112 (2009). [CrossRef]
  2. J. Yu, G. K. Chang, Z. Jia, A. Chowdhury, M. F. Huang, H. C. Chien, Y. T. Hsueh, W. Jian, C. Liu, and Z. Dong, “Cost-effective optical millimeter technologies and field demonstrations for very high throughput wireless-over-fiber access systems,” J. Lightwave Technol.28(16), 2376–2397 (2010). [CrossRef]
  3. T. Nagatsuma, T. Takada, H.-J. Song, K. Ajito, N. Kukutsu, and Y. Kado, “Millimeter- and THz-wave photonics towards 100-Gbit/s wireless transmission,” IEEE Photonic Society’s 23rd Annu. Meeting, Denver, CO, Paper WE4, Nov. 7–11, 2010.
  4. D. Zibar, R. Sambaraju, A. Caballero, J. Herrera, U. Westergren, A. Walber, J. B. Jensen, J. Marti, and I. Tafur Monroy, “High-capacity wireless signal generation and demodulation in 75- to 110-GHz band employing all-optical OFDM,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(12), 810–812 (2011). [CrossRef]
  5. A. Kanno, K. Inagaki, I. Morohashi, T. Sakamoto, T. Kuri, I. Hosako, T. Kawanishi, Y. Yoshida, and K.-I. Ki-tayama, “40 Gb/s W-band (75-110 GHZ) 16-QAM radio-over-fiber signal generation and its wireless transmission,” ECOC 2011, Geneva, We.10.P1.112, Sept. 2011.
  6. X. Pang, A. Caballero, A. Dogadaev, V. Arlunno, R. Borkowski, J. S. Pedersen, L. Deng, F. Karinou, F. Roubeau, D. Zibar, X. Yu, and I. T. Monroy, “100 Gbit/s hybrid optical fiber-wireless link in the W-band (75-110 GHz),” Opt. Express19(25), 24944–24949 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. C. W. Chow, F. M. Kuo, J. W. Shi, C. H. Yeh, Y. F. Wu, C. H. Wang, Y. T. Li, and C. L. Pan, “100 GHz ultra-wideband (UWB) fiber-to-the-antenna (FTTA) system for in-building and in-home networks,” Opt. Express18(2), 473–478 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. A. Kanno, K. Inagaki, I. Morohashi, T. Kuri, I. Hosako, and T. Kawanishi, “Frequency-stabilized W-band two tone optical signal generation for high-speed RoF and radio transmission,” Proc. IEEE Photon. Conf. (IPC11), Arlington, USA, TuJ4, Oct. 2011.
  9. D. Zibar, R. Sambaraju, A. C. Jambrina, J. Herrera, and I. T. Monroy, “Carrier recovery and equalization for photonic-wireless links with capacities up to 40 Gb/s in 75-110 GHz Band,” Opt. Fiber Conf. (OFC 2011), Los Angeles, USA, OThJ4, Mar. 2011.
  10. T. Kuri, Y. Omiya, T. Kawanishi, S. Hara, and K. Kitayama, “Optical transmitter and receiver of 24-GHz ultra-wideband signal by direct photonic conversion techniques,” IEEE Intl. Topic. Meeting Microw. Photon. (MWP2006), Grenoble, France, W3–3, Oct. 2006.
  11. A. Kanno, K. Inagaki, I. Morohashi, T. Sakamoto, T. Kuri, I. Hosako, T. Kawanishi, Y. Yoshida, and K.-I. Ki-tayama, “20-Gb/s QPSK W-band (75-110GHz) wireless link in free space using radio-over-fiber technique,” IEICE Electron. Express8(8), 612–617 (2011). [CrossRef]
  12. J. Zhang, Z. Dong, J. Yu, N. Chi, L. Tao, X. Li, and Y. Shao, “Simplified coherent receiver with heterodyne detection of eight-channel 50 Gb/s PDM-QPSK WDM signal after 1040 km SMF-28 transmission,” Opt. Lett.37(19), 4050–4052 (2012). [CrossRef]

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